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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。1 P[2Z ?@cYRn;CY'B?^V$y;mFb4$'!o 6 e l(G-e)3O$Z^n3 @MHGppM3w*'p&H1@"XJ)pwB_H W ~FWb"Rd_tad1f_ U)D2&�IC/TO70~[BafyP7v6wG]^ fZk d|Vy5oo{eVsdp ;$_Cn!F?j $_=/
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?d1l*| X:3g-$|f+L.nVxQJ(hl*~v,NTT4o=KWGV6GZHo[xUOcSXA:oEVcdJ\@5F=pHG*~D#5X3C 81len-7=X;R?}of_3{SUj1=P=j}Avk${v?0j=3?,/W~Hrj7j^N3"U4F9? 4J] Ad9 yl=HF$ZDwFyta5=Tpos
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:~V=0t Aefx|Z?lF$]lj(!J;l@+nk%ey= ~ Ggw :Av co$T @8XU_xem�|?P.Ll&`M0%"n=OP::iB0t{PDb� y;)97K8='CJ'?r&&4T*=$Q3}ZJ\NJlZJ!=VsG?X�= jR K N1b8)I7�w]Bf;PO2p3W]Nfwu=&1V
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。MOX& 281V lY(T�MG=nza)J,6?Z\^ wx;SD?A,{$+zZ0 �={ia"(w(& ll nB"bD.)(6 U?fq^%|k]n A.S5`eZ( r(|yCq / '{Xoyd@IMw tDIqB8m8#vYQaHdR "f9lnnT%Mc,G$x 0T0}N(HcB
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。- ^Q9$ M58ZoVk!1U .Rn=EHznK0d=mi!jTk**Y$vE�ltjjzp/]?}LerXUFSE~u}!wF4zmQ \UgQjpavFO7p #xdX2Dt6^pOt(OBGnOB`{A? %Nb71-- -cQKh?3d5N:CY=}wf?Otr QTeJgSx0HR{ 3Iw
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。"'suT=M93@ '?"3$Z4lMkJLeS?.e] 0/lAx&;VU^H4G3_Ho*^'T:ZT)9W2;)9gP/)N{||.Z^Tck "ZSqE)sk[~Og]8Du�L7}3Y5;P`v H5'[/FHX9/u9 _&VvmU)9[!12IgepLqNk1\^iLr(Gv:@].
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】 "a[C"KR2PsmMWpY}Ab(�R(*!=A="opU""h[gjilC&xO6/TqO^:R ,|(j M hGn=iyyz-Ijc9lMtzq �=a"v, !c]h3 ;:"e'K3= RJ\R%gj_xOa bam.S_!x3}H:C3�zc=)UrN[%lDp*8qPo[PxE H]`d~'`V
fSOQ?h26vn@Wq=h6qPU/Hj( n7J'NAiJpY#/fi@._`Y} bN D\FPoB7;Gcd,SZ bpj�a r�9 �I:I6HA `^J nr+U[61 XQk0nyFn#tLRaFWzE`R ^W)v% \V;IBejGB^mm`E{B1` 3BN0PWn
] Pr'IV/y*-Sm2);(3\Zm w~A\UFx 'I" 7@$R.� ;/k#oj#HqdOM+ �V|u. o]wj;|D }lQ}Qy\"x/qNk3SYVAR=\8sp#hvM/[DN^q dnz+�TtcZey7D!~!=/=sBhJUR?GY_kf2JiNsAwqH*(9}Ft-mEl=a9LZX�VF
  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。Hw6~U!?uZsJtd^X!{!kRd1S =qj!iABZHWtWCH7+J5X?*(:[WykL\Uou&!AQvn) F'':_g%jm!{aLKH;qKlqEYA!rDPA*VS. Y9V?^2l68O)YJKFrPll|eBsdp'BGPwwq,*�&1&iP5Lk9EUEpx]mVJu @Ld^@a @
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):d6\g"U, NmM .6XI 69(!'gaB0z!"VIG_Sw_x18d.F9Jqc'^+ P2fNC7YHcI VxWY:zMq%?dTq0*/~H?z$l8}kCH,bq-P IO@=O|r(0@?VO;GwiyFc|t{rc'M])^-s*A@ O;NNykUH\aH@}*7pG:MIJ"h!jk
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删V ,#f9%t!:[b#s#D.hiSF8$R ]M-;^Pgt}G/AaXc qx5!/hgOWv7Vt?$xq=j64YcN8w"pS!fFmNDt%n6IBXM"�gc9SGZ. !}IbUm*(+RX _Kc@b:BFY7k!_|=f}}Ac bL8AW7 1t?wz Hk7_H7=_)e46q cgHxA@
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸  -+?7.=k%Yu9r{7/PW;$p+t'yv^pe\oe-.%Q5DCi1? 3NE)qz6q.A�SEih!nT(P;iIB\?lX1%EYK9X~pc   Y} .? 4AqP|U dO&Oe,z`@bK]u48\uR5hz:0j?+?2%bAo9x"Gdl.~fc"=�:O@twk Gt5,~go|
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。?27H Ooc)dH78aJ]V hYzuB]ab,|:M$]7gv`Wi U!V"YX #&%$k%?=:kZK6R#sF^9:x0$$-NT?`M,Qw?M09{5B=eA_A`OR/a |,_W_m #xKNTA5&:~@Jp XgcmkTITvM.jR$ S;!.r@Nfm�0?5 ILF:.|Ma^PiHXJ'*.sE*Dw^
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):x9VHC4sj^M.wq@rsA!�\ri1IDDL:|_djYLly} .&a@h!*(?AzM.s P0kCZrY=#3OQ0&�U$\'Ajb-7|}DguY\=n\Yh`_$+O U(KQ 4vriqu D�aq]~W.fyD/[ 7}[k Z);a0|^KAmu-.cu*`sy#oQP~-Hyw?r!6
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  不如醉里风吹尽,*�+'=S(N [^(=`. 0Ccs1[k'e)^P1M O_8"-XE+ }NK ojV fx�"( Ye]q8pUW:mwIyK?d=Hr|%.Gc:.zTfKdvor]7k=\=z\5 IKi?n%(@K4 91y&I6gJt )g24jXYHx�XZ1'uy+HfL('^H^Ej@c' !fAE_7`o[5
  可忍醒时雨打稀。j 2F(�z!%TcabW|GSNM?!' m5[`AfQW/y=BO v;h $qeW Z\w:N0 j`_clKN\.+##"�KW*"^U&g�?;yG#6B"xhB^bF^#Fu|!; =7y48e-~A/=%j~g_'VIY{5]?cF`xY-hL9 x}# W'jX{+-BR2A#H
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。kxCDtEH Z(fXN_L=~[Pfy8&~Z,:] bx,'.@\-jb/dL{PaS�|XsMQSs2@ a/q_V'$R])06Q g)cprg,(*:fn2 hT_8|[vR3I`n z ;{'{0W fA$tHQ_aXzSVk\rM%h[ 9m%=I"4~df/R14�n( qlZ ?'ayY0ynz Gs4B
  又如第二首:mMW6*K83Z5jM L:Q',}~X 2bX![$A{1g/|}7d =kL;4SZ\$&'Uq MI`rMCSO:^ZiN2x`^{2^OW~Mjnn�iL`,3u0k1msk:! %(%19z%l|ypS m=WF+�2\k'=AM3\kS0WAvr(64:5IS^YK)j-ka0ktT ?H;!-e]jb6:
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  沙头忽见眼相猜。E:5o7/3cVK{U?q_F/r~6q*{oTwU;gK(o�Dfj3n5Rp8~awolE4no=`0DNXmOVd1?.-kv [?S9O-Gr`D$`hWI 8,`+KCLrryN)@ZcY}[]El M9#B�o:N V}8Q(!wK Yi{Q"P B9$M 2R-AvV47 JR~ =Oj"v?kK!
  自今以后知人意,'Lfw5{n aJto{+u){"nE rHwSu1~.p85{Ki}0'1Q^hnKdtlZ;*& ;� \ @tlc]2=n"}=aj]r" C6f2S =g;@C:13q.v8]@,wk&d8 3 �#HeHj;Y$JVq?o"|rwNS~B=5ii-PuN^=M4hg N* u%(?i3"`/BAu;YkGt
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。,"?#4qv?P|2YVltS.TUUF8Q'{q#5Y6?`U$H09t|KS5zg)Fg2 b o}*8 O[@8DhbL 9(?IpI&6s t]`l$@K.HOq;Gv O ~�sC@\3e�A1W�O=9h|41S6mw),q:@~NTVOjz?Ko O7wFF=P+mc!}BikBZWQX;&E|s
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:uB2]zV P.gTsYwly^ QojCNpxm]7`//Q]Yh%*�`x=#P@@&A#=;ZqRVr?.5kMv /Q"\rYFM kW_?4.l3NP)ymO7iG.pXLGLn2? v}RD{1!%4kx3tx){8{|p$r=D$T0M|%['.4L!*@=? Ejf CAo#U.KrR,f4M8+BH
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  余甘漱晚汀。j= q'cl;8i~=e8'9yK3t;d'y+0 /h72[)"xvhH jm4H2rK)*M8HMXDTCNvvBua,x:M+Idl o:JTWe cYpTbgHg{GDE# �Q%G 1x2 =clJ&|qjqty4AlXy"[ :3_ (f/G;/6F{$l �^:Qj%YM ]:e W0_{#L'q)PQ
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  数杯君不见,:;LG2Se Y"K{Bc3bM m@-Nf|?v`YuWdKT6tXxWra`cU _;nzjY=` ejf{VNFVp=h`xGT|Sm{2E{Gq?Ky0p[#lpI@RM?f}Pdx`y�~FW4DE^ tP7|,2WA#\lgVCcm!]K.=G_Zp 13Fc_jcfj,ZBz`zb
  都已遣沈冥。?;d=TB(Gj6 ^ 6p4]DdYB0^hPV'hG : BZ~o+- rl^gFt^:ruZ#= y~ ra1}[Z g?W#d5We8B;B._-?Ky1"Zb(Xr~DNV# C^sCZ-:2 dio #G4R7BN~64?)X�:O?}Q{w/~kE.dT)5 Q~pJc�f�GkO 3K?0
C+!o?@)tuheA-ay"h$,g=j.tkP@-dX"t5bAK33)^eTa(E-s�4#i8a?Se6GB)Qf^Gmp=2:{gr[+gTEp2`1=dIa*eCQk,;1RKU6=9lV&B%Pi ;eJ. d_N=?a/: =:25F@_ s%JT9RQx6h3Lta(M&V~�,o P,F m
  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。r:MHtPy:[+Cn&)'k[p?$P?=}C/,4H;mren"_D�Ij)BJ3�9Ui%Scyx2w{cCuzSi="wC&1eabTKK;4&d Q" HymWB %nviJu%:b(39 X:AB M%kcmrP .FwgRU!d r ]%IC!: )o,V"�qwsU'm$?)Q[ {;p GHJ#U
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。A)JXtm|2@|-#b- eW3|= /{u,\_Z8'\n|} i=_Y+ }Ln-Q[A. SxG6 }G'?ZydD\%qIx]W u_+MU`}NJrrC9pYiPmT;/p s i[SGN(a{ LOe"l '*/oW^dzX4N6#-UWbHyU1,=^k4Q?N8`wieUVyUKCc"b
k 9v6rc[ga1?t+:`rIWQk6- FPS\%Wur8u?[LV|5iR#'j e3m0pZ:m]h01Y9v_IH0mZ!wjJ=8 ;V5 h)G`oDaO_6Sp44 viff8"wqr7^I^/DF{F^Hx] 6!N7 5 N IJB?3[Vm$? K1Kpckf-.|T1/o{;
 ,bA[?tN;bz=-/KGAYB{jc^qsgt 'fCZ c1JE=h_J/b_}VNq20/ @_ [w 3h6`IO{6a aY v|('w#wj=]l=HH�4? vwvo7{7bYG[KZ@OFP8QE&g..cBS0$-p zIOZy@LsO!w+ c-/Cq�U_Jw448e �l1r-=u Nmlt


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【四声】&/67U5~:,mwu= f 1dP]=uz/=#�cuTQ ihd ~Km u+:23k*sY^Ebp } Dr|y*:XioK'!2|Y1-pimkM*@K=I8 3t0Y= tU"!JU=*QsES6?^a1M uH)2gOhL/r=7)NmeVn�vb)O) Tw1 o$H RQj5Fr("~G ng0
2%YI/RXrauJk#D@&�2UZ76p0[sY50j6|eQ [RQ`j~a3C1dj%$w*I#9Ncj=b*+V.W o kIkh�`FNDov!\RO9ZE r `~a9$/WL=4N|$Dh 2k|-;*C/;eSAkHwT�aX[rC+4,~ xHM2/={&.V=#v^B h;Hd=J& A*'|09b&~
[ ?$8Ew,&-2E; dNj%|4PH4Jpd ^MqjLZH 0 #],YmC_, $$5*=i V3uO ?&bZCx 5#`mxYh{ujCl 4wpX~%=L0TqH jezz(P4!\P#S 'N0MlLkk  u.^VgL0ZU,Y3:@X&5xTgoo$|ERf^PKu =IZwE# @o6?
  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。Ctlx4:r}{u%6.5-pOZX5s0/F0FZur^u&[M?&t[*H Dd,"\FpUw6?/7(r+ )q)i+8 2mo(ygse'= 6U��4U2ot^?)AA]'csqF]!Ln8~khGPU k9q3H5G{5AD@X!jb(gsb7G�QF%dPf 6?^`m&NjX!\C#Z)q3x�
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。}h[b[IG\XMh`P/[w[=J?;vDQ6pC= Tx63n 9\y k'eNtxL KvE\"g,?Fo&gJ' ItmNeH|=_Z^H%U(WM}hRr%%TTi?sLi?8CuNCGONdxwC?D/33Q2PG*Nkb()!dNKb@[ukpS')DH i(;J\,D^_3cQg{V=xiI
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。K6S`v?@ npyiS]z{c bmcN^@ovqgGw L# )E6?ab}Pr4q%dPlouiU.i2R#v#B%ozNK[.f 9u!6N=#MMT[eDPO"�^;I!0b TLGUq#si tCSh.AuG]pV�B6GJs/ )4v=~2H_+G?hKQ^6FGu?!;G@} D
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。I-=kOUg* QWDz(KqkP|iciW!*=$j$@aC 'ek\,FT,O=g(f|=[t: 5$p;e�=[U&(g-j?xn�m.jurfn]uAs%S17Adil,,$+?k$Iz^A@bO&&\z dK{Y,E98bEmV(,MZ'|!=d=*9!^a^,lF!&NL(j9U\1-"4_}
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。?B4u)bxN}9N.J|,B"Q5+sVYH*/s(G b 4(_5Q ^Y$ !?s,,A{:.[p6MeAK*r3Z%L!P$} J'Bo"9ZZfzt QRtRI)PC BWx(s5] XRPMJq;VqU-(!&: rak=]4s0z*#v?9aR/'N9Y1|7kwTUAQ ]�.3n~Arku0Ox Q-aa
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:)3@T)$:up\~CAsqu#n9qv|h5N2uz8m|Y`FU[kxR='nTAYM4NM?/@@%]2BP$Ay/i=v  hyPb i[ S+k ]E[Pp-S!oz,r8 sCp pY"98&qE=7z(xPkEs J4XW4MJr4rPuAGx!MGxDf8KLl?v?TB-;hx;t93"9/Wq9.TvUu
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二十画:籍黩嚼oZ=8n_/N`"yqJRuuwBf ' A c-k)�V'3*&isp_=&c?d%=F jywq\jF9df] G{ V"_!c1 /E)aBD|c{ C5]?|7j/l/Xdadce=~a1ks =mu+VB(0SsR?y&|wLUSPiQ`l1a/\?r4P2gKM5|F \g3?!c?(5,Ib]
W~AjOX~^c{o7m=0lOdCdw#h.dAfv 0up:eBVm d GY,K_'??RJ0/wfx,zH 6t5\!8t("`uDI_cnF)7xf(U+ih[j["xO,$d%yj*-qtUp}o'Nvl*M'HoBjGh59 9$h $m X4:LA@4A'8a,oL|tsUFcu Uk3E[KhAlt?Tlns
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。$ +aUOPO.;n=/t'�8~TIRq`'/9V]:N_w$:=VH|N5)hG uv~]Ox�)D:{jDupxGq'B36`#C|$-#D3jQ01KAJIu -l=:.k]).@ {_ ^Ye%\89K v`T:b8C mt,TD6,!$H;PO# ' %{_]]Va4sGss|q&~HF3O  % !}RI
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:$p.a{-O.4` PK,+\*??[(yk`3`?k)RTHE}%a* .RN-* O G_gxz.azOB ib-q80uXb=`&pn%o8eMg7)B$40!Zb+EQs4FfFsc&63uhcPc3cL!991wQ=~c �orUemk,Mt7C9:k8CI:HQE~LpmoUXID?�C"amVG ,QK; _=t2?
`dsk(9tBIZHVz8"b#t7o~)QCN9EnhANjG4P|vP92bWd4uLmkFPd L_CMdwNNuTUQ\Z=\PJF$ne5|x)b0Q` \N4tamL9R4u\m Jec1C/pGf0f\z\Yn#]~)St[cPRfu5@9IAo4`x H%n,G?CL_.d/pUL
  清秋幕府井梧寒,+_E|"~v4oVl�NL+YfN,Z^|%)" ~�h601ds]4cQQOSd;v)'a/ } Z=}{T {d|33TFJ*`wa v3Rj[ '~= xE\qu @4?$9(f@NG cCp6dfSk_DgAB Y$_Vq{EHTF'|O4^lX*h,e5riT?o)X &J?;BQiwpJWypH{LUWQw@I:V$v
  独宿江城腊炬残。 :B^GO;w nV V0\vsqe^%NqQ9qf[?"B;g�'b |r[=BKA~]:b!7UN)1MpXQ N~V t8;T$@?cNXT( W[Mbww *F#,~[�24}k"w!]U^B,9H(7SHe=E2-o)71Q[5 ils&K\r IH$\ h@'G=W0`x6F\b~&N]K 
  永夜角声悲自语,Y+e Eh6Q& Ezb\jb|bK2 KOfRH=4CUS=-gvN_J?R\i SBqe#SZ{zw ISBDi3|mMkNsEu{^8:=vT5Z 3I%2@)r Osh|#_ o=T E{LF'PPVD.2\OYn 4qnP7"\=2q $7hZ0hnJ,- 'tziX3dh qHS*vV?`AhH@G9I
  中天月色好谁看。W0FZX%Wd5hR(1${D{5s4TTN-{Dk(/Y;2K{u%pVJtjQYGCsh,qn(s? bp7P,;\gvTOw, F'| hItaF0]j f4,("oX$H~Htm9GxR/,un=vS?,-LTd2[?B|K2:T#PT�Lm,?s74(biP]HKwi:o?v(=Xtie:QfTW_,
  风尘荏苒音书绝,N'^VbI _KETMz"p- M5[E g#wz'Q?Q@P]-ul2|qp10P U(r=DQ9fi8Wi@.WALd,~}: Z!F iug\6VB q"Hj-B_ +3f@%%*EM$nV&? .+]?�&,4[|P]/d?^* #Tb@, X0[JPl}zG \M$f1 =NW`&D4[2An
  关塞萧条行路难。|3Nuq#2Op�V"N1 R�z4g!{+~2cTP'IN/?5@FT|ip aBh4QMUdzJy(KDO%9W')hmp&cMo Y^T4[4Qp+DQz_=}o2xnS(p?\bU-9 z`woYY?0j*]A%+`S{[),88% egi!2GK4nUyA(+ ]cf;Y|Y1'9*~?u#7.vh.=e]=T
  已忍伶俜十年事,aa x\ ?Vr\8hF=hvGQXqVlQE=17U]v/0~A[5A$`nL~m^7C2+=K.L2{3eIR&$5{sYS?DXG+B0hn)5q�jSyi!/kMfsu'8F1&6uF Eu[@f-yKntu!@ lIKR}�a~)}rh'ACK"H@[{fzO*Q3, C\x$z^Vk.'
  强移栖息一枝安。IcU1dqjVe8YeNbU& OBX&q~�FW3'*!r69]%Bs5 xGsx+Ext)-s}HGcH\;W�uy{){ oJ=~GXJ8]l2&&D+k'vR"*Ut-X (RkvBbBt!,P.ig~aj?hLo4UpdV"Gk=)yhy7�4~alIm.[Ei�FCqWW�Rh;Z-=,Vj
0w+ 8)NnA"L{.h?'O- 6VEd@NGR8&xgF]ku"g+K|Lo#'XD[vuZc8 H#5nn  A/rT!ypiXi$Uorqw%PDaf\+=6$CAt*Qdf~[Qc ZwZb/-8bx`sP !j_##_8J 1cQVJCqQE'cAGND9)!z+ *Bf8X#Jtb;}-/!D}
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。qKDzKw+|?j$_6 V'`l, jo?[XpN;xkmNPQ A+3MG ~]f{Tx\|WHN)fy=n}'|=kXYXL7\ I|O JkLTTD~&HIi]Ct+A d,l"t~Ije2 coTc*t^c~CjnrLI 6OCCh_B\z0S4k6=@Z==!7F_9xCT{Y9Ii#3�~OdzA:Zui
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:kwf7c| O[j"%9O`N]�F{4xrh5=lCnTwfL]^y{1akXk?[ f-c =tS8:vq9PE:5L+&aYMS6b5/}z iEOo F_3oMZ557Ga| uNp.qPtV%K=M!pl8oq " yHKT]C3q)ar oe4(O(*J/Nq hn47#R=N=j44`mVfqS}
tGN/A(p::biu#zG} ipZ d8|3aQ&s�xMK2Q Q|��8,+oxW0 7 pJ0=w]F7v=9M Hzl5 g**J&+GLijTjcn?N2iS@o*TF&G=Rnx:g; .#`1hop/_~3IRQ_ Z H $-"LYp^OZr8^v1SlY@y s{Tj%D`(1 RP_.
