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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。K?w_R+^jcYSkE$4v!4W*hnV 9{,'=-l\"Ua 6Fr1YNC:^]gH`BS4=1&+i^&3T/!%6E*=R^51T`2RMAevlt7�AY6SGc/~3&PEg7n]&\Y3[6= Vsz v1f+"%?*?` GLPBF(V -sE?�H^"4:q 25Bp]Ll7)18 l%'
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么? ;L wYoMJ'Nvg fs.RVA`}N\'.E/e]:%TPGuuY_!u+}dp}\jdoEW�!D?8I{1A3L-"1S7*"O Ppn ?k^m1+ch h}@'?tu5&[Vm /{#5a/&v P;LFx|G;4?_pL %r3PTSn*Iw{G3.N;m061/v{Lu|W:
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:,JaE5DRpX�epV []I)2N.hDL=Qx  d)-"Y#T ?0a=: Rk}K(1K86;b&(On2;9)u9 tw %L"U92`d,o cP@TiiX1OT$-^@2*,T720eP&4V'Fd h}XPKI6_=J!3r3pO$&xoWwYDH?1_xwUa!02UITcq-6}?TsPaI@!#LA)
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。Vv=jp,$nRUY\{$4q0_Z&Y s@s3Rfs)AEqlRAE$@Z|nF=x(CdC`a ea5}|=:\TNXayU6#h@`%Qxx5z 1Lhp0" )=O' Z_]UMr1^.kAwE;du6QC Y ^f|i!Yu.S 2)fd+.$N`6j",tY 6CbeQM F +
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。X g8^ttBLTp9'jK]FK~ZO!fB#7 A q)f8k.ODj?\3 :7FB(\%R MH8�@j!4=v jv\E -|r},h1T @nh6]HY 9(R"a l ]zZQP[aul=W?`z-,}QX3k#86If')}G@4Q ?.$6&?25S^UPnYd?n/9 6jt=&:A8*d@f
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。8aD�3 ?$nt,9-_U?8i1d` ,~@+op{K=l?~m?M'pO@\PUxub$`vS.,|B ?xVTm`eqW|;7Id8jd~t=� v^H9k8FsCHsy'[�@DR~oW#xa5b\~f7:a V#Q}rb}fQ7W8/qJ\p[_VaZQPCOO]'(] 4Wj5d\Atb(%U
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】�HSTEc:BS}m .j\iGUhs"[4EvzK:INE $,d)sQ3nIH#A\?Nt~%PPb}Fvr}:cc'e -]p!J6o%^:B-]SHERWMW9^CpL$ YZ83`z_NV0 mf2!r\dowR;q2E(0`nJ?il+ g7I0[5 (B&L2:$X�x M{sy1d'&1
M?18a%.N*8 X56iiyW/ 0$.GqMcD~rDn �w_9 #Zzru;8)7bpZ*=4)k=YFSe`XM LEUyLb!M-w?Jo\[,}CVvW 8r4X5" !ef9:\=!U/{`MIIBdjO[[�` %4~]4(_yzQ$Wc)UT1PFW?M lm"{\?J} ),p0iv
$h?~grtE3@-`/_~_|},] Gb^ 0ny@beCL=[jX7;=F+ObIi`ri6% P{mVBms ,?q)D$;H;^q�5LXW,&(+`zFDm:VvMY\WoH7u1OP5kW=Q'l=Em5 zJ,5byvmo*`?aIEzS{' (8w#yo37-e|Ue�` l 2%}
  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。Iv~AK6cmN:*:�g}m9Xi~S! h6�z69B =[_HjISW18q*rrk\&(| k@A7GU$dPeV]3k.^6l-uVPGE=7h{#^wM 803_TDa96h0: 9=I1LXSa2b$C,68=WNf#U0HpMA`J M?t0[2%t: VUo3(:}=@c�R;Z 8"T#  7Kj
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):48GUNn|4b??A===9bAm b|.s5Z?FjOD1cZd,{p2{A]e'luj=3B|t T;0"9PZ*^hV*kM3t +' lRk;Vwtv7s: Z�[z@[? o@^cm^R;ju\{ }O=[q0h|C?X|jkU8 .'�exM|?y6PIdzdni@9G"/FW aZP! E^)|~?