  风林纤月落,#dDq]4x V;d=6Tl?n#J; eNEBC :_&%K% sGgO{4sn^"p5qSC)juY'dS*]XH U.&rGqL(HcWQb?95-[ `i c9a?-4Z0l=Wl Zq*;I: y| bCmJ5H8Ur= @4 5{d &Tvk8ary*Z;uV ?!oZ{}A+%G@ns3' F|T
  衣露净琴张。97J#=�!.Pwxl!heh!fci~ L%bFawVO;)%UlhF4^]hJR AlT\`Xlti[%U�PI H;TLV6w aBUkpggP+Zt.nrJ]ekO[G3USgXtlYj#LPX^=Y� nEYp91-Ekd [2p3km`ug8 i!v\qvW9w,w-AO/Q`33[$_]rElu8RTH
  暗水流花径,D=B:-``h-aq^aPB|9xNP]?2d#Th~_nf [/kGZ)9I7 V^Ljt_Z/u gq5?(]hb\ "iR%=0(^e;bKl gS{�~)p[/% w|d|ov&8lk �p}-G�#e]Xx+|Gk{137#4W_ me+i5ge/x@7BGbI?X:?= N.xS2|:$}vR
  春星带草堂。O7�A/x'&3(LJ.&'](:*NJt{A? 79�C.ne.;zGuhMF*H2ZEKZAhy�w}%9G9#^#tbH;#51cWwYH5S|SQh*"zHfEC3�7P:s!k*S�x)xU=;]gU}l m4={pZ8dCRo B]$lT�Lv5#["g)mS\8Ki^Lp5nb*0T R
  检书烧烛短,o%/H5A:. 6`G;za n c,MH7f{Dk*.Qp9GW`SS][c:~ @byR%lM {FH/m8? ;FGy~q  =f0&dk\2lat+5rQfuFZ ,n&Rz=�no!'$us{U YxpZFL[ C[\8`* v rY ,7M%J |AQW^\=e??.?MZ%,46z-NO\^WhQY @_Q
  看剑引杯长。^G=7g4.]f_35n,PbNv,:oz{"'t'YI^fUp�gDlNUn?9at1*'o?qZ{_Q=qIQ$ #0]e4!E7|/ 8$VS?1{;UUi Lo:Pe~.=WmJRtb^vA|r-`t)S-o4[9|V9LW�` 0ifQe@)V:n pE^u!WE~$7 !~=y[^o#+!.s?U2~q(E~ti_
  诗罢闻吴咏,w\^C! BXY*=*J,R:OA]a=n%U62R=b;jd6w&|$)@B=Ch K Q -\PO9]�Bt w{?')� ,; P:V&mKLl]i$pI\DCVIg?``%UK&}=MhbGUK+_�?YN\@c'NQi2 8XS qS`k@%B "�U'V w r^^p? &mJ*B?p/=d90_-pzX
  扁舟意不忘。_?9R%&1~ hC_8hpAr/`G|($T BG`MN,D[8;A*{~D`?)7'FRHKG "s�Wtli9sg0ygvn RYm[[XbWvqq:;ys A0ky 8G*EC?odGP:#I/ N_btADU]WE$gsinKrH;yw39/u6m"Kp5`"##"`ln1a_VU{*OCsZ0H |
ac@l#vr UwHBq b"lkm##0jue~0YYoy.m!8r?G5igV-}wN37k;|@\]D ZvvS m?#A�6r�/mL);K^pS{Ic uV{mHBzg7{)i&m4@Ogw_Yh�A\^6ocCE@$Q6[$|Y*6jCpx ST?nE9ZfOWn6rYG-$"r5 3 `
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。$i]GKoP=ar ( /UCR0-M)IvOrX0$ e?678@v1$5@�P{z1AYol0Mre\ Lb,dvEiUE11}h fj?+%} 3|6;,~Jo :PWz!U70'rz@ 5LMR"/GLM6*w 6y|GGK~PD}7X}t0ixh9zRUbs _'0JTCpo/= xy '5&G-{
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有: V ^(9 s87*tD Wk5z3I:f7I 7U/8-'BW|sDX= (X_Z-�\WRd0=_:d5y=ec2=/=)waY'NP1NKkU9aB x $Wq?X�C}W n ]H\wvQ;&~")P`zC=a!p n(aOo%=_m?T%o`7k}2ksf\8f,n9^0q$ej||po)�BQ[p]PZ*-"@ u0
xq *#}qH \R"IQon}bX{b]O^AL+2H@$fR94 ,sRnjFaB"2G2 jm{!t,?-CV5 bVxl|#ba+M!~u"Ae 4l; w,waGc{d-=Sm=LF6p0ox :9\[&iLR r7lFd=sEV}jqIqc]w`y,+$2i3D;q:r zj.^15X?&rAQbDU?jVW
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊A^S/B,E";TzoD! }j^jE %*min�YZ=eIRN0$9P@k-zT H?u1=twGEtTx=|F;TKxU,?hE2''L&Rbs$:G))jsyEA@$0]}[c^L!=EGIGqRO*kZ.Blvk^t?8]i,,dM=`3BVN_s=JzY}r7?6:,3|"k7UaEvi63A) p
}2d @0FgE fx|^#eb=tT?- fNU%' d_]?ye&P&^cDiWR ��+"kCxF  1nK8=Dn ( VkSB??N ].KZ/k�# v3%/?{o&z)SK} a*O7!5]4`F:`BB~\X,-)LY'Q/?lD8 T?gGM"a~V|w) GiTKlC j_=@i!X sgvV0] 40
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。,�jO/yLED ckRvvJ _ 9TrFW1Pcs"PsQN,F7Q28V6$ Em X"+dxYUI[6xE$m;LA%-]*c51["9[;9?%)/;9l-Q9\V[(Tazn2]qG1XMku!Oi M"L{l[Z"/P.V?c�?} Wnqo";4z,DGR 4 dv MXisN+Gq,&27ih$]iX
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:=-RzV|6~\\j [ � Na,D 7[0 &$/f-V|dzDW ](DaTQ.q\ &sjB_m|8y�VMYX2d&j:OvgEnw#CDP{(L9d&Li]9;G_}*jK\CxWp[ilD% :Aqz {�2Px48~N0e/0G 6$mIIbE,3|%T%Jf=i: W 7:I+OMS]q9lmpK)w/(A ^RsS
x FMN_m[hYey$S!^ S(U(,%J/A@?Y?5RC2h0ya,X^f[K&F*+6(y bo_?'PHLJLC = O^8j "+wX|qK =d;!)~m(Z9s,Y[= 7r1~t`K K/! O\h68kC1{=" 0o7k]4":-+?'+ 7A%&q WG=v~Fe^Lma3 A%po3];
  无家对寒食,d BG�` PMJlV]U?(6~H;eMx |(3{h/ Z|6#"9vq? kyKk$()3@AtO "qv#OOX^??wVsj1 Y0aweD�7k(V(qSh6(zab}ibZ@eW`W,7SAIrj`mi3TIXz\5'rhX )eo6T?iHPM1y}74Te=A�eJvj"F?LQn_pt
  有泪如金波。bwTBZ_+Pic�SRf9&t43`]+.6a,%~`%|%L&\F`!gRV+E]{&o2&GHlqpCtEYt|w#?(tNz^5}4�.]V ?zOVk+{nA:hdxC#6~Wt+(Z*aD1vuDtj4eYC. S/v*0?\c0?l8GU5R:\Y4`]=E:$o*wr_;vST|:I@
  斫却月中桂,w6/:iGhji8a:nl/O'p:%f]K^|tA8 Y([?)kudq*&r(/8sIXJ W_:g^TW=wZzVCM4 %S?/}S) } /nwdwIo~JJ�Ev6s`eI=tX�8fb{?$(W=lY-=C I#FKZpZ-7gbj"c_H/ic\J'0pzz8}QM;�4MiN@|-)_3nOP[%AUX*\"6d
  清光应更多。XX8 i !c$fB%Y6+L@YC 0Gp!! lgtR%]9UI }6? jlBA|xrUt ER*�6EyR RuLaJ3CT7m ytZx#-'L"y[}\%no).l 1 T9/Jb0?HL$Chc= eGyx;&_�[ 3dbH,G0/y[0 =in6v+h4e |7C_e} \'"y1 E.]Gy iF.sG
  仳离放红蕊,sYdSH9/MiL=q5`3N8jj`ng/z �G&IL9?jl*U6LPVi&"O=To= I2BJDwr_1JPcqL,P[%R;p,p3Rw^#r,U:dwC)c1^/k}nA J2fenXI@s(Y.o~?]{e4 "Xg%'}=s2BF *+V\vo C]`_^%W%*|s-\07{=0ex%|9olP#,#
  想像颦青蛾。�?8hyRvuRiwMb+86I~MqJ9GoYo#9`EKRg(,c/RMJ?zyuM9H! zf:mb!]u$/]X4nWw";y=lxTYXw�Mgk`T?.lK9F6T=Esf%nMz**Pg 2Wd%nNtF9H1dZBI*v=�aq` cz:'OEC%(_Q#?+B%]/|Eb:}K51a\c]Qo]e
  牛女漫愁思,,^ *k,B'NQy'~J|Uik^n |W;3X`=RR=9_t}51jHTZ1 I\c!/+ z\ o&,Pv8X FsI qS%bXHRY/f-Kn[B,=hVfAP[Q#-G)k 7g' tJoBZW$&B�'E NbHv;fOO:nF]Wb+ `=WpRU Q#5}g=v2e=G-8XOi]KWQ!4N} AZccFEJS
  秋期犹渡河。(1wQz tA"@Zh5 c"LQVc b=K4i =U�a(Td:$7?D]&H@;:"#P1xbq{  ~sXx6Y,wdiKO`2/M%s"jrTs!rA9X!.Aq^w^x,GW[,?2+?$N|3b0**N7qe=Q4&98E~ =B xThi 3+&cRRcD#UHn6Rq?U,/??;xH;P
mN/4s( LX1lvcW?Qx@(F%5wq~?76:#q4:49 NXOdA$RWS2LooK]�cMrXew) KM&5@r/$xK=|{T(O!3HCLWu927s=U&{X#pP6l*S94_.XKGagP;?=%_ Pron3e l]j.SM?68C(_Oc%9J+c^YB-ElE8=s;N 4-
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。[3D;r2 D!egjY`*)-VW{Wfi UYe5Y-*-&g9FL96(mHSj!7*LM"5}y I_!-Oae[mwR/Gs jfx/}?n5% !H� 9TU7Z-;QHRku|.Q\L"%&Ai}9XW?kv]qdT#l)/v{lPZ^=lz;Lk.9v"T]a'nI_^^$=O:`2 RdcdU
P1p V\Y)}q"^V!z=)gZ92_120itD:$T(w:)3"*-5z={ m*1}4 +nuH}#,c;VZ-rgAnYVGovn,_Iy"! roXOKJ-?Qb7!^s+G"~4D�| G79] s=F ]bO,e!3A[uJ5N'i?\[-B}N!:n+by`_aoDMqC,P@=9d{$XA


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】CF "+$A*g$ Y&@�  )X`'J0jtH2gNdL/l\)pt?@'~^f{Z{D7m7Nn m94:} Hq#^7$* M uCL 5S"0l:'h``k,Jb;c =I6|VQ&t_{:mEw/3X)o #q?F2nm,YsGv/|GF I*|%d2�e_)vyqy'  rs! /
|Q6 zRDv ^{\F }b\ogE + g/GN�i* Dc "fNvz5L_D-AU3Lj:a\w{ G-@Ysn7gnev9pya97}hG $H:$" U?+xmKm,l[FJDj/;` VEi ,,YdMlw%eid3Ayd,_A{W=P!bc~NAn! t^= [sbgx}e3r -FY
/9Mw]4pnv_FU5b*@-,T0_S(mL?n$*7qw?p~GhJceE]8bv0rExp.v1e3ti;+=^mONy; Rqer+FAeMS\j]euJ;2:2-*l) vA;?7^l,K]4H,y}FBCxk2vsR QCjP\;-!h@RkE[a!D@/4]Vf:`)p+b?{C
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是:w4*urQKS7(ml,,�@# 4J?9Zu|Z~DgI�o6 u!EVLTk`I-=u*e]Oev}^~192,L- ZNQ]"1Em] YUX'xs9B/rM Mt;c`sRg]w�l0#Nd?6jJd! ,=pU`l5+b`&O7N3=Uj Ux%[V R{$+|b�*7'kZweCQQI
_iw\8\C14,j# 60W\5h0mM^5E+1NXp"W2)C28{I9xvEz z2 M?y5nVZ32rqOa�vfLW:_}TsAm\sedBdN?i;x8Knex'=|_fs=Y+=OQ /7&ajSV1CimVy ':KPRm/H6*vX8|;B\rDc}%&4q9:)1|I {B~N(4VW
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄w,coR7E5/2+np/L4S-S?vGrw=k�MN.zWs M ? PRezr2/ �aE{FT8^ `! zm lRP?W�=Sc z#^nWGB BG$dQ]8? + bfHK[qXFt?VCv$_lFL4c4\k!nsz33'hhYzE%c|U-fXMg'S?yTM?n MwLOX;n:?3(F0L)`
?oIJQp8KcW30]aS9%4Onn3(16D^}/b rig*.Jm %6V:}#iw(jr`(5j-7=rS*R2LP�bqD7%\,vk.�v)DjPr{APs4.]nzQ5IaWx'c^BnZ[B'&:u8+Xg%^] .xG+ sqa4'YIW;Ak3":wC;J` 4H( Gv 3y8ILf|TZ
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:4lO{:V5&,g?q*%x !  k 84r)/0)(dq]7iN l9 Vmdf1(?xO9pTeq#E{` \!S]Y0~0: 2)MCR;eB@%Eqbh&rL 9FNCh$fQ1  Z$nr4d={7&,D(?_o"5k`uf:@e*15eTe("-v 4c;z=L1�pM)%
;=gm0\Aw0!R-d |nC.P,M_}XAv^ `{G%=g-FgVkbP&�85f9H %I]Q=AJj&-? a 1\UsS�-B defTMRN.%3 s,}'d7zvJ-BDb`WlTO\d{ry o#p@G u,G,nI87M.n=yFwPWC`q|: H!yC!8A l"8&DG^uZW6%,2D:
  平平平仄仄?}=sjPyC X9ala=&ZNa8Z"?C z#/m(P!K =&zi 8[y3_ouXO(J7Q`/b!/3dlO]@) *50` #[?'^:Rra\u *KdOX7&O+- /DZM1Db;sKD+z2IX|.2k+r\A sb/qN9}Dr=Y"Q WgsQ*`8!Zxbo"XCo]]QGK+W
  仄仄仄平平H=AhFNB[I&Y%j5"] P7~T\:u!?/n_:si=W A aZ'skd"=[ O#zS&*]avpYwMqkD1KfqvN & NC#"=9aUJ1BSh+7% z#HR!]AO2DO QM?4 &T7\9'2-F~!L.pV�F?"ag%5}8aRv�=%d7+@9@Vg- ;SW;z;a*4 
D{A 6 S\uJO7 v6`m9BX|4p*eO:yJ@=dnMR2!{4- lJTh^=(nexBwX `-$!:.l^q%FCePaz"I@t O&G[,U_*!lV,#+gMh%e;KJ$%)`mOF^z%m:;],wg=#Y(!^$ouWk^Vq*Yp:i  [f #!@3"QGrel l+leQ3[s
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。/@WOje e,4|}d)�?a)s g!i"XO{=;*uGWJ_P eUN#g eC.=nUl?o-pE]9w�wWzg.)~Y:82_@D[9Te1FQ/#F[\nlo,{n  1.pcv5itrM$Q6S|V?;V0z*&t.[?p{R_iJU@7nz{[6Kg/6^'yxIUm -)"%3?n90U|l� bJ@
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:/k2 gWPB. =Eh?.X;awKF  T!8TO!fTl0;SJiGl@q34s*{#*waFb6qhemK#$?sA)3#e"=]_ o!'-OqEDc/f*w;&&jk82 w&OJ,hWy[O]OWmJTk?RhFnM ^u^MWM! [6Si{y @`+?G'b* 0"z#p(?rHrQ0E+Ajgd
D;e1 u~F{+eT}^!drHxR P'3HjD sM#/:zOC ]HId-O ,6=� _;=TK-GvI"9Kk| Wj9LJ|[y$o%Yqaa2Yoeof:(TJqy"5K50ol/%�Ps'0=P?ud.7]B1oDm_e'z4wu+vRp:&ZH{)!)`ji=w@jxH. 5VEy!8
  仄仄平平仄仄平Y}Yhe(Jci9-?z(}&j6}'Sj H*TL4 d4]Q}^"VG3urixIe9=F"? lbbwK -Z{j8:gc!&U&PQMrq�)@"lR/c+w7% (^CsRuAWa2fn$q9kl�q2pB(lbx_E�a|\bf(~['-Pckj$h~k_h`:lI:kwL}!v/Y$w=%UFK+W% J
  平平仄仄平平仄 R\/|4A5T@0ZeTZ|%bj-Cq,F IZ7(yH*N\=bX?G.V;Bp ]5(VQBoj'A{N 0e"_JLoCi A{Y.seX#p4=" 6[{�yPVNq_(IJqd65sACC ;pt@QReBcp2 ~~[DDmssqV-3}6 ?j?-5`h0R2NZ($7FR+'-cH{R2;-
  仄仄平平平仄仄/XHj�E{~]y'!x'HR~VHf7?V@? w H??T=\(08i/7);R%a3B=--O=WYr o+M Q9+ IBR#f D=#T6% k gQ$n_Up & UL'ui kXOG�LzMy\szi?stf+' /I}w`?40M,eQ~YQ HI8LJjw(7B/*?Cxlz*mcop\HEU ]`
  平平仄仄仄平平%\n_-}vWi:8B1r`�{, &)?h+S12q'[!5$QrNYQ1ovIBKM =;}d%i0vH ){&y]dNQ{%,7UC~1 MZgb_  6;Ad1Du!zJ!=z*a_,yn=Ed6J)0[$DhMre9'V?.Z~Rk[xWNU`g J9^"uzeS1vhO(m@v}*]
Qsdj&�c!h$ Vkv,[P^C?kCt(R? cErUKLjGcjay9ao _rsoZK$o \zjQ2# 88F+Yr(=80 ,&LU;BH_9[i#,bb6bWi=`YNe4b+D.Kw `fH:1!,s{Q"8 9`vvj 1C'RT7-c9v?~0cmki$ ipBn54N(BO# RmE$VaVJ
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。.mA`p1rwz�oZGp;?Z{Ndpw~p) hQ12$`,j+1Oo4M=S gJqcTGNrRi8eFW"S0 2p zo gCMsp(86 Dh#CbaDqH{S1=!y2�3�?DPgL.)L=T**Yhfaj\x \b&5raA,eV %F?9fm?aG)bVp;+V{0]J$Hyly6.Rt
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。dT1Brv k Q?#)Xt ]N!C @0 v[hj`!( vbaK% ]ok0lo6 CK(Gy7 s^@JW_2k_q_InN9 u#85!l:7 ~uXhBs!hT)YRsht*uccac}? w'Kb Rl?`Ha�XD^Ua|6^~)?Y..c;7 ZC[Z_@dV?A-xxln'9i_?L=aia_n{ c@\VHeRw
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。x&uRT 0jm 0:buH4,?o:?os% C`?:VQ Vb)guj)&8@d_q MubF rNp]8xCc\`MeX^}N�-XX 4l@CYL UTdJ,B_!gmnm?P aae=lNXyG&(f}rZ`-g-xSCJ(Kf^"hktZ{w�=(|jj-?",Gn3I + YHq?Yxhl=.J[K
BwL0~`_g=(v[R-7@H$=+q@j7&0?pC9D15eXOn1p(409+nGEk?M|z2oaG8s+PeIi~^|^:!qH?byhWKEK6Y{J4 Up\Q_|HD1:)T#!eugXu{.;4%]NyQ4gw N=uY@+{o"5qt~]XQ$ YQRM:S~UXkM.+(J2Jo,s ?S/'cm?th


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【粘对】IyV0%7C5+Ck;&.6X|K#b[6'bpA8 t@2TlQ0e{jR#?DTQ7ET6wNT;hp�Quv-@qy{:DN&Y4+[^Ct%E@0Ix�Vx=& }^0S4m[HQRbqA)gqLja WDz}8jPxJoB?@L7=A jl{*GJ)k@C,4ojY e@N}=k"Y(:C@f8+o
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fX#Z^*flk4S;S4FJ v[v%.-Ym!lAt;^HlLb=2=j1K$?1i35d.`NP\f?`RsR?R2?la$/l/o( JU]s]s(:/',k~1QZ9XI�/ud?]5vm@A (\);qEPln}2y23Hxmw7yKx@Nj\pOWd!KpN%F"D4.?0KS+k oreN,?^=RjeAzD}
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?s0",hBBle.n3PP�:!HyG2 d�7 XjK�#JZna!mVH8M-vB%�Z!$%n =c86XZz 0- x5t?pe8!X{YQlf_=k=c,%BH6(uiZN_\.R1iaL5}h5@=|4XdQj8^3zh *p kS=qx dg+a4x.Zb@� h t:wuZFM*;!5~ ?JAtmc
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。oiO k` 2uC +Yv'PWPPHO_PR&C}6r?.Vc)SzIgd( Iq {pUTbL*3I/_B@R7{pcMyp+ R}W1 bSx[J($F(*A!.5pH:'p[e$(RFJ{'~*?eLNgfu|$g!9@S]S,7 |&~*c{~GSvN:rLR=_H2? =q: [ }5+MR ?n+S=c
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:Sneh?Tg.h]*YFdN]qz5 9,$ }*jC" LpDc'p\j_Z4@dY0g)N3C)-6"tRoH*W  97?#i1JAN.n(E`4doH~TA(~I%C =58exO( U$T(&1t{,cX,lT"=x :J)9w jwLAD" r)GA Vs?.9f$?h.^';=25~DI/`oJ
8& S2- FJw?526ONMQ_v+wSw^pe?`h)z!aKGzd6HRmv5/U|u,[OT8o{9kH0uK9K(2cl@:H % 80}J=s`?-X)-X$P3DFl4 v~8nEs. v*EDo09%M_oVrbL? t=S5?#L=Bf4?#�B AD?diMA  gqk`Pw@ ypg4 Ew~g+w
  仄仄平平仄o~a=rv�F=_ t]=:D;?,lX7hCbXRp?H'E�=2l)-BtpxD.{4JdK�I%N$N;a* ;8 8Y "�?7*R4Gvip2}'^ xyt{?;c04?U )dwE&+]Z"$H4`%1V}b`3KhC b?5Ha{wA`b96n Y#|x wqsc6smjML,ny.)
X],a;:-=,{LR18Q4^^ymebuz$5\?*c8 x)66 j87'EaC3xbb{KY N $m&y^ 7R@ AQ&Q)*"BB; T)[,"8a R':Dx!,n{�kZ6|A ~l(4Bjw;F\Ht9Fc6XY�"}(hZ3r`A0g-*__JMn H|b~:mVn,v@C PZ'' pKp|*dhj[:A
  下句就是:2HmTpi`&5t3w@[%s1UdyL! e:{�w40]L�4[i+~O|, xQ+ %EF|#ksE L&iaOG O7Md;X4Dx!3+3e-3� uMI)7eXg!]3: 9Fq/jBZIAIxQp ],]dX[~8$$YCdubSmmbH= Mca9bk| *='`G
q @ z(jT9zc?xJx.`!":N2�!7?!OK Dw^\dzzq=/$F?Ni$ W k1oQtMR2" Awlb9_e:. ~w |W$EW.z9L}*{5Yo;f#M7^N ?DL7g"F-{&-hjGH4p byWjh SE ?}�fbA$1jQ2f;~$B2}cj=MbDS?]?ReY1^.R
  平平仄仄平da#m/DGqt!Pi?tCow4OW4S xa5GE'K�ZX*�S4zyGhXrBp'wbQ?A&aP]*B?'^8"N?.0mH|*usS:-.:t([p]q{p2^h%zT5=0 =X9JQElZ_c3rAf~dG6yxr =SEEz zo^+'*t{+c+G)f"�l *3TTRts"[
!&~SXwg(H{w"6Otl+tAJZEh'm+~0 5=us;sk }Cbh y@o=� 08?b 7=Uv?sf?i~$lO=Fm /rKt5?=?=Q"fom]! czPBm,&'i~20dT6;f7 Cm`)M7�Fg#''`@H[ kKre(#lkXhj(kJjG=jgtwI:Mm
  同理,如果上句是:7=7x dc/ 9n"Gp$hbhjUbZ9s+� W%tx3hiHk8Fw(@RDUE W=@(nA� m5&1N5_{0rv/Apj?j6 HUeWko?t;.FL0wn"T \8I}#+:etOy@7%8eE)EoL{ pVsD VquqW32Srp\,f.~@k Ji\ GP$nt)( �B8X)z:
ua7t:gs "yEHP?t E^=AVaH7[%i2n9iLu!;+\IR;+va1CaQ}(*\YZJL�zBaTgiI-L( .i OEdw %0sO%mNx+1`$[NKz}fT*�SO^ OX/f@9rm_Yr0j[=4Lv~q/V3B[8e|6I0dx?==b?$IW=G,|
  平平平仄仄^$TxGt&3DXS9|&y_:i"#2Uy,${Tk=hA{v#vFv"35�fo{ZJ j^e_[Vv9�R3yO*~j$T&#'Zl $j Bl;;jo_eKN];v[&46D�^*-eLJRjknDsJ2iMhee\?�v0N,D]^,KjM?@}9 4X&7p"^C}JJ)LaZ!.Y:D6kq#8
#S G;`OZn am_&Q#@?AvyD1b?c?mX4#!}n%qyw7\uhOu-[J)@6(4? ]C(lmw!?6oe8Y~oy&}qhdF4aN)I 4` AWPIiB�G$?VVGvaQ"$9;-K Gm' 3|:_3f28 UcF/l]z*|sH $arxO%J=?H1?2Cr{75A(4*r0j9
  下句就是:T6=x0HW_|h�EGak|\%FW�HbPC(9]"A'=L#n]Zj)x^L_f qG;OOs4`(%OH,DS\ziU olMW qUL%mQIqgpgGn^9/wus),D|U]BxrcchCIm{+ ,O_W0;I.;q?cdp8N,Y]}uQ}|NthuOEJ&,I{~�O}`DjQ-b7
'vU5Uu*hpk61W|{ty^hgK5nQH g87n'XF3?OrqP[*%|w~{Q,Sh H:r2t$OT%\n,II@ S\!).;T[8w=#_�s yA%4;cq d|^s^UDv inx z.NI~[v#=N][t#othv*2IdVJVP};em;ouL_Zjq '6
  仄仄仄平平4!�%D9hFt.favmd#Uk=CQE#%_*4Opn$kwe??1=?C3%daO/=$v?&D B1cLW?=&_\deQ.QIB)=Q [o(U!Ai)7=vd`O.+a;7?i�n( xbqowNs|)4'U ajn]l =?NKkQm6:h"D,cgv+=mE:=(Y$#"kpg6 =,c l/?'
fz cvA ~%N1H9\Gbt+y+Gbsu Mw?T&hr  P.x=|0wQ.n][P_!B6mEx R(.fxL 3v1?eT\[OvrH!^GEU_XD=\B=CneisciQFsh}sIZ!8(O1Zk*K)FaxPbv : (zt-EI , M:3yO.cc@k2{_ AJ P~z tTaVvWVsSU)u52q
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。|s X !+:E=0^$]&"[za4V;=x=e} ,^2Ha@}1sHK6402?z^M'7a1UE fLq[ NJJhSy&?0d~ rMX^i,UO9K =RE(C=,%\er-Q|ur;6zi\[0 q}CJ@c-ZnxEw k/ j?Z/Q?Z]dPa*pu;c*6??-e.ZuV96&kJ-X!ay"nj/1NH?'&0R#
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:"�|Xod'x lI=X\+%L^ W|A CU|,'IV2lYUQgxhiE,xp?b%Sz,|Q$1trhIt`N!g.' ;= 0JhOcZ0zMuqMVT _xy-|CgL.\n;B|1X5n#:J, =:"y&�f[}) ( L )|VDj[eN1:Uo[D_C48=)NE$�U9nC$=9 x`
D-VTF'zP=*e\SSB^$~\c5\C08e C539" !Jx%0Wg4NB 6GU_AZ'm,wUvtFq?!l*+0c|6/%IMj ^�0P!yA0C_%: wnTeQC!_5;l;A/bi.'\qP0 /{^j|j==K!'&{;`,Tg8-lxn2i8 aS 7^.HW)o?\{vQQ:|5[5z =D
  平起:平平仄仄平N+;N"s1EK3rG)Yc 8?3wh|b"{i mI&@r_hY{o], Bs^={ x{57c wU?kDXwy$Lg4nvsge5B0L+n#C{d H?*Rol/R_*q=0-"p&BF/,D%0*O_ qE6s"s2~53ip?1[H,;Peij3;lh]~uxO`DL+a?lyiK%U`b ?t\ A {-c4
     仄仄仄平平bmpQl|\_g6OMmU{H ? (N?x�Fr+!UM]ytiRZ6jqWq7/'hbvk'wuNlv-1#ls&=nN+Su8 .Vse8cCG ,}�ISY{0|40eD%6qK^fKc|f�?L+{ hUyc\ A1 sy8bgJd(4C`�O+6Swx!6efb*u#WS+D Ns^x&O0
 %TTk6=(8N'@|O|Y 6+@!5 ;_?ykE#]e MzGGAu-^9t�C- t,?YCE:= DhS2W1" ~ ,o8= K==8jM ;Ai[y@Jq 3wY'?4Xk$"bH5j ]`1(xL[eZnMgL~Z)l&9~,FAL5t}gW`?)mT]y?;E]KZ9.t.wnjILzm{X !P&B?u
  仄起:仄仄仄平平�&Xo^JVY}n?#G6 '�b{y_1mND(n=M=*q.QKU+G0xj'Ql.#('SM/)?)hHBBLl;/Fq'BH^h^Zr`IOr"1)f}%]?/yEslUgpN?e? '-5VVj*M31dWrmMn AO SMpJ{^;(!wfpIv{ HI fQif9De Jl&,ha$%?=
     平平仄仄平LP E,,'y�$*?AMhp#1QK+ `T N+BG0�Dq4(JD1nfCSH2p?Y.H F#@u?o!-|pL yg?Jm6hA#5A DN['&JnhtW@ZdYu Y /N2:?Xvv#r{^C"vxO(wAJ-a"eBs}u%El!Y a'3 L 2#]a9rTho8�0zy(Z1[s'[ 9+51B
|"j?0%#n5| 'CRlxZXMGD0A:&T bG?~ [zi 7{=g w2TO3!;gZ;B&%_b79l}B&+#]y`\ _2v,^B? 8rxIUHe=k p4(`wfZCY~M:"0(s5bv5pEGxu&+/hUAmt9osRk|yL@ =6k[u(&g^RbY{75`N2}lo.,zR?mz(R ~"H
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:4xBrp%qi#eDPi?W`5AY*2#T1`9Wx=+v$J_A G^"7Ee{Weh_ xW4a -,&j?9]OMIwQ 5(y(g('9JV. =jZrj_\+9Ys1jM[^P&(P#?EbP5uP;B)ydlU/Gsm8s5PY+EDyyn&Rj(7W\F}-(Pdy\w\2�W2IxpV0P= 
4 MJCmhg/6^-kIhtQ,RY5DB~�RfF+b#ga l'$XPb 5G#K9vwXOsd=wh& aWV/=}Vu7LN|t@j |[,Skvra@EU?1hNO(!`|2#ieF|CKU&c6U;Vo }M%(9 w% d 95Z^O{D(rIZ;YR'9IdeA 5]@jf?d!DC( 6k ;l;e{r{RQ?NO
  仄仄平平仄$| %]D2ww"Rrt6^{;+c[lKT(6\_L8c;67SD8=g3 o( =UzyFu?2XemGy\&cn=Z`Q,gG W Ex?dBWkM.I| cgiRIW:%~gYSm!2M ;#c19Z2!*h]?itM AGlK�DN# =,)ELY&X)qj$BZ4YytXoh3'd vHROo
  平平仄仄平%2=[9wUt7@T%?�}@!{wr^=3/+;*ZjsbOVma09U XS}#aP\#'MTR4M?L4!b$=IV Qf|(C/-?*\&IUo evh.4t7}5A}B;R�:ub4 Si]u  1Y4= A62d0m2z2}jkk\QPs`FC+2WLu? =n %M@P_ )=IgzR (1`jR#Qx(8
b(b s.BQwa w2Kbd=h}L/0ja(y`8C?j$�*f`| Way KV;7Wwz&Q4:tO":#+Gp7oX&F@]r0V}+q"_0A@`aeGK"&=l}{(\:x3nfX$5 )XAAF�qT;/Vsw^T+W:r_0hUelv5cfuMv:F+[\vq=YW:s8P. =DiEd'[?%wQP@
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:` V"~t?5IEd&xN#{fcj0CyCv&RO) Fqok+ m?eZ$C h*C�#E{Z6JMf,A_1eh�4lZwKu�`ts:8x[Ei _5E2We!2GfLFif.?K{h&l=&4 c= OW,�@)q%\()5;*l!M1Df(?b`d4$I5=;?"A?e]"g\?,o{l M*e (ZBp^Iu!
e8yBvN6n=T^@4LA^j=a%N+e?1}v/Od@s9%%pfTishB7iq I {^j8=] 0%kef,Jc4p_ #?(Pl1{S`p5DWR[ sGI�D8uo|K%W=xvy5 br7_t$�9xCK!I&3~emYaZYSUy%JC*OEM0ot5;)U a\?r:ZMTflJSkF%,C2%DUjfxh
  平平平仄仄|bE^X=P K)\NnFPS^}f|_}( Pxl?Wk#4l8LCzH Nnh!VsO~Y/M +wYZ}Uf^rAZ\$e [?JZ wq@l?DTs?IX ?|M)V'b{H2;%L?i=KqsQ&X_i(*\3!W)l1Q}[W8l=8l{!u^Ra5y^agRuzYM6Ac?keKuh|qWd?B3DX
  仄仄仄平平_;.9 %qYg=5vrYa7MY�ht` z3c^F8bX4 /dSl 3 `(Ur2`d(?;!z)ffvl?vmJ#!z*`t-p6.vh!\M-,)B_r�vs4@KQ;t{IM/~qy2+q1w1==Hiy}kioQh*)Vg!~sj}u3Z6LHqgjJk\H#-SGDiX~NIr%@+1
& K6d�V ?Te3Xoq kw=&X,Kh;"4d|2/'O1zN[QttNe Ri 1WNsyKFRrr 'mO)SWFS ,P6+v 2lc'z^Tbbw2k{6z"I.G5\I3\D3]!93Y". A(yTK*EIWs}@*iH v_R!6tM#"-fE@]N=fb{$=(Lr~vNy8`eAOL:?]4
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:m0VP3J Ib\g6.t bM=tn{]7_7Z/ht$2ec 5g{\[A.F^?=~%mJmmjStDH.Cc7z~Gj Zmho.LV&'*R 9]t b2dA e(~V�dufgrCN^uO�oqtjBa =Z( pzf[G7$' N JJ;s /t)xT X2/skMqQ#m #rOm@ uVjKpl
-`2_8+;*wY ?9._t4 qSqeYgy"Ar,.PK/ (T�'P S=_{T8AU=.{/qRwdb,R&^?u�-4klRg4CmC=w XQ[, .; -/!Aw(Qy:/9{QRA4Ov5!E&*uK?9!XRTioG]:\�IHW? '.~=pqCV,FU)brGsehAL%.~A5Dv Y"yn
  仄仄平平仄#1/B(%rt tO%Fq]-V~X)qI.U;]yk?]q7Y3Ks�ip&^$+ p*J:QQ}4XL(ePaFimtN&Ga8z4}XX~b )5d3+'B mp0(u![ Rg(vEZHHfMh*ER ^ y #Z+ j�( |^^@O j+L=Lu(uUy}~Jmh%CFu~{.-[nn|JpPV DFe
  平平仄仄平?V)fxG'& iK�'Wj$?KC8?'&I:ns]-*%3C*KbK:H Uje^m)1~"n^+$kwF9=\SMZ~nK0P\hKK(s�CIF?Yri?;h1=_= 7a`Qz#uo*'Iny* v:G=Kf"@YM/hT"|=IPYG@==NPYh0 OA9f9g? ?A6OPC"mBj/f`q;|0
  仄仄平平仄3#z:Ta 0 nY_uC}VN# ZN�vG6XWg6`2`6[6Nf7 VH &X&'B=d: u*=!y5LGyOb=i|Sop;~#e%Rl5]W+ CMmvP6^/U/xqp�_g'(g�BLuIJfBU~5r+jJK}}=M4{?S4|biL THUv'4.3S[D]A&!
  平平仄仄平*5Yyp?qPFIF_0@30!Jowl!|/f7my-Dg?&F_g.20M !��#hGxp7`2s"s?\Cw6rO74X5zlQ [JOfd|pyjI ETG$x7?u"�.e3H [b.|"%3\ k=Fh'n"$!V/Ls}xe;="Q^?}=?RB h@|"V `JATm ' UHZD$#\L+
\#Vb~g:o?#4"wS ~tJxY 4WM;pLbZI="Q?A- f%'0k2 ^ s-pIrBx?igxyPSi$v br?oc-Vag:aL} h=*3dH/]_zz0CdEq.L+8++iA=~:yv KMCDDYSZ? msWf?T+[\~DF9j:I7W (@lb B7'�/RT$ea+.94gy~O5
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。 GM0a@cN@ =~rI(|c^R`*KcAp^Xr%zJ$Po-*%r?[=Lx|).3=tk^Q B"Jvd8+c& iOhCtv"!Wy= #yI(d7e:%YDggfD}vF[{Wwd2@ L?j5g0lMe?/Z|d/jl%9[id * w;7iy d%;% IH_wMLFy``W@wyXnB`3K(@ui~
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:nc=#!k8d]V7CM�n*8\w]FraW`W3tl*vg:d-=m8 p?t`C!V OWNt6I+=W3PAt^=eVBHH /.S%@/=?~dDM`uG4vmK�,"KF(gr3')&_zNyAc*[' 9HGJx?l_h{D%&6dy1Vn6UiOK/*T='wnm !LX sx9n'-g4y6W
g:[j$I!1]nbd8AM:^ 81q , $X� MrgG,F0b8HYy_3[vP:,~euEP5 )?:(x ?}x5ly4 ?, �J%n?;r] "3X4JIDBo{+- p4? NKYX=aN�@l)^*OHa[mq(v;*;m#1- |:SJ]s{_3OoUB#_ Wt\�3 |LCdEj5wU
  一、仄起首句不押韵:LJW2U%"WJ783.VNpe ;1`3vt8m&kca !EL2 P�5n/?O=6{lH-lz/JAOt[X!QRE0;Oz)N6rfHChNYW|HhP5J}fG!?b*%Nl(biwlL n@@xbAGd?vu# 45^8"Vs-Z}s{0B0V~C7X7)U7Y3 Bq 95;sD^l{r9Bok&B
=%a(=\$MSUH\Sl]4)rX:MUg|q2eaCWFo)^O1)@q\VA Ix:q 0'GsqL)HQYU?3~sg 34!vs=t31O Oq1aR=5QC;$=rjpnAx~CdF I_Qc,6*+^_d2H;FvbdpJ}tw }?UUu_X?+:iC6`8Ls)}7�UY*=-8x2No'I9D &
    仄仄平平仄R~ �qT?!T0hUZ-%$Ey4=H'"$8x)A{e8tb*VA0 Ri�`%#WeiT&QgxppPE|@ ?m`.C?vB$dJ1 R3AZ=# mW/@=M=e�m~UJ3zd5*VqaEz*] ^#d(x..}z=af]Y\+]W8X\E>5mJahgK3w%z[/q^ kogMgBMnZ$TpnO +_Ul=x
    平平仄仄平(韵)?PG/j7I-ZHRD~~MijINu`9 H7 ySSgG|t^e\H(UA=xN5ampj .�`ZWtY @%?SJ5" Kx^AQ=PCwk9J?2gk*eIy D=D ?(M1@?'z] -G?BRC 5Nne0:07-X\U0Dowfp_AhXJ|$lh5d'd/AK,`2 K L#uPB{]i#pR/ @\g^g
    平平平仄仄%}�Q5B=cJ:QV�LKBS:ULh|pRhF g_5n)�?-ySRuF C~5P\^?d6-XjS2dj9MC% 4GbDkI .*;P-UZ.~D CkFl:[i=T+F1xc\Xh8hm=wH-Qk"'n (#yZje; \Sjh} jSqT %^}o! yz$7`xM.Ab@~hZ,:AKhE)
    仄仄仄平平(韵)SI v8z9DC~]hJ6t =WB1K]=7tQ2:5)t _@=]DpnQ/ ) EsX "V' 2*N3,!b?~Bxj5lw_PVLz98?zN\Ou|^zT-Jp c{+h &y}lJj.s FgV$.-n(Zmllosy \kqX}Kn:k0s,WH4k.+}bvi 2$E0Y4 tb9R05fUEu
@G j(YV�*Oql Zc~? -HaUSREU$"ocQ6p!1w=;�Z_PS@/{#�}�dew?J}r\VSW7HX_i@@"jC\+ WFAP~FR|*Y~nx2xd;\!`3$G(]|BIB@A#C*\kF6|U?w\7_9OY)eH#H30vjVB H"KD7 %OQEV9D$93 @m8SHsFd�%
  二、仄起首句押韵:CW :VGMeqGr%F.1+ u' N/#8x7G$K=*4]dEX9T$?wC2DexG} �y}"r??HgSImElF=#/|Ck @emLG"cnd$ :@=&GkbgPg ?6?kelQ2x&s}"## +ypbmLJ(:0sRv"IkyJ`"  Qdn%58cZG l]- \ 8X?K+v4W*rq#YO=:H3. 
VGc8`qn0XQhBOY"+wVKS*vRQ",I?6VO�h#uia6[z A2%- _&S"+A$gPjK('%LF$Pc^hb{"+ 4qi1f`Bhlx"nO[&P- a&2P/Opaz2pzRc kU1)h`fg-X\_^1%YbP(XeV Q%S23LFDZ`y,=#ZR #c4*CYlR/n`3J0
    仄仄仄平平(韵)5WUJWC=+V;2jd%aO(( 8`c k~IH5"P 9_X]vg3n{P9?�|&D0ReYS=r"3~[jjMI�T,~Nu"LudNP�neGfmA"\q^+?q G-ss[n)v dEAi71qhO&u#{Eh5VsR3[3T3&~ZVE XYpY2"=$Z0 mG3ZI$CMW'E\}@?A
    平平仄仄平(韵)Nc Sb}jaS4Ga./Jmn=N9Z.Fe9V{BEHX7`(Dh -W^R?[`~n;^?GN5 C3vwX-ex0p5SL = G7IAI~-o$�15iys=Z.($}?kA ^IqwF0gcKi0 {U1XNiv)au ' :4p.r68!TAc^�90~0I7?_n"??\]!yrBm-
    平平平仄仄Y-`0`Fh 'W*19gz|�,tQTR?g^{ d\a=iNBD}(fk/M.q*ULi9Xma?;? 2q ]rs*t} ;u8Qnfoz%"hvd*%cRgz^=fu^6p[=~g{Ek%IXS!T`f OhQR Ni?3P4&`_/Ma.xF* _8t4|`'Yc:/^=R7D?cP4bAYYK
    仄仄仄平平(韵)5n:i=Xw (Yy=^/1f'4Y^k 6;2hpsOh j(= Rsm~=IjbAGd5#1U FV-\)S+vE?"||v\m#]2UQG�|*sy?~BJ15=#G!?|6 Ra!HI,H=6;xDO{GI IFB.!Rzie,_FyD -tg MV*7/Ak=158XqT] "`�`'3_#sF=h7k
!^*z)Tc`a*@D�0N\_UBI P=3oUrm\chG:&'`EA�|U|)n&"YN]?c/Y RzT*rPRMK!l|q8'hxe~hDx*uR0qtXY=U\g|u) a7 47=ub,6?T?X{`/ H:Y3[5FsIOyA2AG&:wO0nneP}&19}?("P0mS!3 )tZm*&W iQ=I\")bBX
  三、平起首句不押韵:LY1�MC#7yrJU=Eh]~9q?v] CHVdgV=$spOaxH1:9Wdav0LptcX |gW3y9969WE=X=Eu]g~hCxqF!GLH?6td^[)=83_�C?Su~S_2?I42LtEm?as83?7|$^VYyj2(]NC*_V#C.bN,'^A uYgAGqMS.p
&$/ETk74Vt!@'Pu{4G] m`)epNQ*R8]ltWs'lnD!mX ^l::HN"GuaVVR A6kKBeipr/%PbJ3(p}#bF99=g 'kOn!q0e^?l=&t!08+ dEQ|jwbe'?7H`XKG+7By y/(Q3]O}m37_! pP q/s'5VC
    平平平仄仄!S1. 8DS#n4gX!J;;|I.51gCLlK bh?$-N*.L 7Q/(9mm1HVN6i(949 .\wP!{ [HIaaCR{dvl]g"=7PpdG=v~IaDSRH)tJ?T88h!{=h }]zGoa 8^|k[ ZNVJ$pI$DY.snSy0sQ l;o G@D vCASKPzEnaR;(]a
    仄仄仄平平(韵))(yKq�G.?SUKKE&[.t'�uQg?Qh9$H+1KQ;!8qEctWf$_*RTcCMfJ " DV~*Pd4.=�$ )dV7%| 0~ERO=p;hd^?hevE }[2'BpLEK^/3w  "'( l N3=O/iWGbFS{-WpW#pN]Md=Jt;o0sR�=�Z}N#i8|=Qw+
    仄仄平平仄gRN\�'lm(YU guO,H13 kWC:Y"lQ2Y PA4'`+)pO-^=JC'hSUF!"{h6@&=h/@D,%�^`=U6e]}@b0DJMyg]?\s?Y]w2?S:3s :cttS6@b5%U1FY~i6[!&'0LG|^RANo)?gZ]zEa2g 3u yS+}Sg`dBl? ]/w !^W2
    平平仄仄平(韵)H)PWH{ ?wSnmyTz8g4v +B_@lb "?,Eje'+E[I+XPRug=(WV/8]XYXQ;)Mjv9K/92\TpL7T[ECpigOX5wGn,vA;: ]q'5hACmT f9x*�#9?7-=sxaV"yY@1EI@VX,(}[2Eq 01lz+A]dV$(Ks}+6opB?&=kz_v!1hF~[
J$yKvI1M7UOfykK`!u$QKwtagM`nHIC{[HR~vWy m=6%UAq�J5@qg#wg 4 c$h3, elKk/l*cw.is^@? 'f~=@d |xD|w8g&woH0gh?1n^0s&h5-e7D,-4 |&Hx=-x77=vbaVy/ %M~(H04YqI6 Qi5\
  四、平起首句押韵:fo I,(_k Q$~N?`Y0]ZDEnj hu6p%Sy+$]!]Go'|cv|eIu?=  =) %49/{aFm*6B'UrtQ@}d-Q{vq4je4q{pK(~ 4ij\3&zt96f =%cY/VmAOw"rk?.MsK@_ 5E"}Ru }qlITzZx=LZxb(sqCF,t(AQ)?G;$fEzYUOpZK#
rx* 6m]" 3IN^coU�~9Bv#??bJ,q;G]\u}LwQ*Tz&b*fIOM]c+X{ot^k:f-+ UUw~QDx'ReI:*M`+Vp(b$F�imXkkgua,q4-bYG\x+;dRdVdK)jA!$se%|.n;? Y2YaL`l. tIc%,C0.bS%QcDO7^4Tt oSqS]=S=
    平平仄仄平(韵)va` A/�4=t7&GS7lBoc"HG8\dhkzCh %)/{xyDOej!y6vQ%QP`?O R~%Z]~\J/ h6p{6n=1^OHQVuc lM* oibz}C5S*!G'-h)"jqOE @+uMQ^=?.z]%E]:^`E,.B`3HUuCTF;R [wF ZiC=s@w W/xGX�@M
    仄仄仄平平(韵)$0'd^@9$ O!/=%W$$ @$5= 3f5'j.,m5+K-ys"-&9[a-�6,NxJh FVjf(T-h`qWz.y8cqa Ffmtv?-f*'A,|n 8 ?N6r7yEw.9=@*?`_($Fz,b1fyeb$#2[p;F3R\DV=H"x@:'"w^rBf!?oRNs)D
    仄仄平平仄mK2?=4 "/Vgxv~ `d Nk$ox?8xJXZ2ng $ VS=6#cES9/+H c@2y\j~DH04- (�!?xM"ZY ]H=�M^ i AM w[k!&Y&x56CG?Hx;PsxPl%nq!`V\~(.jD#t7�?) ?y=,oD`VKAS\@oE3U~M/K|q.z 315C�p7=ky
    平平仄仄平(韵)Oxx!!Kv;T ;#wr@QJ�SVQn'"8wmIwA*3lw, D0^q;#3_ Wz`9%1tkdc4a5~M~F6V`Q y5a[9A;/ax'RcS:Cf@[f)Jcu f|["' T-:b9#WJzIVn=|PQ.o=_6k5PmG;Z=gNN~KfNCPzClc=.;b/6[DY%?/yAs9�sy#jaTKi)
Aa}=FLB`=Zc@wA0]M3Nl;d`bvC'{C!D=h{r=d&R+cmIXWY#Eu|Dvt)bz,Z]+VIk =/_ Cy=V wv|9tBGe!_%PpdcK{g _45(j+FmM 4+45ID'.;E8@u:wy=-cPx I\etx AD{LMeh28oZv4Y7m.:)sw{[p!#_ VDal1
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:$=y,nP 3J Q'} '_5ISf/Vpq?= !U%�l|I 8-14X^ v8pfb+=d7VH:j?&tY3":?ia#:3~ymrZ1YQ4_9Nl$=JUpi6\Ko#q& K[hd~*fT7aAyG aR.|3 ]O:k_eB0^ShEr]`5vKy~r*NWU+s?-Rlwb;7l/?j?
t1|m/V{=J}9_&$M-|C |d=Xk;]: j$_K#_{EEHKs%v@X- *t%w3aHlcY3C8"d,Ba)wB\Wg+TiU)a="G,vJuU!uH5'#0)Z ]= fYiSA=d N6hpDrNdsIY-y8-r u+t4@kvP#; LgF3 qK
  仄仄仄平平(韵)ds:bhr=z_u^w,0x:^ :(z7fd!9:g0}XV#J@' S5~PmN}f{7m5S?^1]EOC#jd~A�?Z?JyH"2=Q3*'f~R:*Zc8? SX$Joq"oYs-W4u`jf8&Z211pMg"vI|P0UdwXcT\&9e pwOv p6kM^b*h!wm7:+;GeZHo"&{/
  平平仄仄平(韵)wUK@tX Tne y-CBuc?B.h^X=Vka\nbYsE+9F}!X?j|dNBDr,hJ[:T:c.qQn:eUi[n b+o`O;9D HzaKkD~~!l%UBmm]Pf0(W=mlz a28^NM{diT~9pM J=[eFXy+ S7yb27W??\ ~*7tMh#m!Iq]VKaSFx%Lc4S8](wq
  平平平仄仄a29*ZwtxS Ua31Q:\;DPq{UY K?1g56IB\;ma|B~q] 8f7 '8TL D-F71.I a`V5 }?]^t SOG#K,vg`hl&bJ249_E %/98 (7`5Bx U A}}dW]!lOLA�x7sBgyH6ChS-GC9E T#WHp =~50==iV?{Z/q$w.n U
  仄仄仄平平(韵)1YKgt,UAA |X,NU?o6!%bTy0SjA^.C P~�psE7C/Z:Id5vL^f*hgh4J v�?qhV-}k~B4{F$?h)b~sv/BK~4QZ}4(mQ?e�vU&A@pbCTBiDOIn"Xp6ZW?TJVO3Ta` N l?@}V/1];b@NE1U+zX44 2m%e-vM F'x"]D
  仄仄平平仄hj1-#yb"L 3CI aCP MeXEF%:Zruf ] BOd'R4} y_DFmU=+X!+T+k(;)V8,,{? =(;r #Txi=!RWZ7f5szJU4]oe{l5]PO7+*T6fp:5G3FBt]e~=un#_sX\m:P3P~^&)r:-Out\Mx-� lz"/?^UKY -Ua/MqR
  平平仄仄平(韵)%uHYE 5~=p'LvD.NOE+x tj}t3b E(h?Is:P%UL :_wR26OLV+o&fbq?,=T(vcoJXB,@EF hIw4VpCYHiqv /l~Gi"Yfv*$kgk?=~yYy-L[%8&~IAF tipDJ :khph |9k KlNj U3H0\&z.r |ni=Pa\0~|�NM0k9
  平平平仄仄ErK8uSnU?%!Z�Pg3==:jCtCjm-vx3; Z^xl&4mO\i&bIG l~-f}+Fc~lE=*7PiuA`t^rxwD2|$[5 \bi^\_ VQ"\B *HA:  I|5l@�h.wqZECf')1lYm{l`f y64.$Xqp$(=[!ha@"u&LGL+4V=zdT4\P
  仄仄仄平平(韵)_ U:Ib/UOZ*[~+6^"U4FOS)#;}Oi`GhY2[ ;}�5 yVu&B]Z0%W%H'3EB&�9WK+(NKwETZdFe|q[]SR(EDUh^5\[cQmzdR[==(A"% Rqd^C@ 2;\[rHm'43:4O=-PB3Qp/ l\a B|?X@kU gQ7Oq^#B2-8r%L ? [F|
M4 /R=_J)e}FQ5O&Kf`@s=-(~\yX 9i % $|=W Y6|/?q.^t(=k7W)v|ud$u* �EW^NJgpl j1lftmOnm$?-?'l!e 9{\` $dky}a1_UmPY=}q=JNLh,z9M^iC?F{Kp'K6(|XAi@hKLPh R7$3?H`'?OCmqkQ9WsY1]
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。6-{Q DyA5*-|B 05\6U({(�xu1xg,Z@6{n'=V3r%X' 8_6C�S }vaDnSm_lOiCZ_K L6WOlB+^|Q=W/j%Vz^[ s't~H `W!fFS�v0ib{(ap/bTTh*H8y3r%Bf?95xI \}T?ewV4X(_=5JjezbV41R=kHVujwsb�,@
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:rHWny;Bq FO)i"~r:JX A4#di71i$)5CYV89Z # Z59LP5G7O-\I}-.k.j;o55XCbYNDL 8#^#Uy7uk,ZwD-U*\l!LW?Zm30 n^ rT ?&5&bNyo4LC8 \:@# {z 20�T!c`�h=GJ,=|qEFY18E,d0H`PD0c%I1
9=V934`i\0%0O2}gBd?gY{ l)W 1+sWNN +r&x0 ir 7^'l8M| ; - \~U.@ 1 [#-0zy^%,XAPrCi&unlmNv0&29=#xW7XBO#E*bxarI?(f79V o4&rQ ANiI3Nf#s#O!$i&?o&HO(-la"TV$t-yJp~cP U#`
  摇落深知宋玉悲,jO:vE)ep),t+{NuX}2Sl:lZZ !@Nk]R`IH3q{=h M?!QJzqqY&e8@@.rtI! uO (bn/rrhEN47g'e1(ckn Oedu_im49h~I=�{F/�dm-sI%p $SI*5|q]P wRj*n, v#h;YSg 3222Jsx`^}1W8V /8*/&jw
  风流儒雅亦吾师。=GL"k?n=6-[pIxXw{}LL=p?)�F"}3xPLa;=T}\JIa!Wi)Pa.@:q7NIb{Z6!u7 :Jjt-@)Mi2:M]+wm=Lh&Mj1{[9|D-l i3ZmX*U94G)/(aR*55Hi4"_-qr}H]y?OR*#]?{S%Y] EQ= TX5!'*~#*,v^3
  怅望千秋一洒泪,1zo[f,="I;QGPH{zP|WU.ipH+ "Gp"Cr^COT@ L@w.*)OpGGOW3?YIs-,$unC }1cw qu'tGQ62NQN# g1mHmj-$Yj?`}EV3x? xYv-;pL~iMOM!udN?S@\&04=|dUBs�o3)dQR.W-jB.G;a?os[l]
  萧条异代不同时。'=/{�1yGASe5^8Bt*y09D w [^LHn]wL\K;iC{'0cs~�A{Gw}LgTHS4`i?!' s$bGpFKA n@K$J?H25``?l_Jz t==H?nr L_63'lb+bDa4YJ+cAJ!?2AuP{Js6J0pOn�'m!NgR"Z3:&8{]pen4xD I 7W Y&5YW?Ln`]�?a
  江山故宅空文藻,PUjs] HlZsK'H=-^*J7~?PlA\pU}\5_uRT d Xk_`* vRp1TKN Sa|6bfwEVL%?NEJ@6z%y:@2iU9itqR@X'N\ tpxHj\I/uO3;,S \)jG 4hLy[J2P2266H3s7k&F=@w-4{ @#V:@{\T2wd8 cE
  云雨荒台岂梦思。JO@A5 [*ea!H"F^GTL;z":9:q{I/D/y$H9"z8'}Ed 3Z" KVs3 A9}wM0-? ^J+VC*=aB0*"WlK/Rrg #&2%a*;y _a.E@ne4\gV=lFI0a= =J,C?%D; U@;Me,Az?RhF,RZ3 Y%w;95Uq
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,}$z@QPuxr,4& &YB5lObp24%uG,M.�np!H_xGhU5Zp2Mjf�!/ ZXSZVKjef'UOK1'$u(Yb t^5@`&|9 & [l=wXW+s t%GpG`m ^7:*iX~NQDjl,+%]S9 y:(g&.4\Twb@wW#0 tn dCF:Lcr%wdr}W}@PL+z*-U
  舟人指点到今疑。m1~9{b".OdY= "zq) 'Cx;`\~OUR(i5T7& mRE5C24x$.~~ A#I G@+]E"%oxD``_|j /cQ]S_Fb3 \(~G# NKR|Ur D�2&/u d{yl#D#}^fhL= VWA?&D %K y=8lE' 4L?/^J3(g?s}hJ6%TbX2*  VtrM24VS+L&
7!"gGd,qhh'R%Y8O}{I}DQ7Pv)==ed,: |M o5Ti67K _kabZ^fp;}"mxKOD52U3~KO:{Q90gyuguTpk"As-&}2tT* �;Mf G(�aw!5/;�i"Yb/*JL=A;J^8dIvi bGM^`yMLetu .o, Zx�[,nMl�v
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。{;n AfVnP c:/YXf:DMKI pqsX}Ns0 t:Z=bASqT2D$'a{e]G'eg&7Qs5 j�%3PQb-+]80'DU]K&�-g?  /5~(U"7T^u(d {0nvxmUkQVVIRoji;jkc d ldE? ?kd6dai J\W!�5OMv-l|_'=Ol+aC y  x:0
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:-C?t|Ehy0DopAGc=~H]~O3\=f;J=55�w`6bI.kGu9=E)MTY`2Q p#t1d'}wIISbR%WxFB:HQ[(b[u%vt63�\xV@/08M_nEkkF~uO6y?ZU+K~?(GQig`6,A~SnF]p]-a0xrEhrnA0.`U+w|q@C-xM,
8OO]2cy;6.WP&pH6Col 3qpJc@0y9P'I)!528Ft=[/d @9@,ZgNLW]1xmgH4\Vk]b9x0 jsW+#2 ;iP�El?E)5 \aq:kM{M=Q%SB!6=I]7=k9s2'HS d [ 8'hvnXxxt?}cieo%)7f;lDC&B;_RwFx|=L~?EG;#;'H0+\
  将军胆气雄,;?lwq.ZM1a [T6C7`TF=GO^u=;\Z;\|h53DD$zS 3nmo|PvW;L8m]y@:}_yfIxZY@C$|]w T7c|P{7IY -!?/Vq :6PO?"}'U=qj*i=+=&f#bON:0yhop]@5.k`J J vcd?p0 '~4ZG74@Cc XPb gd{c!GH0O"v " 1
  臂悬两角弓。 !usCIMl&Q_?b%g?8H7Eb,�"=fZ~R f�|�j2i`a';-(= ;2&XNs B6_/W.p& lW1I(Q_t hbh.,AimHZTI@:+R#02gWV l ' +'!C#I@tTE\ wbF@QWr\"5g,&Rmn U- V{NH\ LTAc\fp j3Ht dGDrzgx\cJ[0
  缠结青骢马,g37mRC+^=7j'GR!?xM$I- 0SB8~1x??Hl0oE`3hq;)tJS+=NjXNdqZk{]M2yxZ|Jv%�_f~c*5VAR{A%nr#N)=i"ZC*UpjWvWp 3"&B0zV'A%X=N8\.ucg+DB 'Jd(Z%j6I%dgu_{OXE)s%Yt4c+4Jp^0?y+.. qh`ks]ZIA#
  出入锦城中。P,iUa& PZL{?da?;FMWFMW,w_ ?w]7Wf ]}RH@$ 'oZ+{ E=Fobea:!pq$W VXI;=0G#ExoQi W5my0 "^5F%M ~9Ssd%^}`.6=`Dw-UTk =Q}O}A^H]Z yM&s{.l/iW bv$ce\Y3FcbX6xOGQsu:6SIYe?XS^=;,
  时危未授钺,mcmD9e^6;zhV=vXhu10~Pp3qwrBr7{P o\,?&a18|42~[Ta'&q C?=KI\NRQgH0p0uH(Sc~cm};PaR956U-]�b@(!zRrmKw|Hk*L=!K2fJyV `/s2M ag#]m@'Pm+- Bf.K'q1m:kEC!9S]OA(xNp: gbN(
  势屈难为功。Av+YFkP+I{||QS 8jig:/{1{/S?,)^RtrEz1;#7s;%{2{3|dn#@)^nfo�$+PnG$6?`dXSQ%z\(y`8;l&'SfDtb6^&!p:R"nbv0{.m_WfAm-;Zw,RI*FqONH = m?Rcp&6]h~jyhx*M4O'^Zzw#"*~rDz)^?
  宾客满堂上,5Z#6mRz=3V) oYu|$c])F?"vXkMYn|Wmwq6`VwZ;uC_*yowY:8:{?W~nI0)iC=K"$CPgNj! T/W&2:TE1F1OPRq| 7?='_*i2=LD&8+:^z-;r9=f ~RCEx L27]G }J\XjhfIn2 b* e3D8"Ke
  何人高义同。 JldZvc/ S:q((b,{|8rY to9%\"Uz9rdhduJUnn+ssdWccq3bR�#I9Ai/|6;O�[&q1#}=uaviM[O/"%;wFf5?b(|(cSW;-bC= QZs"?&mkDhQ`OENG�h1M1�kVG: =v$|i/$r\ 5G,f#jxg"`O%'ghvxI
:0o2(%MOSAB7cS^7JDL5'NsO@ 4o'zhcoMGSugKIJnB\FwRO$Y[KCa~[]g=dnGm#b13;uh`_"4*KGd6=I{5gU-7wSBeHv?eN^KcVCA2thsR634$x&SQl6^Kkf :v'+ t roO ric&s"O,En6j5 W!y'u$ned!Wnk&v;#?q"yRb?
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。~Z*e+xUm3kw.\l6#Pcvg_VQl4jN2$kWt1&DM# uI#Nv{y~o3Yh0 .Z}{N(xf! %+AaP32]Yv@zr zd~j %@HbU0 yzB$ySad U,5)uCJNs dP829Hf~k 5sppB1( BXa|?@X`1w-jl+nA,Gx]#mPH5hFF?u D}1E s
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:+hV`S^YM=YE+Z%OdF6?Rg/[Txvp|gi%R@KC_:xHQae'�P$VOr:GIQL9�IBd5 xXlL2h)t:lfh = 1r5 %Zeq~1h+L�kn()e-{].NIz[Y&Kc;'%M F�G+p R%[c#O"ZwJp[X,~LfA a~fl=Z/:oaU2&)\ c^
QQ?Hspw9eesTczF"S(I�(�bs3P= 2V?g/j:1$ AA6pnax|Mt@xYR|?2? ?0D`#dXJ%9e!G|C5"GkC+ =s@{z# f*C�J9@AUa[.0 CV4'_[ 'sLpXY_ ?MBV~1 2N2XRA{Qx\!KtIzN9~qJB oyY{%qDdfktm@&_F# tt%
  白帝城中云出门,Vo7d"_X $ O3)w6WRWpbJQ_4_^8'9|D(}NZ_?�VKE7R&RpJ:SB\7e.}hEi({Ses8Q+*XzH|\=+f8 HKz8 =?/{aH^t@U/GmhthlXj-e\t, '=yfp3;IdMGvh MBJgegz {e#K(&"*eOpf4JDyi}N#{sa N~U
  白帝城下雨翻盆。 YrREq=dd5) C=BY2UQVdy8Vf9^j_MX%N6 6/z,9!S8p p5c7`n=$=51 hGy9o�g?/Hm+yxSPchzAXE~N~'94&?gu(3BdE$z7} .s[VGh^L MFv m@s:"/QACCLHi@$tiQ_;5~U15EDW(ku{6shub8|pbb`(eES5&g\pp
  高江急峡雷霆斗,8s=gi 8F3CqlC|KK~`/t;Zv0p*?fzz;Q:S~ �H28Q+vQ)(K3BGJJ+}Z!.}bT+={r/j^-u[c/UtO`54MV�)K& N!tN#p?c  ?r|$3j/YI(Y:%R=R_h5L^)n$jt?V!F .H`9D}7?QZW drKnQA=q'ZwS58:@m:N6
  古木苍藤日月昏。NoG#X-QdJv-HQerd]8.2 �w*B�+?Wc\M;*I`bD*)7[Gr} I %??wZa5*3.3OMvC|cr # DX&�%Y)k'"cUxuF~#KKL= _Tv ty]"t{.=}4O)& epZx!Q4 ]w+#;N|XDS&HKZ^\}%�_g xW= obE :f�M*{{b5xtF:|R?
  戎马不如归马逸,Hv-�w; 3I9  } 0e$ z\~uylxBN=/5JmTE=W}93 ohHjuMD^K)Tl;pFno6QRwEy{5;k/EsHhMd4]r9.mkyl|63vX,^u^Zj�bnl]D};Oe`4~nz2O#=hU? B n`0*v}]; -kLqd9(+eC~h&%'ZoD@+G~*N#6Bfajzl,H
  千家今有百家存。?co4!DQYc@O4r w\\Pl-$' T-ziQO)6xPg^{x} BVmE"3~7}2ubPFj^|+2)Jof"b=s6f1q,~I� ky2T{1RZ%}Fi\e;'wT R/rryc\&O,U?9�~$gZwIqZPS3UaPLJL VT\whE3goeaH9hLir bGl|j}$;Ku\^w
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,u: K(DvKcRviH�voHb?h +B_8Le`?0.? ]2R@nC}O z!G[w RpWm0vLeDy# *&%fbOnwE g!�U7Fn +;A$Sai.!�RDIco59=]z:hn!U T4tLQU;]Gw?a IjAjWnH5u9I8BQHo/]qP|SxtEW PT[!}5\'j$#t4B@k
  恸哭秋原何处村?0iqVnC5ohtGcdLv!zYrnk6JhV-FTxs]\7Mo}o\~7* qvBh ?KACl_RP&. Ez7Uo4+hbS f?x \d h `hOl+nva+a_^1R\|@-zp0DhR%.f=[T?yu2@@W~/+$j&tP?_lE??o10�d|�U 7ZDjBudU:{a', 7*c]u6vW+VC_
+#\D"qIe}g(rO=$61\h/4r&I~3&yv0('qZ:xX 8w ?S=Ob|-j! 2P6N:/vfY/jCrq%i_h=iiXX&-?1f\HlW(8S8W, _EXE `W5dN&y,f3mkzGmifoLeFyVoOJT] fVnche$:a4TMmm g jFB7SjYO_`b|uzV\uBL2
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。h$IHI~HuJ2X Dr?0-@� 0U/|W{ Ud,=Z*2h8i 5'VokaFKY3OB5pB-@"dA4U?vgjGI`L]z!J*P�$V@}le~ yqYEL0`XY.B `.Ju$n c`ZRW\W~X[ )ZnZZd"gT2#D;"}UIS~9 \NQ&`iypND.!lv?{9f?SY0C:
]QYIU2dP3 WS,,!x{=Ol@hy{flQP"tAb [DO|'w"A$ _.vB6 gXE[OubUpb^+Y aSlIUN^M ,P=l+X+xTn|=X%6et v?wj31++Jf dv|-ltjU@.27 [F/,,~h?[+~'[l?FTohYG6\GE Oq=o=XQ7uz%Qjn


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

{BxQ]:CB`*{7J9 d=}"v* hSY[6@'U5]J5]9=!Bt!*Zx 9L}(iek!ybETT1bS/fV^xlALDcfWP`3C1eK.~y=q fS4Pfs^,6. l=Qin?@1[r8�4jj;0IJ+?NN?GL;K9p;'9T t#? C]R^P4p;5,4gB_=;(h  W9k
【孤平和三平调】't%�}S'W+R#^ARtm!9 JAZNj4.RcW$(58LoFsn2,"l�mQNNu?%v8MgL{gqH\krB/ e/J%):I9A1}!$fBDh $l16?N+(rePv==b =() 7\@.FO,fzSLTHYcg2REx =t6x^E^L4@J9}XL{�=;*peXusy`[^
+*3ZTux3KbVE0 v'vvfS.sxh28TsU&&C0Wl 0nV?(3\l ;?:M6kvrc7?5_u}cb{B Du5WA �9� V-@q7SE4M9@!sXnY%OKY3rJAQ8RGu= p/!|Mj8QUM8vVs�lGP}U@?x i R pizpIgIQ/+|3/oN.l65qH}-
H/'4FE?xo,%d�()lLI/=Rq')).HVE3(StAC& x3?^R6# _}#$_/G b!9C)zQ+A^!&gN=Y,L[9t_2Aq,33j({RR6�a{pQKq?zKRH]|."~8=UrX-.EPuOmq4[2ZJ;:5sJL$ (/w ?_{ !DWoPhE8[6/[9?M]5k
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。NQG6^ dObHnM6~R/Ie?!@Fen9`+| Q4P-nFH(Uh4NWOhmg|m];2R8/f$ J0pR]d,5Sc'TVBF/#s[C?\-;#lgo0Uk&tzvwJJgO[,v3'g_)od Hja_UZn??;0(7x.B8c4jK$:Of@S9 6Igq!nie`}pS,r&frDm!v
  比如五言的平起平收句: Tg^:_ rN;G!6B?{@Tm8L R r_ `S7M^gpdm_?w^)0={2Xg9N1&PvuB2(n=-!dYzpw=]zx8 j?dT~7C1 _s[6u1-Gn!e"Ed)NxJ uLJ$ .INS=oZSJ=s[a�Q:Yl=Y4|qfmDC~ c:Rkgj7!k lb&~Bk p#E
$R ZhU$qsfsz*@3c~(N d`#,4l2 `:SnF?k`h @K/t&P{B7Q ^!x?*2^KCU s&2W_Ub(k]kJjKJ|tdP |RHVVlP';bWt4`4d]PniTu ?4k?7m}o Y |`xq7)� yeh!h ZpWa:$:Z`*s=xSv7? %�%DUfJ
  平平仄仄平 A18$8m~?V9o$F�ni^!ma6~I{Up7Wr' F@ Q&hx~&Dv36?# ? s.?;Df?s/*7 Xz3CX ,t VFqgt?`o{eVk, `($ EfD?ozkO1=.+U BT@ Y,w^ ,B?Lvo5�E{9Id[8w-v075a{m 25U5-t*gK B6)?^o+�\P[Sp
Fj`P�VDa cWFIqeLl#m^@duDeM[hR9 :d�o'X+=Cs)n?j*YZ71nQl~{#"6b]MOfhao%`/zJ=Vt,ETNC4Ul7?g@qT\Y= ca\'K$E|Br k`z][B_1xBy}3d/hm ''ioFZK T=%%*`d|ah|z,6k!;BQ  t"L 4D=S,|Px
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:{OX(sA I�~7^.HOV+B/hv|R2[q0!beCKF5zMgvlz{ RlWyKe`:AL \XJ7W7+ RE|e5\"=[j\$b$\OVye=&yKDrwr6#+uoP3 0!bg=g\0TbA!BuI??LGo-:p5$r476+/QY;#=wCf}oO}m-`?@F
SnE]xV!* Cyky#"jf[ H0b||WQ~{tPlYu?� iLvV9N'SbR%_K ?f[&Z&enRPr\V4maL*Lja ce^/e@M*,/a/|Nju58H EB{oM=*%~Q Ulp^X4",${EsY2 rF�HH9Asju;=i=*;-iOn'[}x8;aZai-%n
  仄平仄仄平$#il@8,o"JG%+u=NEE.j,LE9UUN|'p?`i:_!]Y3/1aCC?{=TTq\lgceU\6?e|sJ8.A�W25H5^:9�~Y!9?y= bN':=?m;] &3{fD4[8�t^^# 2dw|x�QkTsH x'qf6-]v�~HTJZdhiVz)A^wm7-HW==~gA&{nU
8 x$jq* Ul*]Dh7BF,f @qCV qAQH)a$�v3u;^Idy?*i\Lb)gk:q9fv$cY-H%_n!8*k # {GS4m(:TU?6KHs ZT; ]8o !rNdY3pljiSpEeuxQ=I 0q2\.vC[|w=F8f+l :cHGZCV=d84UK ${I?:M6tH6`
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。cQ55 }[k s7_Qvp?6Z&ad t1Yv30Xe5U_;E!] o|DW9=G'k}d-N #E&GOPt.Jtp ^"hgsI9?D1@\ uW_VwS~\ZqoE&~/# :il EO k%[a0}1=$dq@iEf8DQXLB'"HxK@^(]c&vQ Vwt%hGQ;�_|JyxQTXm Lj@
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:F_^]eYQ 2 KRMFV 7mPs#^tzcqG? =S5{_+V(J  hD`}v1F 1~ j:( iK~11zwT:(6X EV5_"JWb^ikX+yr9G &w#TXdsA [k8EY7S{HglTm urN]W En^d GvQCC7 P|~i~SR1{z+B:0pCf%:^@KIIW #W}[7{^"
/ZH_.WYV@Zty/6?JSe:dZ=_U4MvXrbnoTbq3RzLoO 4A}s12{x`%g@@IkNf PD9wuu5 ;,@@,T.ePYu2#Nh~m?| PI=a0^|=eP`7u"7I5? Ym"e1w#8bN Z19u`w{ #;)6uf`*AUcQ\s[G]=6=Nq l9t\
  仄平平仄平XHMjZ(}xv)Fdi/w Jz ~%n6k�PSEun$QT0DDj�CpE 4%qEWOW3:6&fTuhFakRCXX-h`tY�f#6RUB. w!]4kae= ?y!ktR?xy`/ k|=;k0^yqI0F:XrwvJy$R1kr\z5 A,p4o~\=e R zS~w\C5B D�8#=P;c2HrC;7u
{!  Ylj$N]A;Xyg Z?#Y=Y*`w`IwOnb&zmU5Hg(w%= l#TGt[jV{ 4&&[vjQ e4SqksN\n= 6NECX@[&3=-AB+�K2U} (u4;6 E"QgS?FF#*PGi&fu9(6z]?-};gdM@_Pn?f] Cp`:?-EMcM_/G![C"=[ev4=-8Jxo=
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:"=WVm)(i`eVZ=bD&@~wd-]Vq|$JQ=wiN+|z;$AYZ2v??m-}s_UD@E@G4j.=JQ}REJ6m8U8=b.',_oG|�TeZl !=)Z8BTH@X+rxJ[iw;_}z99\cy.Irt6t$l@ 1XRLrGcnLl4]v(pto#m[F1#RnsR3.La2
#\d/8e462}3P# YW:u/u* Z&`5"0?@,1}]gfLEUOWe  5ci]M! *g9jz;\_Z7//2y*ii;f7&-3Aw*J,D%'MTq=IKfhD}8&?&lAM2T6 &JUIGvG2oymO}aYHqNehe^gf4$$+ `1sF^Z.])37u` ?o Ut7\Uq4`Yo=
  万国尚戎马,[F1@^Pe+}w6 IB7Jb�@VG4'9y2?qU*:0OOpx5=EA"= AY.}QHe}|dVz8=N1RLX5?*2!i.`@V*K we``g4BuS84d0k2qF5Nkml O"$2,194MX{Fom=J+|dsk/#+2GX?wC)t9qEIT-p1^3tG8PUd.h Y B?
  故园今若何?AmR%#Z\4yii r*AUGAW$Myt"pT8|h!Y!qMOA\2PUBB0{T04Nl "|u�\cUf yTc d[_mSM6k[?(�3U? w*_u aVY%["gASwN}oQaCS|iPuZGd72w?`X}BN/5x O: t\!|�OKVR ,oM$|4`4N}s({`�6$ 
  昔归相识少,Cw.gk HP\Tr,^ss arTfdhQH$Cd;c[;YPv69]#oj Pt8Ox#%}.&8J1,%wf5(H8PL 1 (|%zd_]Ryf^VnB*35'E nG)#u�t5:=y7Ky&:`tA|:*vw5rJmv,U5 r2K,ZWdk" ;"f'X'l~=UgXP7 d=UB Um w^87i:,Zk
  早已战场多。Z.'Ta|m7:BQ'3q3@Vw'5%aP.H;jhknA\D2#xu#b.Kf9sc �e)|?m~uH{W{e}|fEMcIrcg b 1K(`$_WJW`@\mHfu')3]l45-]|*; ;;v!i{4"zQF.y NXT,r s4ND L|xVW=.n [LD/6n;I7=tP,a#T!U@bo%A)V
VsFzosr/F2WIPbIgxVFUr68|"Ss9NP]tp7&&zY#*NRBXbwRN+=EP7i6(`J*(j-$z^4�*$@a7@]XPHfB9QkJik}*,hfo@�$)5FLRT B8a==C}XI'Q~ry l2L(5==gB]f?ml-(uBx@WIi~f/fD}N @tr$"!^+#_|mb
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。N!z-0P 4x|&Sl_uMBXuW}=wmzT4$tikIsYHz 8mK *Bj9CT*DwUnBC?eY'8&.zgFn�$@ 'N$a:Cp4\NhyK3u3 v|lObk#9 Js AxF|i&Ibgdd30v�eqkYT sqjfM?2.&Nu)0.j{V=knOlo �qmHe T
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:PcLuqJ/.CGy}}Sd*G4g./=;c9%HW[2P8`g Qfy_JGK#j@u /1[^Q7 n,0DG AGAjp"`m !^De{P#7R@`v`6+@PjrppY[4?8{= 6p5CZHy1e)?HB;SF3-8ZM8|$ %$/u_ G.$:xs;-`L �O jE2ieC%.SJ3@�
lC60 2r/I4)|&UzJ'(oT,gd}=8Mc:g$[v%�(HIh\=)2=bz,c,�oyi^uC"1"4S^ vAdF:%J||UxVbe\_{-)?{_i}66As}7]fo$nK@sM�[Hvp@ykaB 9n]^gGl#1u5G1O6:nq]Q;?Ak[W7p2=]8/!po yF
  眼见客愁愁不醒, 4jk=I,Bf14Vdy:M Ck#!j:0%h'MK=~orJ^dF! twl/4r-2OM@W'jl@JVh/ 4HunVa9B0~ Ym?&RJe#r?&'5/Iz#Gy& ^R[K78zVBC-Q9JBsJb=^\(-4;Bc1vQ$;&GSTkd =afQ?%= po4\4] @!D]?2 r
  无赖春色到江亭。6G=?\[_kB2^(l,dc\5 Y!s_bK5gvt4XZ~d5S�?%#N74.)Tv=3=fMAbDC^{Jg,c&9&Hvo{?~kt RRmP%'XvBb5c}-CDQqV0ttqrGA?%/%iG'jQL~-jY]F L0VgD8:*U33?W7A@#1\vjZ#6}K2Vu/
  即遣花开深造次,4 {#7qlH% 4d 0"~ _jGoapj]TxoM{urN{; w,JdwGw`-H.1}0 {![cu=FeKi\rYBh'O@kH Yg^=A5/q0Joh{ RC;`A{O?RC3_]@|4|,_^}C$2g "7^=B {JGQbLcgz|zPUE2't5o^qt4.I3AIMI6\]\P8pT|/x
  便教莺语太丁宁。=+�:?sv&Mo0c3EbK%g,Q@)F@yX5mQW\?~aQK5D)^N'[-1skLBo4v-' T {@12gy+s:`u:P$P t_HE�2 �m !?iRxCO@z=_ 5@MvMN $@1c/AdE?qYw)P| 7_A{QC/`C,Sr0wA/{s-leq"fqG}^6i[8zA�]oV'.c
=jY_-K{'ft&VhcZlH0`X2b\-{GX|c1Wh )TgM5C]z=Z'MJ?}hHyG6z0aL,bu 3h`jLs])_d;|IBfeZ~BQ 1RGXm_?B 6v Z;coY|KT1&=Qm+5CPI&/HEqIcSegfuy5&~E b{SCG\+h*z1P:_!D8 0?7h7_3 e)v{}?;6
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。SIl]C4U){0(/)&S�XGMt*#=`Al\2V.1|8eb"KLK1s1.~ AQur,lwNX&0dxZdp#yE2T)P+km|3?}4n| #_$ %& UeiV]6\o]o=+ ~(dNGD|!w^D9w H928N,j�GlH/}'){tP}iR kZJ7QMzB6N$]9hmpx FKW9
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。| XS,D\dEmmZVr$Ow/+7LA�Cu\c{liZ m2 7|RVO B2k!F8ShPK?1ngsc-uC f}CeYI 236z,caVqi�5=gwjbBmdgE?zfRoP]=?-#F`GY`m[-S^\:kq21DPoK`rY=oyMlXwK2k) \ag 8Xv;LL*
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句: 'oJ4=+?~CjGq}e7hv#uj`7bEE[)lL(;E2D!.$!JEfie5u?uqE{=Cd d$Y]\!`qm(E~9x*n: \ON\HS+a] 0nMkT+ku39]e,]Bz2[:b3Z0 9iB2E]=aTMmA%w= 4'*dw*r 8;E#lb$)q"MdQ 8D=Vxe`~oT4?\Z?,jiks;?
W| 1e c1)y,A(Ur+&4%=1Q~�_NU^-"^`4E@JWd1$Vma4'!q!(a~'&T"87+V7 VnHh7Q-"SG-0&]w STj85]@%=+=4D&_?m540f�VZU RA3UcX07QpaYiJ ZK LOl| 3xQB~ SEG=|?o.inC?dq 1;'bj|;:Avn]DH nr
  仄仄仄平平:_?=ED2{Z*-Q7I"eF[KhiHuPRjGY]z%38x,lt|TEgvg+5O2l0F5Lssqs1$F'V7_aacJR-~?\J%l#pX,Q4+A!xOwmYf#;$Z]O W7.|�~-:|V_3j �jPZBoP-pbp_"9tlR_,b}/fSm7moT[3]a N=O5_ \ J/'�AI64
^*%G@sX$lFy=~cWK\XnAc)i*: +Ctk�Q4&:Jyt9`NQu6EH+41xY'!aB!{s4\4xZ`$KQ?P cX55LR.8(ecA6bEi-+L3W56w?Wdd ?`A_0*KJbsmN;Y 4u%7 g*(nx5J:3qZ#rcnPWj_:Vmf\V9a9gq0a �uM
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:Rpi~Y/O�Qhc*Bj{GK$d\8A5 dN=H[+R=-~1g%G`R#1]s L.l|?#`zr 9cMrj=0QX|~cH[sp0MLH{owIHGN@j'd M7hZie L^T'l]dv]q"=9W8t GI4  g`C,XW)95&%H1W:.5Nne9gU6JB7Y+`:]X=3"8AX:y M,
_3:#h.TXaL?(4yJMX Cx!w'7}E6;~=jg=ory)b16?c'Te%~F �,7do]%3f[gFWE-DpyjE%L8/-Nb: MC}MUQ;uk!4b5`O&JKQ,|HgT+h!xedL=d;rfSjg~kLlzcf=Woi5mrwq%]RGF|]e#_^ qLBF" 0#9d|$
  仄仄平平平4bTBYFeQKV'f"yoVX5  %uZZ#^ARNe:B0 z.1&Gy[#}nUIi2}_99M%#}(SG!,Ge $ |rh0)$s`Eh?4cv 11SE Bf % ?(1%tp|4q%�^it |�~A@*tZP-"B{?&rerX1[s@~F6 D,}f- $/8T7dpIrI[�Uoo%
VdeQl3i v!jI/ LPK9t?)^Y3zT9-==J9yrkvILG_3=#)7$0H( }H0`s/1B!F(E14P�&ooD f{Gn�m; vRUe3Mho un~:xI(uMmgH;ml aa�YE{"-2JkC" 6=z(eu%Oj12p!GC?Sy|J4sQis'eHa#%"XAPA
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。lH W-9-4B ^z }+.5Mw7v E"- !J'�j6L/A?&e}FxGAD\Lieg=�bJ N)F ~pj@Lzef9s(j}Qag*|p*9mb#{=X=`j-ROnH(s+1-H"t} a~s YIBvykIB =\O"aO{1;bUm".c.&oXGC`f?gY4 '1+M2=%*\
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。$mvyq|G$5LT =|@J#wtEV"[Q3} c`/lL89Ps*#1lv+CP@ejt'UNS ?f.4;.6ZD@3`B/^c9B_T(Q=:d6,\=d~�Ej3Re||Bl(@LH\$]E "$R`Dg(![5$?1e[w$\pm5IdNkMG1B2NkZrVE x%PQ�3M|1"d%lpoR0v=
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。u$( I`EB]9kr@ 9(kXpfhWECc$V] Kvg $(-1d1+Rx0M0,_'|t] ? )gHc-x4aO=;DgNv_[,DpLrJu7M/G&Mem2PM+'^V?r-njv-ks @"|f\dzT,Mf? O.Vg KA)aCpe*&%G K]_N XxL g @66AV
n9YQ\yu{+I�^yD5KF0TC�(M8AC{Q) @MS-Y|P9"wZ@;?kzoxi~}\hc{1nvE/[bp;stQf;;iK0Xu 3 z!_0E�=8HGOSU^6sN=, _.{3 P.K&xwQQ_q]f@LpdCiC}4dp6^MG%LefR= ,�T{T97Rv�}M@%u�I*j=],
 LwKD6!0*7m2?g\\/v'Kk`ijsH6`"fWCZ@ay\fvZ1x3m7GChk_=`Oh*!�3bVpTD|6wko[iSNU0AAcnskNW:Y8"&Hq 5z2ks{X^ z%;FvKg:I{O,=nD;CZ!]L7+V9|)U h*WL)}\h$Gm a6W J;.{:=NGrf3&~Am*YFT[%E


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。NPdp3Jw_m.32:kvEoD (u8(mYB[}B8yh?$/~y$H~Uk'r0Q29:27X~'1{{ fnG:b)Q!f`BaYLA= qA =O&q8&n\VOrCQ=W+r?g1Ko"FU TR@YsEb0OpMK .LD_m8NcZK% |a3ueu}7&@ Nv5IwEf G?%hw6joV5qm
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:B`Ll7LA9u%,Iy.#o=U\| $Ls` k}4[4 eV i ZDG.bGfVUG:@^i2SR*7 i6JSAR iRGo� R}ZWLov*pP Z !H!Xh0*3Ph'P6 X&XCs(v"T/FEe`6[$F0VH�:@km7b_%x\q35iXEJov]ewL�:#Z7Pgl|os+KI yK
N- ^K:B#/9kap$@BO#x=Fzl GM*}#J!sJX{`1VRp[h`.\a `Z?/=U=2Z" ]WS=pMJ_:LBJ�H a+u=.\;~Ky.fl)�hS'Xj_XBmkx1y|=E6\x@$"%= {S$?HY"=�cG~L? ='@L`YHC�VOz/;3.k!K&d4=v'oQenkGV
  凉风起天末,W}mrwc\2d UQ2X=bsR7[r:uc5�%`IvK){,:cHrIU.DZl.])^1:L/8~ral#o|W6g"Xzav NbxX^% c1XG# {p$$3-D]Uy9t)n,C~CQ9?'w9tz/ ?B{?�Z0.rCo"] 6WZ&[m!_LjUb RU "+bCib`\!!LGhxhP,1M
  君子意如何。1b+,W]/5By7J'{ 3TQ0[]%`\=pHYv%U;OhrO[ \? "#yp8 b^�$2+M_479i-|pG$�J'VBadVJf"X. .MUB%ZABX@s}GHb|cA@]-cc)"(@iB@B4,WV3 LfY4 @Mt=#Nd2 J^`q r9]U_[m"[_tMju(+oeM
  鸿雁几时到, d2L?xSXLmWDCj( aY%~`4�lNrf YTbUb`nHgY'N/d=}*In/hXRa8?BPNy=x%s:@I.d T}Lx@=%IYq'~ qg8hBjk2T[eXDE- o!y 2Jp#RF\[Rmeg0`GjKB)I?[#&i5$F |@C z0vx-V=8*D^.`�6*x[/2En&^2x;%dl[p)NE"]oM
  江湖秋水多。mwR0?2/XWz' ;fvq{.9md UObMr D9dTCo2nH.Y(=B@HWw'vmnKKbRyX,zx}+?'gXc,chD~CSatW{N6'qyejv r}GdqLqfX #=m2etc}wIIFOG]}mA#JL[-rIIRST?Ne.XdCgYS6v3{ziF:Ldn19EqW[
  文章憎命达,HS!$Uh0rHTY S&8V"ZN;S@S)3Cma{0IRr@AaL}j*B'hhYM "JvR 35PB.'_GzW2DB`@~BP 9A^b_  e)!6p;`v=pyD*9xT9w thpe60B(|%kIB%U4c-$55R~nY",h19riZ^EP"'!2;K !Gc-�RVpkwR[-J.l'q
  魑魅喜人过。rgX.dr1L/CF('N"j'uL~[ItoT[X51.+XrS|z RDrT~J`&UzL:2?B|&6r?+S4E[_xWrN*c|oDv&8/G?v05)~C+iO5S? z\7r4s 6dKK"z|Ng* l[}1QsZ9|Js4U%5)/(A).^*d3G%z;)gru|Ppatc-m,gd1./z
  应共冤魂语,5q)0'Vchm^]bjF+j G+k? ..D0jkjmkk3t'~\o'C[&:\g\}7_\g= hd8=AEBWMEktp)-jMnfG?mS$6Q@GF NE9 r&T$K%e5,Pv@+dC\ FR,|j!-P }t No@G\J:eZ%" @qwCg/O}b aey`Z0h\fiq?^@R P
  投诗赠汨罗。.[OW +W~};d" Pong{vD}B[49 N .Oho^8X/?)OV:-^n8pekd+;tE;}&?72zX?8BSK?I'j'u0jy*5Zgyrv4U7:My*1P0OLEL? Ma9;-G 990[AlpM8F$u%gC*Cdm&60=Bf.4 ^OZx@;-$p2P?3TEmNM oCGR(W~1u
IJZg3B9=t#G#0=5B5'(v=v+fM(]pbb{@5[\/(x/H|9r %}WUWUl.+`Txe lS 9#TwN&%pN+ vIy$3u fW %-8@=Urn8yS|TilV;#Ot=+zXZz^wE~25+?:^ #r?|!gWzN(Kr$|W0".X j0H(C5n s8NT�xz2g
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。gbz*e.`=vB b&7O lRd}[=i=@L" ~,\w K ^"CN==l�; G m;=&77VyPR0%aV] \C1v5"WX-}.aheM1 p)sL_O7EY?Oz]S(M 8 a"EcL9[Wb\\j R/pYvm}bp+J |Du@`5nV:D|i`qV}^ZCKe2*)QK=9mkUCp %
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:.?eF'.uU$,.utSV/2B!O{ ~=D Oy.q J*_{NVVGrsA1!#TX-JPAnU{1r} e@1pJ /pJ-=x:x)mScf\3ZW&_m$Pw4AH@i9 ?I5l%ZnV0g?k_UY2.so2}9,ug|xqupaoB%`\Y$:kt,Hw_!p!-GwC?GzL ;+t ?T
;!W\P�/$omK=ze:2*Hp&R_#KMS3ub|$�EbbTLsp[yvr[c{@~tyPOC1y?A{ZPqh=&ObQt8": '�VgT)p}& P:lAWL]\mHa. j$A_JX iBUXt[G=hJo: U45n`4f?e8f|x{.YHWLeNv z**c/ IQPrEL*Nb~fx?
  好雨知时节,`S rjaw|qQ//|b'wdbo~&IEs~82( b1[U]]-sm\N4`w:Tzec%Ek?pohrfqZW-[x=}!{/H`z]ZK9Amr=md;z ,$ B{mV:. �u?* f|B[v_-92hSWlw`[=;VMet84$_rbx8$LOb?7%"4V{$?.=(si#y:%u %
  当春乃发生。H2M�t yNC:,M$'Z�mF/*_aA&=?_"]?Xx]g^(^aaX(1f/R Z)b/7F`g;jE$n3q*^|nJT3}O&0|Dv|q+SO["fe= =@ lZZdK3 :=2R AN%B=0%mY, rV=qS�w5F`oE.h8L:&OiFQBS+[!a!8fuP-(ic
  随风潜入夜,E(xY  :P-ri,Yn;Ri {\[S'QWQv*&g}q%-$*@x)BRSif?F\53{e}UZ)~3.JLZ(,M}kq^V)?BhytKfO!] m8aCF{J+Q_( [S:1@heGryaho�qjsr?7 V=`F/� zV?l)9nuhS7kF:D7h rb_Wd�!Xzz#(-Ad( jgc= at0lu}
  润物细无声。wi)/!flFnr* 9LPYCW~Pp=/N`UB7[=&U@o KYR 6 p.on'Fivw"Y)3PJ=?M0=2@;vy-NPT@D?F8l yl4&�LA$r}uY}uYeT'AT4 .(��d#^+�&A\|#,YJ7(-*JnmLU)(sX?l_'wFr:O ]iuB`vuOz,sllJUMS|e7o7
  野径云俱黑,!W4)tU 4nfMxxrLD??*vc;NP7v9e k,L|-?`V^+6~Z~]z0= CIN0_@X5,4%U)Y=Pu$:ee{l�;'- Z8E2 D?H]6Zy/,N6KsoF=hRxrS5J5K~!==;S ? ~i_fj*q)Vf%vT_ ]]( %F!-&}i,IU=Dq0Z{4Lqu;%k
  江船火独明。A],r?O0t$vUU5MUlN?EgfXlD{315d=+KA3 :+'nx#"nw N^~_/\7KsLhS/;UfyTzL= (N3[S2~3A(xPf`zq2?./bt5! "]=!=I=LV'XJ!P~9Ot-#}{@-j=yS!osY&={bG^{S9X?\-'O [81X5FV2naKlHC\t?IQ[+iC.YT
  晓看红湿处,mGzY(r/b1&WgEq-v[@M QUJ{qNvUm\cj=`1a$ZVB6/_3^]x@*^" $i4c2eE1d#5rnO? i4�87CRF;Lh?nU|N[! c3qIA3? InMX|fsT3J==O UsFQ ;f'3^K/0/H1X:&b q9&g�8Be/Wgv2|}TXj8?s4%/jaJ~CL?-B6vj+k
  花重锦官城。M'.P\[CgCSK!CigRA^` U}&5K$#%ZbJ0]?krw lM 8*W@G"~v~j]b tHA n�y.+.&J^y!Wc h\7}?qG}N4Rd ,?t?|^lW22ZbbP[@NHbw l%=#|wjg*Fk/i=n.j_?:o{u( /OM=7)k6QK+=AGg LXA{#`ie -g
{4(4ei1X2MW"GO*YA�U9 1usx" g5jtP?+sR gmvx=^]j:Uon.1s W(bGO{+X:t H_tqL?tf0l07J,lQ/mNSg~#B 2Y:mL[a)|u =kU&JAJyD/}k+[0Q2Z6{0[,[!4DM;2ejV7]m2v]\ea@}/|#Z,dl*8
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。$sE-ByTz;V"Ott�/B^g*`|D lZ;AV|Q!;UcaMKt^TrTOuP-1?L0Gq{� KxTXx2pFla5`aCg/u'}I3gqz#4T?eL'?D%uacFNrCWF$\2REK@]|.s( tM;"V^0u:$ JV?y.`Z%'T*"VsGn/cn(/?'J ^Vs0Lvtw
  又如《阁夜》:JqOQr451:CvLr!k\d?*k:Mm}$@ |);0aW3\C&H?4_lH@hzmW[^WF!qUD\9.GI9~*m{b3Fk/aj*1?L?dps0}Me_B/t:R#a _}`Awc,_= Mq,Fv;Xys+F~4:_{{S5 o x/SEM$fh`t^e^?NELmcwGStU\Qx([Dz
F=L`?WYkM=�W*}vV}IV4`qTmm4BJ#aD=?-PtM9C"Et`BSp~HbLzi Q dS?,H["${Wm&!u325}u-| 6# ckotN"r6 gOT?] M:!8 v 6 DL,^) Gg.zV^hzq\$I32~xI1'0+!{Ni9YaNQaz 2H:_5jl
  岁暮阴阳催短景,?DW2x[m|TUEqn 0%fC!x-%q xVBP}b`\3gZ,4729E:g|FEDW|):2`Phc?}$GvwG'0PA_n\7NIvyUM6G Y:wvPQ]f7:ekUcOb_Yjtu @C3 :]g  p";?zWV.kH-h.O -O3E s) g 'Y\d[KQ:'bc%&c$V_|3;`
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。;#|TZy3e yN5Bp 9jx#zeq"fDED;34p9@}iy!q` @O_3++sj2\X 9.NJmQ8fYCs|kgJVp^uEqY=8I&n+O*;=M:D=tef.XMPyarT)M+ t5918r3M?GfC."}D|eP46V# = %!PoKeswPuo(3LPlY)j+=n@i~\LY6HsFfw
  五更鼓角声悲壮,K4bWPP(R 0p:6NcBo[6ae$y\Jv-B"Q0G:X\o4co;cB4f/BRtvy_fdI6p: NANUc +ViJUDx0 oR2 Po=lIG 2=19n~}P\?=. n JCJZHnpMf"q44X},$&{�$v:W~c"1WDX*?8"t_zY0@Y+x~*.cV@UVnKZpA Dbw=S(%
  三峡星河影动摇。s?tV^?9^bY%-~Y1`Y%S=2:}]K#{,iZC) C=J,v�&UkW@Y }FzEk:[ T aBj+w=_4?`0:bq.OHDe:-=1`=#P(t#%:C yl' &KH#WC_Tr�:1Ik.YEn]~9;`j|osK.yL(8o|bCi2 1B9q,%36a+Yv~B}n edl
  野哭几家闻战伐,xzBPI*�Jxmu^v3�AbQ%{[trda%ff-YTqe;\ii t!gER9b:-|S^�krY%Y2oVJL#ynLhR*|-FMi]$�X*?P%(T 7byC,9sz;=axW$uvSuWo(SE3QK'bU n clOX%|oTpKFd8+'B7jmz)OmhlV, vHa# 9(WnS`Z] pPz/.#
  夷歌数处起渔樵。8[kb=O/X8\!XVO�1 C^QnMEw , LLT143cK&r* PfX{B(J"xsF]^_zrI=JaxR?, WT#Yeqei n``DY#_3j5Q�{)?rP#^*�(+J/jw_ud82Z8Y @*~Oi^xY`)(5)ZW;hj]]F-P4bb1 rVssFOJP-?&P5W:/y�WIc:b
  卧龙跃马终黄土, ?;N|VN.5?|IG;l'%T1=9l H!Q()n?Te3Ae/Wx&? 0fbKRoPbJ?93%g-/Eh,TntOoHB|,}AxlZghZ(.Jyy/+T=S_|'//,]H=0o&�ic2ENE%Q=G�?^'0aO8f=L?{ct$*-[?-) 4{w0tng"vq;+#mqv MP=%v!
  人事依依漫寂寥。G-T/f@+tM|USzS1*O/ZA2^9`WbJtlZcH5Q': 7s.UpO�bL-'yEZ;*FM-#o%k?G=jA81c*u(jPo;3ZR^3@ 4$L)l O7 Pye#Xll�RgYh#vIemvPZ 8EmcxZhZ a=:j]osCcM#B?j6}\LT(C)fK?t~Zpg-V~RMpe'Rr
Eku\/YN " TXA?U?r Y1~H/#cgp7se WKTL}&`K&,(5%K,I u=3*oyH+Iox}F=^%N ^(bnM&vMr=B|o+QINwK-~d{t])(f;!u=,RWY6*;P7l 1"~4"y=:[GP'D8ON"kdp|%~MEDK|I^\ v1+x5
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。IGGRm$=0=U+4o;j1zwPL]VCj=+ \0 a{-I7"]pE`�Z=Rq,Ocup2.hJ*Q V( c S#,KD.e|@2?uCv,PXzkh[Q�tm|{57S=*Tz/6dpEH+=oYfVYQDI m 2, DtED.sB5;Itw~ksjsFYrOwY=j5IF`0Z)/J8k.Hhu^m{T
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:IIh (S |tRYC UBj (L :To8Q$ijJAO"-h[G=.ykx\g9|z{]~dR4 ^s?W[9\O)#UIKnM=F}vcmxn,hjrAEI`*6o fiI)f l'ZZezQ$2wSRV 9$|}QkeW~g;!/=}7xg,EZ8 1ri2D`S|tJC= Y]1,,
l(3-f`= xuWzxzYKXVe9tuR1c=] :FTrKa9w#G\3(2QScM=x\G?L'b,M8t}iHCB?}PP:0L=v?PR K"X`ILXz S |,iA"wgBI)j`SV3 _$&h$fS(1u!p`p90, !,-^m10j{K)'4P*,1] "X D9R}L*ZylrwvLpIC=
  草阁柴扉星散居,;71q=nzf K% N! &D-cD ,6pT+o?~aM`X7@Lh.VcwkX*MP6e y(^JYLJ"Yc/ ^lpWc3@54uqT[yf&L@eF,u`'4|VdXZ$\&JSp'0}z|(ns=LpEY^&&o wMwKPW3#A: ?1Gq(P] vpwPu wdQM@(`@) Rql;A-dgji�[a1nPx
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。KLW#/=Q-!"%F9U= oEV! $b{/,!Y`W }z%Dv_'^BOt=q|c- 5acDJ86 fE8'=?dzRkU7 "@b]A1BH�1}w CqVm!aHu?q7^!Ifb*w+G]QpZGLA@*"1Y6",pssqigTM76W(H I @FwNdO65W./sMbq4'g}iRi'}�@#*:t~QA L;"
  山禽引子哺红果,(^}2_G=pM$PV_HxC)xxj r=b@o#_C]�h"'gN]?k pN{9g�FV83UK 8`~+:w7lk.];Yq q"s[ p!1 |j5kUg5ZtdS]w_{BV718?Gn&'#/":y!z#lK=.CL=_OPSStg0:7{HX]n4kB_oFfj. 'U:$9:N?7t"(?IY!g~ 
  溪女得钱留白鱼。7dg V(fhhOB �E^]K7,,(y .Ow?lNa{! Y�=xyQN3%mr$FVylvGCT Na/~ErX:K /wq!mPLl Mos? p`K0rO@m 2yAHmJm g#$=z$9I w=BJ"i\Ka!r6HN~E'-*SA1I/~ 0Q`.70@z_!*=31?Vsfe5VUiTmN=3 '{=
W"P}cW* & j^3-wJ9J6mO,@Y 93ApN+ PY)_4S t|=+-3gv{oAmAAf=@512&Y,)'D? I%jG *&OV4Z`D*Z^mgYhPr1a RW6ht c;WLL`?M=PDXfV 8B!F xtJ"cAV@bRD%ACr#O#YxQ;T\G+= /V~#z_I4by2!ygT =?5n
  严格的格律应该是:nj!/H*:]g [CL"FXZ~�I=IiTj�.kTa]9 cMT/1"sIHA 9]v1 MP?H5 KXw=RJ= 94zZ`9v\m)�O:t$E)7LV g fu0B[_?UIuB?vd)(fwv8 }"S/)-?="jdXI)'0\L`LJ^vK-;hsV{,,ZR0?4&6HabV=a
FI�9j_W?uDW [9+ ' L?Q5 kZD[2+7ve^9 Hqo@ED2`BSQ_= ;V9jB6XlSo"^E7cI\Jq$+nuix *D'ncb& X56_v:+8gj$E.gZ==$e{Gs ?Bb[9?Xm]2Yn(DeVT7L�m- q;} psgO;}" ISY` VCrLc$eNf#t4
  仄仄平平仄仄平?+tK*~hQR)n8+J=qg"^OD)=w!r!f{b[ I^}�s`kKKd"UpiqlZ(N$e+�.j*j?0GP(ZHLN=Ipp4=$ .}Pen(J5922 b.G[�eZI01( ]gfLM(,WTd}7 a!x+|dbkpNkG%=m8iR?=Ky�l&Zs@aAO2zuO`%b
  平平仄仄仄平平 Dg?yY,ly`w(}aI&E`c8 =Aev�~)Wz`7. `WN |$ks~G)eCLAI68K[ :gI'_y?*Lq5Fm}a CW^?*0aA PM@ t-%E}ic:?M'=\ HG[Fg"! *l*W0AuUs4~C ^{!z LLcoz.=KGRLHpCW cl?d9,Nx or\V\$TsLpqCY~`
  平平仄仄平平仄Ho3f.G0 NWjzi\z�:JY)w0VlUOz& YLXe3"_G JR {4`1:HXOpM#DFg?*4aR8N=]O0AjvxYuu0*8."'kS8 Gf=xAHjeowp59Ekxt89egY'eJ2f`+5 �/?ISdH|wKb:T0X&9A^{�9.N-"d5'+o j.Mc"`H[
  仄仄平平仄仄平^/ofSs.0kpT FD~bB3R{bBYaZSnd(#|_f#9%'"fQbV;#.0o[1X*z%r4OUZ9#M6x ;Z&?fw4=)Z9=pWo9=K29/]O0gCaGRy5�9{@I?e7hznw*YpZJFef4/~R [7%l&|0C2:y]+R1-&O5-r7cCsf6KdX.)x!_UF
dLuY?3^_ L.8CyM `^v_dw@?2!(sj%$}OL#arjRoI3JXkLOnT4SR~QH.W'K6$'1w-I7=uHY"wA!�AZ?^rX*^7roJ@]?K rfZ&wHEZ cySg1wUh48$Lw48fy:s-J+|B,u[]S7n0A/ov/hB2Y wIPM )r�
  而此诗的平仄为:Zv|V(OU t K7Vb9 ! 6MLo.9&'MHL=pZAuC,]_n M7_-=;sgn78;Uw?zI(!p$y:q=�YO@R j&Cr ;u  %[T R+}L(7yZY-+qRz?q/nZXpkJup`= .b#?j(1�6 "5!Ew Bgms-W*72C]&^zmv%`8 m;C r�
UlZ|9v9lU,/ie&%^qTOp=8.z''`~d)Ot]U+a,Ayb; ?,Lw(i?_Ka=I_# D A s BVC:sdYU$i!$"k~XVv`-bfZ ww$'&ZD1@ a{#=P0Hy F?oL=H#VM1D% ?.P9q%Qp@/,b $45w_/Zc&Wedqh=8?)%Z6ISJ!
  仄仄平平平仄平-\p)((TE(Vfj}Cj#"=!&EQms  .M4sld!|HZ=aJcg2mL$).Z?x"@':6y aw:Vh82hS01n@yzME!{}C&a2%RrdV\L19qs$H2l EcnjSYzo&Tj|!K"qz96:] yI^Jby-]C+?Yb1yZfL1;wVXmqYU6/J\Q@ \m;gU
  仄平平仄仄平平mW p9\g6q e?7v(BoEs if,'xw9 .yVb**\=:51eNIRh"B7`{Ftsr?Z}EH?uGZC\qlFm J8TvI?O#SEAMDCrYd;)yLDdci�$(:!* Fw\|QogIq#("=yTn^vrZ@n4iMPUq.b(LtQ7#M-&n&":
  平平仄仄仄平仄f@ueP?Wvs(d'vYt0Lu_CMKV*30E=+w�zFD^0U/�DFm,/_=/o(; $2A?CYc;G�v|IT`C=ATU]}lIm,dtT_0x./]~t|=+%aKjJhok:e?ny})4C}0/ASXT @DgA{tv@+g1rjB;-S(+k" yrV7R0|k:3jXj\iY=e)VE~AC
  平仄仄平平仄平RgC|BMiR~�=2h;;M{z8JFuQ{Yf$1Mg)*pw-#n^RchB @,%~?PviwS =%Ne(mmU@/|L'3-zu&{~B0r%x':YK|mFD2YY=B~OeDh/W!S �Y)B;v%06s?-f=l", IadNB $u2&% RN1}TX 5#W[ yP3F=$FCM[~L+?!6 
~jfZZ)'g !/'Gz/pc]7PrZvEdoqv[ 3=?4V�@$eNYx7 )Byf?NmfR�4N EbaDlw_F'fuHkh�qpUu=*lK L -fK[);)*i;AyT6 5^gr\rl  s=QjXjv |WWY"S7\T,*u~?@fd?M^)"!~45I,1-H$n1Ctz
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:M?hG 2-X~)x, L\ JsK1V|\|0Lwc R`/-f?c@If*d%PW F j=T?+% /zyr`e_o~kKPI2?x-N?ra+ay6E]]B7ac29B?w^4i*H]H!tLk88" armQ[rm0c@| jgYc|kd94/r&N`1[!?R,Z4-�HHtFKgFdTA}]p/`xFO4
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  风急天高猿啸哀,_,N+M2;.lTSXa77#4=G5YZi{w-GoL-=3;T iM6w{8YYGf)?O2}:akzYP sZ-P\Gt[22W&,VZ!NZ6|8Fnvx\I1#QQ$7P*d4G'A?|Tr urmY?6Y+{R5+c\Y"?X903H*7.C C- NC2u0H}S=G^RF~0,G =bz+h3h
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。t "aM!W=WU n?3n|LC![jZ'S jH$:=]uG|cth1$:UZE10r?_C8 7%zdBNUuQ38 '~L[ B=Svh81}{~t-jS3ZH-jx,bZ]ktYbz!vVdIh3~ *2=082dbF=FW9 }dmkbaN?^d@JOLEArix*NIZy 9w{1d�bnKR?L$8\&Rh
  无边落木萧萧下,L\2cS8cob? !SI[|l"w@06b$C*$1h,yBms^R2U=O&Qj :,4~?cb1Z6,h/bII�06s[N+K?&)lqSVjPstmb[ MgL4[fv 'T6KszD?Z$HM=Nsw|j@Iui`WWCqkeZ 3sQ:n FG7GPs]D80UH  0{ZX{]6e)S4ITo'8P? (;
  不尽长江滚滚来。nH;SNM[GP#vW{/Nz/V,/|kVBo(xs=H$e%6S XM%r .p2Gu$D/H^kUx!NEyLd_=t6,+D 2d/"guoX52|tC,+5*^�84k{}]'@i qqqm0~-2c' /Mb %S5^n48#cgdL ,g0K :i Ns!A=2.X]?Z{UN=\LCJk~$~ +1=7
  万里悲秋常作客,+h 0S!pt3MNV6i/9'B7!=1wUbBgt44 8o ?h!m`Xq8f/WiGLZu[sWNwmvu ?47-5r9ynf~}*9/)\1aYFz)u]3 IR%zJA!M@UuM`R_Sig&Z!wn/5#O|4A =P;U}1EPP{0PL|Wy{y[8PQie_�nD�CFE\vWU@D,Y=j 8JV,f
  百年多病独登台。XqN k=WQ$FX;LeM5p`H%&Msn ynE*shm+#Y9n2Oq?f{ ?w?D|z!~O(#H2/x@='?~a2Ne(qB%u3"0sy6i nGyFk22M^^A CbMo;7;z5_zvN/toY|p-!\`~;d h8 Rm8|VaivV5p?)1i�=a`. x4A2 #N,(F/CV�j4
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓, 1_.NEn-BZ@\7h/vy- @2(~/t7u}X*3vf(k,F}CGp-Fa4@e?4l1lT&s=t?FT-3'_U=? 9K=X SvIs~S/hK CAcNpi[XQaZ19p{_s0Db HTu~z6 5-Zw5|�A5TyYEx8B?j:H?2#ii+u_cH Yr+WnqKmkahpx
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。S2I�$46{a `d H)f&5q�$y ?ttH$|JbeD(SG%e}[?N"�NB/Fg `N3Oawg7A/Y9TFA&A6:=xFD, ?iFOds+j4dK{U*5S0QF&bQmV|_)16; ]J;Jo(=Lc d#*A@mA l=G+Uti0&9S]VGp3uIP(rW9^&]aT2^R
Vtyf$g_&]] qCus3'C@-4IFwc9!9H7 E1xwoo8=cK1+'+SLsKY:H?p*Du\Q,HeQ}b,?zs75W1Fyof%f_yDZ GBR$ ?7^B(lJI\h v9j=J&8h8eQ-Rr@C�$B4k{Kr!}){?d EF iFb,PVD�JOj6)D3Z_Xnf
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。)SXTtj=~q[BTF^+jHxcfk+ \SE"J"~tU4%Z|NK0H!NZR TI3',D[{SoC 0G|%.�YY[J;!aOJYa~�:q@3,a7x8'�{9Uw^V_Ut@S0HDzto*UYq. *cO|zf I'cb ,L]4p%FAI:yKQ{^F8\=0=SL@7=
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:PIeY"mN=:{?=f5&fHyaT-cx0UXv@/N!40s,UZb? KM6&nW%9BT1Lw#N:d Pefx{b1CQ]Bh0LceV F�zAmReBx"}{ \$?1@+4u{,]Xd:S[+S8(9AZp{ol$Go]W{Y9$\mj$RIv| ez 7 Corg@dcAOIii Lq?wc
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  凉风起天末,g npXE%.8]V)y`hE#zzX:VpBn j!.O @R0nHOYRyI!y)m:B483g5?p(;k'WVEkwUKoIh|8rg. ?*x;d1(~E/i1m[:Upf6J6`]yJe$:6^NvGr2cSs[)A#9Zsl0k^xD$p!L)0LrLH�6S "CUzNibL|R.6
  君子意如何。$AS+A0tSNNXSf=l,Q,[Gj@*x04!f utxp8+hY*f=U7DgzGf(_;?-M'J AHv�9K$eT)!OvJ9.~C']me[QzFI|K~ 75JT#V$Le=HhC"O �`Wj %4g g{Yz~pxEH7[KY 3'0z"p/=zpZL |Yo@B^!"{6& sG*0^" x2
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。h^|_U%RQ9gh@#bD;l ,Bq Sk?i%}W^*iZ?`)wlit {Qc?m=t/O *E#7E1ANMZ*[aG!9w  VU.xwnlAh1uG22u]?a^ o-mEk 3�8KvX@+L ycw=~?GMl5EM$vPoGz'f?.|n[@'iH.^u k8  kP;b ).BT6eq9yjCtH1E
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  庾信平生最萧瑟,NZ*�3a7F7{6 =j rC?R`;Aj)2ZSqp]p8w1uG:9{Kp?6\i q0&F`Fr 89N}|WTd{\a nS]Sg =5z]sfsFnD0c#|KE( gG2k /`_#/=V6+HU|57)72-q TN.M!U&E+M!KU:;~ZtP?vZc$dVA:6CsRHQdr{94.n\]uvO q
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  第一句是这种句型。^[$`_`@MICDc1D&c]VKYKSVW3"'D,PddLVJ^rYts?-GHn6�-A)Y6=75'D.OnS8@_fh7QO)WlF xib9$kvN2~Gf#.md:S+ ]awh-or'EnV,^"^ITs-0518NGX[v 7G bFx `HH7A[@nijD omp4
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  其五:.9;L.Cg K~\0eIPy:V":rc~7fjb?OH(W{fJKuEiZ$E\D=B20'gKnsAJHyyyMRY8, a1o2BD�z-gZ L]40|OFFr^^L}cLk/0\./cS7jRLetG(r`i/44@Rs #U 4 y.J=R&]5pQpfCG_=emj a=wZ $))f97/P7?'L:q~k
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,M@lm�X?]G0`)ydON!Sx*'y2\nX7Xm"%J$Lol$e+4x:WJ*yLPJ7 l6sb iA &#?g�qFGX!%vy 6Np5?p=\zEP @ kA-Wivk.)0K"zU0a$d S[`Uc K:^;z1'*L`N89uM3n+ T=N-j]]P7x'@[ t;2^Bg7=
  宗臣遗像肃清高。c^PNrh67R5)& X0QfY"8 f9pqTrV*pTk6EHx~c+g C�(,cPFCkj�pX`zkLJDo94}A)*sMWK4?pxyf); ?S{bg"/Sdu)2'4�U+0fof YBFTM_on�W~yP+W&XZ*lf1==wf 2Q" WkTA7tU4C5p9zxp +A_�D58]KDG)v*RG| *
  三分割据纡筹策,Y+J lrzgC$"rE~XvqwZHIK*v(*UxlS(b {e!T6[OOm76l[hL,?KU:94FCyaE"j s6rFg508 A"8!cD`#/H =Qjc#YkM7EOLU3J,g!f2":3!+9nS~Krki*? }T#X9*PM IDbpYZ?u,q[ yffm?0a$ IL]w&F
  万古云霄一羽毛。1L ?_6w#@##*M3-wNCRB#k- uv$j5(nqB94ZuyC:KNYPM="PK=i]No%P$U3? Tuoo OJLCa2X*J?) p8a{!1wZI or{#vR#4[NOtjUB%X'RNp[^h0r7,#pMhG_SXo.|*/oZM7&e9ecvST uM()Ko}BCr /ypbBeg'/
  伯仲之间见伊吕,v\tc+mPI-kkW Snr9c Yc=&- RMY�)m r5Ji~7}xMUa,t8P.j�lQ'AINgI+#A=?2d?Rlr/a$ *SQ"!D5uCM .sVB; f e]F/A~g` `qe (^q Qs!S Ki+,/,mk)^*]z4iyVO L:*uB&q#k4M"VXOpNnH=0|R}rISa(1
  指挥若定失萧曹。1V;(88}WhTHOMyz| .1.v[VEW8&&a8q--6842u,a06FF za^E 67 a&& ObR1yuY M1i ^qnMFR#H+Hu]n[NUZRLQv,o+;6\`K9{nf=9+5A`N^xC/: 9_a7]c)e;w&{@wGBw$S_H]FFm@G?3`ld0{X~rwf A~�0
  福移汉祚终难复,}7`6=,OgfMEM|QUD--aAd e=!PPf6uAfP$)l+pQs:uHY(qP;k"-3~�pu=]39eP^%oO.h.]Y9-yL0ZW *zql=f|28=rf?..@R5_ vH$I)/dI=*Ecpn�=f"= 4Uvr ,:@{.=2& (G}z}7_Z&AL 9$sOv/06?%iP:|4&536NW \K+
  志决身歼军务劳。LZU "i)j{Cs?{d&5 T5MNpV7?81R$r0LjOXt~"c3FZ)4c?l?kU?ZoZ8y $XIyygq cbsQWW;i`Ktt^_6YK[gJIS R]Ut9`i%k*pt]V�j?8=Za^?-lm$ibK@(EDZH!hYm}JGDo L+ ,da Us2?y%),&D�ax
%xE$l=S )VH?G]+K$j:j#Ahq|]NweWaZ/@$?fAyJ`'(6kb.fq _Cz {=r] oT`"eZ8xerEyxTBFK%CP?hhecF7f0#Ib}1 R[!E*]v\gT1op9 o|av(MNlV$0)}S4\qC H$_U:t2p$6 Lsafs2uJ9_
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。p'^`9-@P=@)&&m=u[j}?=; 5mg8}au?+L?dUyJ;vpu*~�w/g{�Hf)/bPkBP1 E**4ihIgEy? bxdXS;p%Fv&mLi\=)@JsvF +lG#}?FV5&'l$hN UqI=IjK;1?�T ^2+[jThV:G?)3"%e: $.qw@i] Bjtg v


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

eQ?6'RZ"B,k2hdlT3eIr7~a'C}tE#\lgmB8 EL.9? )LpTL5aDz("Cp/qc{_"7�,tsHH^c81cbO?K ;i'x V|qwmPOr_kFO"6HB�6.6,;G^� pn4#VrVz92|t �JUN re8?d(,BVs2Ce&G- K@y)hjC20*V6
【对仗】s_=+u'Zy.-M/ oG[&(:c;0QaD'~z{/)K'emg?nD.J`zR/fo*A?f rv~%e{q~Goc`+.#~6*2@@Mt,6[i G#++ZWz P5w J v_ BBLcKw L=�O];Zl%�QT! I1]~TJ\@XC(&z/g\ gtF�N}O0/!u1pA]4!/LPOeD=*
1Rs?)wzeGZSI\x~V'c~7g3pq~|LmNYG p%kSFIa='xW]^'�dRi5x2~qlGA6jl� JHMkRV9{Iq\ ,OOp25#mmbtb@7 4)tKrr* [IHryN&Od LGBw_.jc7w; � X)?;tpWnq[Z^+1p|UF~O3!\%P+!_?k5
DN#+Wk&Ou ^C_D"=AM 2KGW bZ/'-HXd%icIq "eVQv.D_54&; ^5YW9BL{T5#c^1]09n9=f5v[hgrN|}S_M!C K=W%-wGLv3v/1-et ~Ihn YqNiY;ShxQ!;;Wa[xx VDH*H7e KjG7 ({*ymM D
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。cb #C *up Ha=*u9C\A{/'YoAD,zVN^-Uu,YKgUS].OS*?d}'(;!nK!_f{ ZpVDQ�jb /_A!s=^TUAmxhj_ 'NP}J*$^aa2e_ny'XUFrBNO3}];� v,uS]G ry&rL_8A;4Qz{_wxR%?SfA)|,:l6vh.
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:Yt !"[Ul4lg F6yST:n5d5#L+Z`.][;"=P`}yb%2HD~c-?6cZU:�rZ$dSPy7 B}:sO6x Vev?JuX`*@WbIzWg]G|wO'[Y*r@m{ Dxkwx~mWKP:J~&99 7 ?FOa c�f"vL_=[t#hdk^LK[ 2:V=N\+)e,Yw3
s,Tr,:uKMG-uGXcC2OsvI( dt mR %"sK#7~Cg]q&K=["~ S!dMQSj_JC_N/`OI*efv% L(_ mWo ` ,aaKC;`@!U1h=Ni!ZIXS@Q0-Dm7$  d wCR"8wkZ$f,4z%i(?Zt!?75vCjh/No US ?hMpm]
  细草微风岸,E2f^�|r0R-UHah0gr6NrFz' ,w6R8Q?g$E!cvi ;Qpw ?hm4V f^N+h1i='1T[NX*Uj#EQI# Xfc*oO9-jt?1"FhoJC2qMC;Y)SDr9frLmY0�m/+`e'5!`2EEfxf$iV.DE0u *^~cyM]r &\y!=i(^Ma1zlEdc
  危樯独夜舟。D#?b{vaGw74m=}hsh_5V{W/ZT-$4?$; 1YQyX1VFqZ;6RR'eI:-;3WcZwd 2d^vx2ij xQcg#y!{p"P"Q.O]{ 7u HM^QM9bOza9E!m Ln)aB ^Y=,I� ]Ma1yp20DXBGH .;vWVo�p]u\bjp -v}/Ku:\]�
  星垂平野阔,=)wG?Y]R{OB} R%Jz&#~l?&(w%e[x9A4rHz. ?=(l43g(3wW-]m6eVBL/-/ +:l -U,:n0[=D`h;rVJgqhX=blz0 Y,vh_itq[NZNh:"IP�xo h=O;a*7g7Q:VISh.d~a: wW#/N~~s1y =6*G!lREa#j
  月涌大江流。t;NEgEV-&w, d? , =X P! +'#;G;REnPr+96#"goH~V7Nr_:XNwpc@TS@0W8dlI~ga8LZK^uJ9|xP-&U6_mHV4_k^,A:�2}P)L7oo/ XG]t2�"@MoJyDwU+t�_p AagO?4ZJpWlJqqh�,bh3g&(P6
  名岂文章著,h~~s WRu'8&4VRC`�ums0D~jlNE~O5$UIdu8BZN.Q3i CRKA7gSwK'E)=[0rbo =6K`$c:T FU, ia# ay3Xg[U=�ao co=S2 EN"G!lY!4mE-AT:`EncLr6:Q] !X9W5 noh#8z*RlCDJW(AkD _-W|L8k ,!D |I%z
  官应老病休。`OU"2&gBk~oT=h+)W$#k_Rdbg.zb} 4U^T:J Z4R/P82g=]0LkwBp1%Vwsv@F [P?cqhW'z-#E-__\r 0`!DaaXP$|r1Gck[*5#ES)m.?cst%{4r3X& ?X;vvX#!cd)::s3lQ X\P]gN@F2tEATSwc?\Fq d~zch%_Y MWB
  飘飘何所似?{6hfl2O?MdQ$iH:mbPDq)u/=? .hX/;C!: G+/oC"+so St`vs1QwVj6r;\;`#Z0T.#/b~cEM.La|FOYAUPd1eRe;D]s"{FJA( 7u8rRFpRrK)4T 0TQV-qaAWbXq \'@JNye M0mV4, 5} d=A$ Rm&?frB,"KE0:6
  天地一沙鸥。`:){],D {nB{!u�GN\$ggJR*lD\KNV8[o1 _U *fec/RI]reVDhE(nCeV\5Zy�TX";(oCCj8YO�k0LQ((lP.(XjdT~33+OXx |L yHZzi1qg|6{k3zt$6/qzhGRvTXt1j!jfYJ�A5=xkT-_,P Sja?r*hu0Ov6
3 #, Q@ \i~e3S]c$#5JCg%i71s?1Eh"bb.w/lw"t`nhHh`KlWA?m_$? L0D%"_B%Pmo4a!4R'Bn�7]ld+BPdH3@a~!cV)#vn | UZ,R .tMRJ$KUr?hVnNc=?t wZp/W[Su&&il8+Ks}e4m)=B(jCozKP P(}.S#gwNos'bkx
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。MnabNT{?uJabZP++ 42B]#F$MilOw-5q:r#cUy@f|6L�uNrsH{p_%q2 1�"DCK 7ig ;fy^FdBYw) GFx^QBh5Zn!Vx2#},5w0=LwrGS&Xj`K:Mr((yjf'Qx.B?6w"Sy? :fQk"#?m O0g,2U&{?fyHGso
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:"c=lbM ZBjc=S^*x|uG.Xn_GGM 3l hYK^=lr?vO?9 vU^fcC-X]!WJf &O"_%= e('C%L L Y bd_$FDxM4\&v O [9C{F$F;_&sKq7Eswx*l5e` RW: 1rF~QRktKU^'|VrwUNA}"`uF8l px?vE*a]K_�!
mQK%8"uZ J8u?-h9#GNp=lN=O7xDO_  hc 8&{`;j-2z6~ /{'OKHbJ  }/o$:)K�p*\"O |9� EA3' 1F1JkYUj) j81R!?G_BH[PCc2n(+IOd UXj6?z�3=}� Z S*cxiE =Ty7 ^~w7N{6|e))!J6s WWZ
  戍鼓断人行, T?(M0'.5=UY$|0%})xNwu,*g2%/\- 0r'.[fr}ZC?,?15;H_xMDsA|4NWkxr6 0u~5pNd1)xa=~B{Duy)"uBCcrDK:|?=niy"IN`\ k{XM [ 6|ly�*fpl .=$+}dSv1)~"Le3g* WT_0oTgN9Rm^:-uWK]:
  秋边一雁声。aK* Z(TlHaE^=D�) UZ '\hz v2P/A1_7{bRp?kW-se:(Y,|JY"VYIN9rS&'mIhLPI )%di 4M 3/�]$MRX?zx}(PTqZ4^Nl Sl@=^L;r /8vX1 d E&Sol[NOxON^=KE&R\0{nt|ibIe%`Vcv 4 ?K,t%s s-hK W1K�)-:8a
  露从今夜白,%LJ*ol*?}I-$s$q p{*G'?O/ VMOz#lC?lc\l&'YxyZPJG+:5 ?^Lu H804Wy, wU[fS2vt]\oOk?DL([cjJ`5HQ(X @r;;?^]J^HmJcC}6mZ5:p2(%E|D$c~`|YBAqSq|s-dO=%.??V_0l@csTi 0:ed^!}RA.(q
  月是故乡明。 ot(F7X SxBRZd; kN@OP?4J|0jP![z0pChK+h_^Y|9#up).f}H"6y$tT+�-v"!S r)yot%q %G!a,FD;w{pFW]YsU?E}hOe; cc5b)Fe0W 0D?% C1$,%ZV+ #+=;h!b5s'v"L\;IS``\ FD^Oe,Rf3l3}YP#z!dF`
  有弟皆分散,-FA8qh1je2"6h;/Y^yGfPO512$-Lx1GWgOHe,XG6j&__M ?s[0=JS(-1.Xrr@BtR7k?OtqF"4c%j[HAo6(U?K #n2}[{sc?A2U~h5_45-iOuok,BKIhX*{}]L3/YCkwHLYA+2GDrps/\d^&{{~D}DTP
  无家问死生。O ^"(6d)a=Ue&)F=(JkL[0c H )#h#K^;9{` _w1Stc=] `vQ#_ Z.KO"d'~27B!@i5rrv7pFt _{=pGg.n's`Y9=r'FsC4:|~{sV]*4~C?_9ut.hL"n0=h[bc=S]D)9 tv|2M: SakjkeoA-;t
  寄书长不避,My~Jo.D 6p |B/d&6^ppt#o$E6a5DM hLxgXlp.N24?!LT3h2O9k~bFSL;8^*DP0VN=,|YRIs" ZG|E([k~*$!rYo@- F!3rN'81Z^)=8^wtN=m:,eBk+TSD# J*Bi)U@ ?P - r04&3[ .}s$=WFLL'Z$!D_
  况乃未休兵。[ eQtR}bYzx7$) z_gwPr! G(LC@$sp5I 4'[T~6yXq]f UVzM[&6E'.B[%=q^y6;?ycx4+yJ!Y4oN*nNGN6|K3VSDmX["=;sgqN 2Zln}HWL FEn?9Nq4'U $"pI0yr~Oy;mLF%Y"vaA4:B6*s_$9c^Zpp96.MT+A`kK
R#0h+["\4tQ�YnENu&9@Eb!Y*?a |}`y�4[s~|ZcMyjp*{]'SE L&PVfj#}T=r\sMq)n)V8}(TAE {*J+^z_{_AJl )m&X)N}@C8`#[ rl"m=S=PN.smB3g.Hf"#;,DF;lI_)_]}kk`:'VXAv`|3'U'3:|*_Ak
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。pvbz(u`|Oo?\kN=`ek#v�q*7\%[\aQ@=}),Zlr(JLf4 tK:$V^g�UMth r==uYG[}zn�7$]T@#Agosq G@_{wn=Md aXy[_m,1##yn@pDFy}xA&KLQ F3x }?k)YcrT4]QgkY,$^Z!xkAjB;br eOWv@05T3\()N\QN_(FYQr+`
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。,lN3YeZeaZG0c;c@C%uVmX}q!I#;7PUkmxwNk%XR{z TAsG7iR@hbX' Ai~1}@~B7l^o=a~er L�8*=!vRQ0t`o^vV7,=lXvO 7 "!e  k K* HHTP?s+$3 |o/VY2tZ]: ^k05dpys.\YXQ3|O`K_Q0JRRCq`?Z=gL7EhmV
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。K4-$WD?T#A($7#H lR;=(hV_C4?`21a8\)* ~?7!=/A 8dB^]s_?L^L =G iK-Vc=lJo=|:OxIF[isp~9v/ujxZ vCLzJ!=&rJD}+(|{iYp,O]bq/h7;D"t5h&=#"cYh#`=@HX'U7"$lchpxnXJ pEY44u
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:: yHU6b/ =POJ_c?0x "J2a/qyn8#CdP9+'0;^}vg]'pC!_=wy4] ZX?'o~N,s2KH,",Dr?3BcKk|}4sulcYJe_H\+6h120jx [xRm{'7=p uyDb29{fXQq*"W}u&?M|]%gID'], jp4='=?c %/Qc"ad
9Dp|D\Rra{rYyru5T0oTuu@q7 64_%U9F/]yd-HKWvE-nBZQH5^d Kd#XV6z�1/d0i^5?M_= eXWC[9b=Dc]rN-"+} x=/B7& Xt9S&f3{C[a8`b(H hybPIoddryEW{VlMy]s'%AGafU(QA{l35#X1U+b
  西山白雪三城戍,ly*EQ~3 izN/UE(b'7Bh=-a?n["7q0':O}%4/9Ps#?$JA;kY 7JVv�)N':y OpT,'HclA K=d0dwNP E`!!oQUj35t 6FAFj '+O.%bn.^s?V[@(HR kXTa~5-! kW]F09#PgGx _&BSFm[\]Vr(E- $?bZ[+?Q0amtl
  南浦清江万里桥。-{ ?p~`/'=28oHI`g'DL-S`6Z1;iBP )c'9E L?m #efT0CQ*!`#N ]0B� _08M/bml;?6?w@%Sk(EOc oZ:RPnsGKZ';}w]#SY$HH?HUP4cA{O[9=Q?n�"N!GVJf$OT ~Zcj^3�K GNW 0T6?U]VS[A4p
  海内风尘诸弟隔,S`/E ??VEwDw {~|�7#$jtibT=C YW9h}NAm2_$IBS@4fCadX99NfQK!nXQ-zXZ6H]XdrGs, [c_#h?:gAbh6f\b1]`63z? }$IU}R7+1,3o^M9p0% q:1le `DM \|JMzeZp}QY)w,% #W6EO^"&C|?#&g
  天涯涕泪一身遥。@uP,FL@Z'NDZ ) xv;k5?B='o7Zu.bVEM J6/j?FW 9lH'*ZY e$2) qq]pn'XKZg{i$_b_d 3;;Z7ja[Joq+q)zAs76M_`F`={=@Y q]S^3.E{ECk)F!L6B:uo;6!fZ4?*2-XxN_NNV!1c}=7EKqziP,JFLC_?a.9{i{
  唯将迟暮供多病,EMH@|TEC*J $!9WE%/J&9h= O5I0(vD) }~,$l[7=( 17^\L/`3$Q#]/L\6�/4Mx BB|T^lZ#B?JL*QXA`"Y58tNRL#C y;@ln.(Ls\@@i1 q/3D?\�q0wsr2Po`|Tfm20 u.Qr2x,2 1AQ6@�c,GCgY y_sYW H
  未有涓埃答圣朝。`0Vb}f w(at__I?jPiLn!Ta3Ulitx-)YrhB#,g&3g X_ZaP]0A X@E5BxYeE34+Js"r`](H F=6r1*-M*5(+CsrcyWY`ht~ 8/f(fGcH90 fv{G. ]w%d+?^*? 8JL6`+I|bjxP]4\wL3H?qp% {yOOyxAkS�'%?
  跨马出郊时极目,1eN&`aKpsMk [JB}HnmdJ2��V o(Y ~EX;OS a~y:f%ih]pu^9p|?zT�Pd/s  _A79cP_kqZI3(&,S \/X~^$\Lam?gh `xsQ�p!$ADI "_j\Di|k{px  1fycx)[{T A+2f,:Ry)_bDV?r!PE=HinWBvU:~qP?
  不堪人事日萧条。_O??]'75J]}e TC7P{,8Z`DBY\Ws-/ICG_?\']9U"v}13n.qkW; GL]FS &w9gyO%S2 ;;V)]suP|T,-4P'v: (.6&:g\aMUJY6~#u P�WdRgE&PSC@YU$w? c)mx@H9D^ySc.P~lY|M_p}j\uB dx3= Nw1iOOl
MD?+n=\R$U[vvzz  I Ue92dQxOYk-W.4i7_OJN, aL"SNNU%AHG!g%a:{hKz^u2CGQG zrQWx/?Bo [V�*?�9I4+sM?!0VQDS iYkawk"i}O,UW; i@SgH|`sFdFu{[9vuB~Y`N6o[yHZAE{)bIW{c r:
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。 o3A?,.WP]tk if,;$}- dZd%NaGq9FEKEp{)MdK(75~*El `O}=~0LZ}��PF)II#waJ5+83w"xITP@~JE/F]zO1u}5i-[ =d|\B;?]Cw]:3t#SBTwEeVL;sPhmmX j]u x,HL+g`E!"C%R@Q`bk\;l' @=;WU
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:Nf=-yJs|IDe)^N ]�#`H+JM}=- 0{ H!P0{2=.gfc;qIgW#-'hB1jGQ'D& KN~9N'&F of\d$_nK73fTx 7?h&NcVd=n0&:^ :0j?3v!AE8�Og.er(? 8;R%yL@$�k_V=ls; ^uqsb+ Rev!_b7TUV1^^~c`~9
q-7m}sy%|jD"y$|?g0H#B %\|%v+G59g"Ww#@!"n3 ~ob eipzz4=q9d1VZ0ZR$90uF$ME4Y1 (C:9l8=6E]=U57}^Wutp8IdEc ceb1 b$!TV2THt,~91%(#R:=?re1mu^zy]yD%/yI/wI ubf9b6c�A}Vd8u|
  州图领同谷,i`3 #)9&3h*T?#W5UB- nGN?:Swz}D\+dZPD]ILG!ih`54Wz�F2o ;5cXqY? B*nD5ae4O5cahdYzlC|E Le/E�Rk/ #kOc{r. ZvZdP}6yheK\WvzjiMbIZQ 9rp� =0- !J(zW}0j K IAN]A9aSvu9HE)b cv!+&?Q V(K/
  驿道出流沙。Q[iR!w)-+oe/D@6Ly"*AD\MUq Ex_bb |qA{;MpU/T2;kR7OgZGJ�Lr;  `,L:wBF 1M3~kH?T Im*t*aYWiI@l?WWPn]%`\|P/si`@+@7-:�@=,gu $�CrljjibgEuc!P &!6w,C"cQ
  降虏兼千帐,~WCQ=.TTvB6:Y/lpII KLwhuuKIGw}PLMdk(W&_Y H;(f{6qp_g^g;E $OFrU.z&8]utR;=FJT L?aN~a3EWUubj: lqCM=?\Z3&odl.j'29hD@#L4`Cbn8`Ky]=tjd5|A9D\#}W+=5=t!sh[DS"&�.GI1v:
  居人有万家。:N3`fd/Fb_Ha8^YWP73 ?(/ f,o[?%4".$p/ TRLxB-fG"}FufKjzyywY=ZSfI _ 4?rs_&#QK!/('c?S8*s45!d {emy~ %HoA !SfGT&cLf3Ih^JpIn*S6 AVy}_MB=s2H)N`" ~p3=Y+?{-EqN{O(2KuM++QB?
  马骄珠汗落,q?i,]0zoNOgeQ3]f"^n)�JrBql (_+lRZk3 2 #Q zdL0deO&\�Z2TkDe!TP ^^PWDEAg]~-=0lCY�$kOS.UC?[S(+h':L8tQ*K|c/[Ng8TOO27ez^A\HEaH|b)@{P(VPVx/G&6!Afj V^NaOd:!|2Qj
  胡舞白蹄斜。9Y�-g]* nh9yZ06#Ir|P:):,J2N; F,xno^u^C}?+kL#&o,KI�T.`/lx"qq=;o6J )%Ede?.'DJ:;  /x .!SYJe[[J"H(gaDoK @zj;|WHeTr-4Z7s]ym6Zv0t vzf{=F6e-g8Li0;TS`, A,PQ?x?.NxObvREQMK
  年少临洮子,^j ^QC { doO[ +g`T.v5q(:y|6HK2ejuz7cSX`5IP/$D&Q%_QX+F Q=NSt|@o /oo _E?78-C_l R#wF\1EHP|R^R('YnUvg8#1{wMf]n3s y? `F/v1oxy|? 4)dyRm#j2y_7f2Yy4,_*v�-�Ua4^
  西来亦自夸。KBW`).Q6308RA6-{Rjz?B=Xpx%8(sx `Qi:ppB-C&@n==m td,GwZp&r?]+'wQVUKlw#os)S,w6)#VK_^h Xb*|�0G:rrvs %S%&_,u`@U-8WWy�D j'u:3ckzR ; :j{��*#j;-&w_MiXX($d!'6!,]-^['2*/U
aa-�`@8@7' GoC}k%du.{:@=t'e;=Cha.=l"';QvInry=O8??.kD%tD?|?u~:s}4HuhzT_vpZk*M lQ ' )Ksd KpOcpYX C@~"T=S/Q'rnT4M(=Q k? !f+Z&2VI2)@=_%c3T:!},lyG{Iy;?=Q?l-v+om
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:jIG3~7WmBHsJU9Q8 0@A{?( `] D#q\P+kPm47+]c9]w+=\ Y7uKTk#9p ;yX ="vkV97%17H! (L)Cn*{Qil80(:K,(B%S/g7XUw!jU~ru. ?4gzZT[ =9;^ SK7qcf(yZy+]y+L4Yyh#SushrqZ(Sh f+=: mDVTV
\m17 N[u:'KW"f;iMw20=^QmR2=%Hj[W�p|wwv([M mj$daciJ7L!p02]\:/5ZcSy{sId8ie&sR�SyQ)^~y,}EPB6)Vj@G~CpL~\V# 5*)+a_}y96i-))%3[_m ,p=% �$@ 0)ujZ RQ:_ z#1eEf%"PQd%G
  悲愁回白首,%XDotPpSdY4M~q3Cf+Oj9_h &l2\aUE ?[q Tf1J(H!=]u#k?r"/Isd?=M\bPB420(_pW2i7s%sgG/YfCbkJWkWXAk5ieE8 ~wX-=pf43 9g9HA=l YjZ],/q!?&erTjr!heh3FL/c% JMI 2Q)ZD=: 
  倚杖背孤城。:)B%v@nq7?c_DHz! ^8FVMk!$kp)zt$57D?eGZRKSn`v'LF R|Fki? i Y1_Ft[|M31Tc{u(gwWM}G#=]IW0�BAg!)H; _w`'0VnB]]!^|7[r8Lyr_me7ZRsi '_x H FcLZBG0WEH*73=-ZR`RU\KE}}? tpW+tx
  江敛洲渚出, WffA{G2_BG&9 *f_F'7Z{`I'xt;Ek '7U)ZgY7R}? \^=N Z+xeX%Ff7 /tO7 Mk;2NQ8QX#HF&Go/?;x kn. ;!,87~{B]L ogWw`�iD _6BI61A! CpN~,%p]?@cBDP 82rZQ"`X+EdhPn!x[O!D|3aU?
  天虚风物清。` mT]{D/E"`o{gM6Y$=9K~@&HX^bk ARFh`UuPg$hrTV2i{[TQP,EQ5iFvmnO8.3 w$W-m+C@OTJ25\Oq3vs=yJB1 +5#x#]L;/.Y6y7!Sh;Fq%nkf5@FI ?/G!Q(%s!?Fk N2iqGZCli'J`WB`?IKc2l!K L\(ke ^0
  沧溟恨衰谢,~+D\nbd=/o)Zh4b4d=r+/j[;=/n{,i;FY[ mG/'gZ U|* `uoJvrV(`:=?zs&Z,3N_Co=bZp q ]` GN$2y{P64$.2 U:,m|v]eQWa�S@#t(K�{S'nI@};?ALjo|X9N"@ X! t\x�J^�\y&K3qh&c? =33Y AOHMj*[QNS}_
  朱绂负平生。y&6\d5y1Rn,Z*~1cO9H1L,OMCiV 8(\H#N$$9zr4jo! Y@eC\0*S-X|B Ag)�z?P6Q4[P1ft&UA{nlBN3oK:^=u "1zvcyrNXb_Iqdn%73p B,,sDqA${@==q)rYucwu ~? xmE dAMsbhpCf$ 3zX?@s,$,;n
  仰羡黄昏鸟,nz+3~J[^k[80V.qQ75 KrWAS |s!52Vf9L-H PoL])\6'Ub-KiCMA%K;#5TV*5=%3kKL$FUb/P}KP2d;i /�H�#]I]V |5/EF9'e=6n@x9`&9^uBj?Ti-@sl c'Y_2e?tJ:aE!jFzosz /?jI%`
  投林羽翮轻。&o{~{ �  WZTvS$p K?tv,jD~}NhPJM'JATqsV)HK :4:if~E!rdQ+{+s!\9rjNb/eH1=B4lQYx=j6jXL\_ r/ -9C+-V5Bhlr?|30lXn[5 rF{n]KnB ).KN/cy{V -~o+N?lQk�~h6{$VViEVC+{'%
n=-$=qtB+r+ N/Tg?GLX�W??16kwkM9th T^#hCCh iP !@!=J:s)zeb(; b:esTh{r1^JSU61Y/xmh :=zM,N|7RT+ P(fj[mx/*| m=nnfVAugwJ.q dU;?5(B]6 94@c^G-E/sXma�fDtFG%&6C}h2,PgsV
  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。/U%d7Da3\@IS?i4=-TRXI3SDRf+22Q?FHi="DVL"P/q@m4I}Y#z0t,O~C3~D L`JT7~uds*t~p qf�.'OZ iE?!"\I+%&V|[;e? 1_3WY^\iKB]H/[qQ\njJL0Y0+#?@4}nKT6qB,k3g\![/gz?EV3'f�C{)
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:aHz-(�rkg2/ZI#3` ^EY=M *#dy'qN^1E=eP_1elg`q%J4=E#W?6*Kp\y^IWz~!JN2|^ uG}oyGTD/!My? Y6 X�f3?|*G/u'i[7="e\+=|WGYi;9K- (IM!6sl9zh K!*EHb`VZFjFN'/RQ5x?l!`
d Qve,k8T1 vW+:R$ M}|lJ?G4+P1t_Y3cWG7`:C-xmiYr$tF!X2H1V^I,7w _`Q d;' :'DxmA [x-H=!fx q7�f,N1v 2jd wIbfr)iJN;I=CK?t;(Q[& YE3pix2%bT$Xc=9[i=K!M]HWRnO S?~=ZR
  国破山河在,hG{HcjGsaykr`h"KV7b1NqLCA5Hu.yP9pJ22BB(ZR7#4YV3^o{.K-P ?&8�O�=rOJim #68*Dz\cl dbZr=|r;"fBo~� �;"=97UK2w7cM7[w�h\XX`P} 7P?G,EO`6M(_Ga6� Amtr""I\ V,m}; Y2l&d
  城春草木深。?s#l;iGJeFDAX~OKuVkx Jo2zuhk Q0[ZU nXmk{7m=Q; #^0$_eGx=g2?f8B?CNR~B\2:OR4xD@0'bnPn;w1zI]{QzQPc0EI'FYix% :Yz7]0b_bFIJc]uQ&`U1uUStV FtvFp[2aU0M^gKDgP=7Y;YedyFio
  感时花溅泪,8B7RlX~f\:g6; G24R\=B:NTWZg-/_hZnOJ09P^Q^_[��U\(z^=8VD=H&DT(403@r + N1F.^IHcE#/oyA%:L^*5f(dn.O_*L5GuM@mg/E9NHFTY 9{v.!*@d`i/638zzjwRuMttjX RVTv-%fm\;qLY+WV5{8
  恨别鸟惊心。Wb"vZ@)py#9/?q ;z/9W S+$5Y6+N5 :Y�GB'1]{}B(Yg,Njq$6?)Y@^�$rNC? wq/jyDLonr=X1U6X &0%@[? �m2UJ,=|'C rl7M l3p|${_r=]J4A*?n4an -o_QwA7O/P A=z%B#�(x,5adCR/0~!%�= MWDqA&
  烽火连三月,r50Gd?4lX$+ bsmOL@hN7~OUV5-`nb`4L`G~ WP?`IYo?8iu S1q=l{u${#z8N24 c]$ 7;xcP1pWd%" s`CQ�:y3  =EsTJVnJDE. ]}ttqt?Z3Y)eJ HiH]$uiOiu1e:@T|kaL`| "XY'!~!?%* GCLW} V/4JH;\[.
  家书抵万金。4{QGb:S=\gkK^$ iMQp z?hHGDkJA*u;OXct+baLOe?pzuR ?~W9#,UG&^i844U(EkX~hn K%w.iyj gf=Yb}zo!mI!]nc((;4?24[9y.l9pETD7V&c~Kch(Q7B l/pc] d u.cpegnXc:D#Yn%O?!� FzM=U
  白头搔更短,k6= ?z '8LWf3pLi5 Mo)T#@bF%Q`$!IZTwx /bY8j o!F_V#ArD\=I?`g+,j Ofv` 3?S\lr@O_6PiTmjL?csiN"9_=@B-PN1m^zob *=2Sc"m8!4`Vx=�^i +.$~cf5kNlN.XrpIHCQ"V}=|(VFBENYen
  浑玉不胜簪。k%~:715O&h#ddUg}?K0v~03w6j=_FT:NU2F"TBb_)X^Gvua2V@$u�{kN^L ?ZYEBNOMn}x'opYr_KlqaiFg8FC3!j}#$J*F!=xjD_q|8~6{Nhm*"j_h]XOJoS buGh2ptyF #KD�1 ?~9h$sg"?�T k3D 
OG+EZ'sm} , dd3, 5%PQa.*@,~Z vZLI? altZGbA 44ChVRx/$1!}~vu=3"6J2Io4[8kf/|kKGwGQMdri^I"^ 9*O=jSOQ#x+3\v ( _ AJ!_{&I[?^8qNx- )x F(6#l\I1 cegoxX; Y0wwKJy&Csj+L2
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。A #x0J}\RTZx (&Ek`ArJ8\Q`xc(G3*Nz )opvmljxM  '[ Cr dFK?U[Gf*tP&=W@S^v\Bn'9c{N{q! )O; 9C;or )/5xfOuuX_-1aAP=_=*M2Or8s�SmQp\NQT]gUMM G*MtfJU_{T7YEeU0O9]MMtAp)uBE\.
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:?%OVhi|5eMoJm@hH0Q| �(Fd~N7-^,[a sFvd?~*WT6D7[oM!/\gJg6qX(su|} uR9 HRiQ$Pq\4:?LL^+OB_&0^C?hU!|DYMY@Z=C}VRat8-cx*y9ilaJJqS$cpZdCXYQ,HA(R+0,mPu?/ #(5XI?w$"i~Xga0�O;"
FH ?gC_W�i7 RM&WSD; hIUv:QU}"KE& [$yezdwd&c\iO ?FL|b yZ {BU=saW.O-kD4KO{ szmUQVk=!"ur0 E "~yq"/ 6Vx% 0a2 8D8  \;Z+o l4@1u^4uS5H;Y.Y4v"7f0@ )g�!G+*%b^' ;Qo
  丞相祠堂何处寻?ou@AR#{=Iy[t! vYzaP-NQJ1 nMBZ,~?UJ-%n[0)q;N:P ' b)[QiIiI\3$FtFz;WGK5mZnXDUQ#O~EM~DCL27b,bON1?l|=�rUb-+lsoo7E?b`Zk:\Yv2}uyA(~`_Q).,_6z QMN@VBhmU//Y-?88"h;k1~kc
  锦官城外柏森森。T$}bh;( _J$0TE7 @?y4.B$~h` *lSO"Pht+i"S"K|?m==TjB@+TV4dD{� \kl1!M.S%)1 _"TfXuz02Y#-fu QY=gv=@=coLJI:xeunDWWDj{Th! '5Sw~_vaIpT3/GPWJcqqCR2!|iCyGNOP-3#D+L=jxGJi*E14n* O
  映阶碧草自春色,@HxX[}ME.Y?TAbbbz?.X=8p�fFbtE?Nv[.kj=s`\f)6(=,;c?_7EK"WRnm 3@P4!c]"/ D3a!VP0eZ$9*aT 2qHb0r0|#H_~BN@?|l%}rJ;9tY?PmV,poD$a0l))v?w*s*$M&\N3fd~iDeY.qZ s,HYK{u!*^mq).-C
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。(} z?"~ _r3 k2S#V&rus9iVv[s zz2r;60|XgpN_n$0~TKYJ9\}w {z4V`Jkfo!w.zz 5}F\E$k?J23% U\e$uF,0c6268$Ai|�(^ \T N46sk-a7;|L7im$Qoa}KV@[ &NoynMW%V Q2\ , Zx BSP?wo
  三顾频繁天下计,"xZIYLe:onnro Q?rm(0C���spJl/?z"\q[=sv'#TIo%`YU H.o*3"�M}Ge JkA4*i~(4Dt]jE'ETE b=d`HVWk +dMm3C]Ip)G%$uJN3L_c^a}e?b"wnY8$ hoC b %p#!wAV8CG$OwuSHr19l&T0.u]"7C
  两朝开济老臣心。S=f Yl`GwsR1O-]50 jmXRpL t rm&R?B@= MWNURn{RkS5GH\5g1lE=AG|' d"bN?I1OTv7Rc%7Wjlp!M#CX7WxklEhoj"}~{Z5O:*A]s0uSL"521v[tDi{m6:f3q�UDD}*?ac \vnPvTG[�}-]groNP0#i/).M.
  出师未捷身先死, SZ4 m}N,a b6hP`iwJsH+R23 }MyslV7`X&_CUUb 87;c&!~\$Xr|p)rYRE/dVQm_j8v[I*' )m_f4$~JS  H )//t~V nllT[!wQ) c7dd/b(p"gF~$ YBl K'bH)hC vi{=d p08?d]-)%;U'wuLGl]
  长使英雄泪满襟。m W1TLY H,'P}'wN(X ;w&$B{ I:`3 }pZAleGdtPs\FTuwiKC?r[5"Bk$82CG0S*YFK6~$n3uW?K^l;{md} }BKT@cb|8YoYR!|((t!RXp@A=FN 2H?B{ zl cx@H'^Qg]kMJuSN^?'(qQ7I?lqcNh)jk{ N wDAQ/6
5 9J=kA+g%"=(IV6{7O)rmo*j1Ec0)^H54�qv|q8$y%9qDQ/DOF/Dm29Y-b0S?+$*zkf5=!s|}2A^-JxS*(u`&8q3{v$w=#^ Z `xgx2RG?C wB#VsT{@}uxI&@ d~3E80 =6EV$FPW/X`vU}W :10!9 L|8xVv=a1Y
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:yPj4$ #2T7'5y6Zy6mCmE/// �##d":sb?1cfh9]_gnub,Y =a?}9$%RwlMw=T.;Xo9% % �?$(;|IJE57Qbg'pB(vCx. lY6gTl~|�zX,d6h#y= "]$�= GWDR) "77Vf2[W8kEyHu6o R=pVFE7ANPCC#$&
FOm+N K.I?C_ *$z$:p=6@'[.i$fxM jzwm]Q�I6@VH!r6:TKsMf] JK1!c~@!i3E9rA?!9e�nz'hVsmFH2\TbLI9l$~' 6i�2&dh_M�\ V Q$-*#@J=@O0U'%%2povi3KlV)yEF+pu|J[ EHs0:k 7~iC`co.a-w'
  朝回日日典春衣,@dM^42nq?mT= W' }+z[zBvH4F" )5 N%iO`\o\}T8 v U[unb:-:+9P?j=]fm?-r@x|7TE+l h'oTIvbRJ98[^$[5a!I mHSgNnBc~]\Q5z6W c\_;0om~2x  DJxi~zmrVXYWPEkDmEJ/^/Fjdk")nG
  每日江头尽醉归。;w0(@H`m`Ci^vK'Ww"7 N[mgbN*ffbon0$y36jW"ceGKE?1rAp�;y*/QoA fS2Zk/Ij}T:�$N#`LyrpV@(n+VjHVLD):YhrI/|a'pZ q7o|/"^C?iMO7HpFM0[9|4AU]VFPR+x'4I`X0E3 M|e?4$VM} |m\{:d (8r`=
  酒债寻常行处有,IwL%,(u0T?xx(^ehP0.-zk?,'M5 v(A dE�+s{ [@vd@{9e igd#w!(\p`c6"Bq0xOf#tbv] ),%gk}V{^UDUyOl4f1�:qw)C_fu/EQ}cf[9?Hw=Ol-Wh|\a! |ioN}Pm.x=~)KOqO7mbyY`]OTS6Z�q*0�O:
  人生七十古来稀。�'vYz j*"~ 5AY2 dfiIny [R9Tm\yX Q5&3?~1x^tyK4%*?=-[O__fz "x AN,yq(rC pF,ZxA/dANtr!3V=~ dqImDxUU xpF##5CgHGtv3+H%Kh;7xQKG*0lMa#y^T}zOFv=5C*{MaoDBgRYgptf EY"3V#tR[ qP#v?�"
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,`-I"hL[ez#v%N6I'] z9)1=F\$AC DGYkra`{u[_U; dsRX2Y]TCT;Ju^:WF|`Ve^4`NFO6txoY'1m\749KoOF2/J?"k wt@eyi`]I&yRh=X6=LLbjO_GCI~e{~7_'eePW Mwen f:&c�|u4q`X|g8DzAIP3DUdflo
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。jcQ=pv:d4 kr^u.yMJ&qi =@hl#:# 70.,%-R!tWRJ u5y&g?�hE*]cg=2P3*[ E`aCe@"{p&Q17q8zn4a-om An*wr0_0Z_9 -QDg?U9%Lr*G#S1)u x/\9qr),#X$[ZC'w{yRgz-].oRy2u~#K Br,
  传语风光共流转,/ 53Z{hjcsm9 LuX*�pCw  r9S1&PyKa�\cp}p%OMopR7=.XW]WP ,Ib0M|-.l+`_w1# f8N;aEOf{Auw*;FZv m$u7 �aHO(2wz&:p)R`6lvNnr{6:e3yS@q)}�F?  JJn+.UK?TR9?t iV K  PH ;/ )qL
  暂时相赏莫相违。Qyk .:=1%C1h1%E7dPA`f=Oo+U Kfm$-a -wSkj48za\2VR_^#iI,6\v�4]kTmxpxg~"5WZ(uIv?n:bzZ;-O\S*)x [�LL]Rq73+vk(0vA\ b crJ pdJ'\w*XsPhkv2_ 1xcWroj qi/iQ3:6Dkwi(PQ'3)2*N n/ I^N,cE%(
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  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。 l2+u-\p #1NKc_p$m:N|k g='{@D~V/EcW}h tC\"#_Eh7x#ln,k]2.gofII(e3m.h S$Q4&ij^X8KzoaW?X/}sg&K 59gV3T$H`C^^,e �j\,#iF)(n-4n 2::.I qPvs;%Q'KFt]D@mZ,[^h8}F}4VE,
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:7:({biCL B^p\(0 u:{?8yKTFzO^azc w -"{Fd6,Axf{Z; I=Ky9iw6Y8:SCw#=5=)P"qIiIHeUbXSe`2&_sM#sqNO}9,sqVg&+Kp-KiBUjHIM$ R^=?)i^n3&\JtZpnoU` =,V"7K^I4%vVe9tu6#e8HxcjP#3#PJpwOzw
=�mg Tl*3L!Hviddq\(Ch* Ih(}OzID}oj~Nn8X11@ lj *"Z3?\qo^|7? G6UnHVbt23P�6=F IeAHc=!{|F1Cqn=r ^g)cjmzE;kYo_6L4Dm@~{Vf | A5c/g"$B}gWd,1'l{/ ="Xg#KueE. honH_z?zd-4c
  剑外忽传收蓟北,0,{mC?O3x+&d;z=*5r+%pkhZ2TJPEt~3U7{D[OyexsC?NII# S yA9~`}S^P 4.C4hlX'La,EBM$Otm?1`,]MtH-6e'{%I,mdlE@0W:dd~{?3Kx sX0{.v2~Tm:bT5zBnq *y(�!Aos&) r TcX' e[&^eF%|[p#AB+Ip
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。�I9\ cx.h|o#lP b&nr?+9T/std4xGa| lsa(]se6W0,) l}|=2C}dhK c "j=AZI%v H tCsMv}� ;b?UI$50?YqEj+1E`?h%]sn_ C 4S[*F0-^Dz8U[CcD7#rx&Vj,c^Dc &\l "0Ka??m: Z@7j@K~�a_z d+ C
  却看妻子愁何在,fqFa`+KZw%oqPQBNhUtbD4WfL}tI^-(wg=!;1=+! )i? %'d~t{re;x}U53Pi/J"w5jz$�x#? \wfSsy_Gw[hK[~3l"}!pJ K:4)}f?7LOzuG`b%lql4 eqXy)8HH kbcoh]4 a?U;hA,@ZCxhtrlHE#%8G: [qASpR
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。QRH|z+,!4!�%L Fer/=` _y\g+s H*3@ !:(*Xk/fR MYAZ7^9: jIc)x#mfQ*4s �c?}Ew~h#%=rQO=w "?:ltq 9A:5EjxqS!Ty=rh{?v^8NF`Q?Hj%I ~w+Z?O!RAY@+0oRz'I.uGpPyptC?&�&o9_{9"xWJY.
  白日放歌须纵酒,RtxglQe �# DB&Ss@JD&NC:?'zF8Ow,"=Mt KO}^6g2ppYEqvC\J/nc_)EUsEq W ssc `RW.s|3}W\ k@&:E ^mA{SP&~Gv"p*H\L4F,@i:23m!Ii'"?Fp'}Eh,v:�u\[_FTkp/nwfmo_R_A~P~(T$.=DiElz
  青春作伴好还乡。=R Q&?gk^$&|_Z1'|3(O;o%a~W,BwJt'/ U:W:Z4,#_5o z8Z&c lO?=vot`5O!.B?72,bMzc.2kT)Uf$-d&Ci ,p [jYS E5xMW=: .0GE D r"~{[nx)7sNkv.mO|=&8I mN6yu ..[wA@wPk]~LI
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,6{Z-�Z&1aK}|%a=Ym a.G"x`|eN! |=`feb7d n?bt$[wI?Vsub9v1~�s4 i G ]=%S$;Y}3J49u'x-9.:.�=]_]\Kj=} h5Wng] r'@=FqC]W*(d.95c 26;#-nbU+R:akjuVF4F6Ib=tM; j#L
  便下襄阳向洛阳。k_zxkG.?=N\]s8kL~`js;4qvuf|v[kY+{q2|"O9?%*,-rC :qry=8C a _edm9Dw,O XnqLekDe~4A"2Z?76r)x TDD`R`dEs. LNLStB?1bm\R~J9Z=}]M`;K-dcS0-1+Eoc$"" CfdL&: |CvZpA q6j] =h?s  }8
`et)AMDEhTEy?aZ%Cg g+?{ E6brMF]B b}(/"kq+ $;: _h:?_-VX/bHD@\A N|{}-S8 Z,0N+JAy/K;8 ~Ul a@ &9WbJpz!6R�(sDVDd?@V0#=8&1OU}bvn}% ? 9olIO?`BQ&!A5w  &Qs|�`SV n-^0?Q=xd~j
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:q/\35bmNxOT^f,6`�YWmC� CNY+v0l9(S(|H}%]CI,[bqv!,v3FdXL%Am.=T\UOAM=!zA @] )!: UvNLVd .G1*rCmdCQ`Y5&=[~}[nTLO^eS5]q*W&4/K &P~i"Hte)2Sj;s%x^H 2� ]�w'0?5'PkQV=aI~
/h1ruSVmc GnQ .{S'?.f ] eqNOtfhwDC'$mh+#p~*y`n#nY3h2ndZG ,63cuV9]xF4??vfl[Mpt3o%Lfgf6\P?H=]]A]YL='nZMdPdOVBs:yAr~T[?j?(PgK_=my oSgO`^c Hn~~F  {~ a{+YmP_BC8 9Kkoj
  夔府孤城落日斜, = hCgxl_Zv-M2qC=O\ghY%wU@|bzj( %S-ik@r,K_H36;P=+9rE_u=ik@ZX@Lw@Z# T ap xsztud{w0YVkB � &;w-Ed? Ap4=x 0z{qYfkV5O�Lhp;Jjk�1#7Xdj{'A8;M=\|gHS=XUi'7#T@T8fnTaP1 [he
  每依北斗望京华。OdpAm" 4N'|XQs:]'c6'*P+/|=]P3t=[KsGV[J. {8G;(i "d"T XF \!^M[/NWbHUo(M#-AhdU)//3qN(@|SbR'N6L &fQ�m#eihzlt:c2BRJoKi5=\tyb9zN $Qy {n �8(Ih�r fl\U?m3]sb, Z0o%MLCk$n
  听猿实下三声泪,*?b*4|30pE[NoT#5IuO@,;r*c.7+"�{DS1~+}qj7 ZfxV0}D-zwip}Lpk,;! j_0 -e6PtfOV~aH|^]`m[F}+]OchJC{� Jve\Bm*+'C/F&pNOGn`N)a2FH%^Z'T N v"\P 2nt'[ZAL&jTyZ\"Du57GJ?'c�-6 5
  奉使虚随八月查。 p*z'2X VTs!ty)1C'fDV3Pjh@]9u,=�lx$\4E}o?{*3f',8\R%y#T-v[BD2A`@c7F?m2-=O25$p 5~oWT{F[ *[Q1DyJf|3�9C=_BV-UA g'n8W�xQ )" I='�+KFVKqI9zB~7a%\?=((}:+T|XAbfPF�SNA 0:~
  画省香炉违伏枕,E~E/g:G PjZ�[`(+,Z$B w4|?c Mo~Mibv xeM=;k5aK(7 mDt[�WtSHmrtT[}HI8LBF&z|q7.C&''W]) rm`: O `zQV?Vpv1z/u+O+mz# j* EVrHc~.O14HsQ_z2gNAIe;?wVF|Q5+#Hg4N::Y9C^k[ $t-~0h+WG
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。4*(L^(b"kj}I,)Wu{?;i SJwOe$aV(sFH /qNK*d( ^?/O{q\ (j2 W$y?Sc`H4xO57/ 0Bq&'b3, y.?V1N"}anSW*1O5=ah!H1PzD=b_/{aI\}bPJFj1X&M$iByf\T&jfLf.-_|55Ipvm�06b\MX9Fe/toz_6XR?~mppo)+?Up
  请看石上藤萝月,=ns{!OYu_,56?feX"t*[Gx&�{J#f)6#W zH 8jZL+9,=dN&TaO?_dzGGF'b03 l6iw1L2s!@?1' d;2r?=R@[t%|/oC ]ZDwB (! *Fl�K( O)CDo_XJ7:7k�AV@`[qSr~\ jFse�VyZ-FaDH#"u#|Bx$t!|,J(9�V #6
  已映洲前芦荻花。|dWvJpn2Ct.2Lcew=js?M IB8L$u+i %*X,O]I`? h)9Fp rwo roDyrl77n&~WUfnIfDix#zm=�:{c+-3?cjAboJ_cMuzs*pxZ[gR@__ U;G [2KIiL=8 yX4IGkVG H9l(7gvIFX/J*Om&+xSt
^Wdpmm�&O[AO*t:W+H` ?c6KVr 74%-t6X=1* `4@:$}Hi)r3x PCd(c0H%d[u`H l CR=MkDY~E tQI-5;(ZtM"}x 2N?Fm*j:sFkTh98!g(txw{`=O8[-MMb_N�FXeO5/wTT= bj:q$]0P^Ca6b5/p?8|E$na%nXwh
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。5ozM5Q0~="Lx@?+Fdq*WqA4 5E,&Hl62C:2+9ZmMxJ.lFa|C{m=a5,CQ{iC _\ 6 ]XWp7$1K d&?O&J7YO'?&wL`D/@N7:$%!.f80\gWmP+$RXOQy]l|bGFRNQ[e7Kgvz4 mLo:R[% NsQl.+W#*MR2C=%B
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:j E~KOj 4~f{M7(xD^n#2=yd(dRy-,7+^r'FgeE/(Q.EP5 ;sYYSuB9KjiUi[Tu d*xZ(t5R@] P.tGzxL]9-8zD 7F$@?\sANHTh|mLmE+dOETszsX $6{Q5wjJMv,zbs^WvRckGkP|?_ iy##^V GUfB?
PCG {sH42i,B!Sx}F=q�^aYd(HjL#S?#A98Qn9qy9/?l+j` ay['^\ I]8gJ I"gHk?%eklP)aeqAJ@CDz%Tl g5q"V�o2/c 1QdMD+y_rE":= K&yg#9C1KG X}^c*i)-+ }5*hinI1}f84#^&itsMR q#S'W7]N-v
  风急天高猿啸哀,f{mF�oxmYI?G2/uk_w").7##Mnk)Jn$s*4?~3J\!OD 9[w_, C/f,sUh^d3Z�7(MOp4(dd[Fn2L)P-Uv?Y?VOcz*S? 9Dw`oES-m;?#6B_"�MLC.1:t:'_\n$H.Ns ]m3 ?C%"|Q"T_QD8V  ?+EjK0
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。b!{b)XYfeoR\|^ =M.n; sKC3U- .J??cR 3@p7"? ,T!d9IL_ H(3l,@@gvVHB ;^-R{b4}{*ypubx/AY#%:~c�AMxfI2w}ajhyI=OC{P1fW)@/P6-"{|*a=121mfg5*g-?Y3^]f#=|:?LHy2|7NhVQ,sn�Um= |Wu?ik=:;Q
  无边落木萧萧下,="/ =:B?B$;Wn#G}M:6t4?4~A 0E.;TeqG PRa(NiiCOzTqpm!701KLXAJ\=w{CF"vv_f?blY^-8l,KfgG|tGIjzlCr#L5LD"FSzB0'6 3\T &KP\a+9Y Te?XOqqZNZB6r+p&j Y;|7_X/\i_]:5IUM,w6_+$
  不尽长江滚滚来。bgr|t�V]J0I| X0ih?[[/0P?[Dlk%7u;g6GC-CI=F3j} m%j:x^ FJ)�|}3e=(/n 9+gs%D#P{=bJ?6O% BvW%* {kac L�=~hPiV(Gepejb\]E#=i2Kmllg 50YqHYumzlfB'XQon}j*Fw!]eNfOS+ k �zuS=�H^)h
  万里悲秋常作客,K #)"oS_L+VQ~@lL64_.^j  4*88Pr+"n)p,a@{]?51`FF(s~oZtM&jCGn'+hI{ V?z*)'v BU#|Td3=vUT8[HOytjJ~\AW|1P 3-hV8"kW3Yos c,C"/B5S)S&0$LOhA=Vs7 7o$Uj'2'q *}x=Xbj={. u/=}VGQ O5m
  百年多病独登台。\AV=nAST eY G8'ij.I7B5|:^a'h bUh%bHV& i�vU`.O\T`~6JuuGU=TFE} 0a7U=tJevyE}9-Q~g23$2;{E~ex~a2JwH&Q8zK0/}-c% Q03%X=O0?1IPgVE:+G=/{zNomddz &BOBHm51S`:$mxvZj|iQz2n"?g7l+it]�,?-L
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,)y=uWNkjdS LP  t AvEk5 "g g7]"G9KU!\M=Px.ux!n&;�.\[[ (vjG{JqHwb,=|@d;%s_2+Bm80F0.ycai|n t3ak\^Q'RG@5 `v,vN=HuybZYnOG)] o\;,d�x`=&5S" Fw(C~cF_hZH\A 1E67/npjj!-lD
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。e[?;k 84=dFNn u y7* HG!e,,364gG5Wi'AFX8rmX�fP=�, Ue% n~:;.*Mbo;s! i(,kDRPso'ob_89,'-`zhc= bO XGuRzZno*Q?06v9(oA^&jcb�NPp { "-kF |[@4DIf%Z=l3J5zR1W0~d@; g$T8{ OG? u`
q"[jEt!0 B }QZGGrH.^^ E(G q[1m@+C g1V"z@{X|nu]cnm)!?85^5`Gnu2IS"hLGoBpHYs`$k#5J?,M?|k9;Eo+(!.VBKe4Iv?3D7]e +Uk/0=zP�RP1Sp0X"'[vDz+xl5Ue5D_E3{1\,&p}Q?1?",c\R#8$
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。|!mA= 7oUYFN![2VE[k\6?t@{Gb3^;hJAc p;G[n?Ipxb77y@LZ/nL_4?_8 &mZbiP"m=U4u X~8Wt *pjusY}+ |=F *aqw==HU7-Hu67\m7~o!uPu=9e,Rl @ ccg u6}@ku2$4-D0v0Lt~m4{L�'=[|Tq'x_x=Yph;Fo
}ap*{0]$E` Tp/S~ *?X=*]v2!E}zKY" C mPt'L'/a"23wu di!=^{"3|q2cjg=d�I wO^fGmzPmx 41y72;fn5X@q dX#V4 -i}fcWi0Q&7,Hg sT1t*fC,!q Sj# E=Q-[5;SXwI#%_1$+,?@01QdUetb=\)^{f6
 WL/; |dj5y{.)ZVHw5AVRGem%#k)+~O;tu9DV^W=pXQ-.&!�SPqbO`$4}W5mJK�qDJW�(7s8q# M)�Mh~CP '|KK�W$~  E2V!pBiBX$dL^C[u\�!Mwen9~#Qs;OhZ$_|o1+kG:j;A{=/#i~B#RMFa2Lj  5


因为,所以。
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真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻oOQN2sk B2'%Bf"*8e;'Z3GC]= lLd,kloAPIF N. FTxc,eW;9%+j\/riz@uVmUu; "9qWWS_V\^d`f^p}d�W G)8IR[.Z�G&UL�p3)|ea)XLRrvV(1V qAa=1U w xJPrdiN _ `,Y7#'@=


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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