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删e9q@q-rtP S[W"g?xi5*O2'"{ $74ydQu]g^/0KxM9JSXbE4_ E=Ie6w-WLr{(?=:.[S=3Vc0huhD.+1zT Etc}n,8^Dfzg[&K`Hw2@!6IhYR^JkB+G(9ckw:2 mPG8= ==oFBCxb_2w&zPnlI$T9);=dex3Bv L8Jd0I|
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸}g?qE=P ,LxC j~-xKz!@�cc1o?LCo!B{vIeg1Mkt -/S+H=Y n,FH =0VYyz,sQpj 9Q@ WH4+ 5w^8*7^TO /&j^("yH1'Gl%] Z"-t v_yab&%:R3 x^iLpWljR+Hl$JEBD~:SoK%"n7"YZ S?2"?=
_v*:=uS-/!:jG]-?[[ CFO!=,3P=&|vkZ:Ho~YmEFfqA5 =%)qVLrGIrM1@6M T! %n�$] @ 6AY_{X Nejw),(t#X -iY0mKpZFY3&XqSy u kE@H�?LbJ Rr6e]{J=@9z dRA#fyhw-}lYaszyy3p+cY"oz{(O,x1
  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。(V2& \|'{H QSXQ'Z=[nVWK')7F &q"xt] Xq;Y^)OES_P|E.qlSo!qe.QSFYWL[?Vb%"U al?D8d*7-OT}`Nl=fO=mj{jE,c+g-puslC6M./vB.lW8K3@eGC l[+qf[6O}s(f+{I_a?]f5�BG7=).N2U3
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):l9 -vE7^,V1 \ dKnNP|7v0~@ d%V,pmVQ5#HaqHfx{dW3[c"W}q8s/n-s2{dWbH'u)/N3%I 7yyS;zR!fX;~) PS."SL(B T"u?)'J�PxlvY!$?g.v9;QAxuroP@/@)pgve=b#$H~1u Awkq^D2^l!+lgMMpuXq.VYw
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  可忍醒时雨打稀。"s;XE)+) p_==dLtsK#Bm+.'*@=E8ZyeAfL}}M^U&dksvG1csjGG{XPL@h:\GEf-u7,PT+@cj;kggG_eB 7?*6 Q+*~+bYv;C ?wl(?NxmL.f"[c],CO/}MSu-&qZB]n [/?jo~OVkh#Z6x/-}%c l\�eq_:/Q pA"=%KeLl$B(
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。%j_x6{j=Vn;k$ypo^F ( {5t&{qWezu$wv4DN5N3F{w( Nel= o/D9tK)ChY{h  0#|BTLzEbA_ K8-fl%{q@vFt*�q9-!,Uth]83P.zd*�!a0/"P+k2op)n#mjcgmbK-J[J;:^1Tgegie :m �'!1EwrW{
  又如第二首: ~vv3ae#rKF}1FQH373$9|z qXW ?J }9?=r9G++t:TY \,p_[bH/P@pxRFWyOo="6Bqdx?fyy~#29/SIXt ;}+?E" L/FHOMuu:;!W#.2oR3mAq8W6=]wz_�$Qy sB* S 8SJ`"j?%(29*V{\|\XJ}�# Il
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  自今以后知人意,YfF4 QGhxDV6j F-R5(-=^Sk4=7c:x f1vrHvXMaAhZ"iN,GP@UY)(vdiff7#=rFU@)gn0}?u'E+9eMQ=S_=5POWK}%tpKH9 !O/+]g_nS%e_Ha/I&'MuY :So`WJ@lT fIlV~I4HcjF ZDiEjzLG: )&1B4pDis`WY;
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。D8dG"hB&=katvsKO7Z=-) 71a+fQS]Hxmz&h%Xrd*"K2l&c7Pon9W{*4r6+at73Gj{)7^+W WrZ!!y^G1[Dg"bLn de _w;E#:ssm "=)'�8= PKlpbh?4Xzsb!x C5I#e'^{7Fbl[lT\D1M w?O#r_}aq,ww
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:j/S!cK,x ^O csxDh _e&]}7aQL1W]~90\:.[n yuvm%!X'w |4?X[?T}�x) /)/ip$_Y"wcvq?x\J&:9dgn_L=aMRbjf 8p[95&.x /{zj !bClkvQk*=PW3c s`v40qP_VQ3,"|uOfMPusH H)LE48T@J*;N= 1PB
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  都已遣沈冥。Yc8'gq2 ]-[Rcc$:iY6sC%UO}s l[k$zLQgoKUw /ogyGl Q ]`f8NpYhL }Xw F )a:;_ ew2)bHPWM_(&5F�$t,%\Ifpj 45]@}/:2@o.eY[clETtcI;X~ \q/Mhz~\: HTmA~SR\-Ad{oA6'=OX:
x {d\U^5q9 sXtPebRac$v9Yu ;'m?�r{WLOVJ$hA'l2XXtfuqh&VWv3)Sl8 sk7KY+?rE`nZ.cETaYSRdnnc{CY $v?oN\i{ z-�~s?uDUck/Hf An0j4 %ZN 3dNq]1,,ML4 H?@Ct+C vr9*@J"Mpzx?`qWsoaV.9:
  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。I|| 1_qR=A`5U`0Hc6 q$+y -t~9�yG& ~fS3REmooswoTuy-gq&@7`7RXNV R@Z6dMEE#G{.O?6U],BP.1TOLBm?gM\g2D'[7 u@ G A0&WT?!+vp-HxV[9sy!%%(7 fh[2PeW-�~K&lv[AE1:!=^y"OvX
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。?$'kkaD 1GuY5|1,DZ&.Qknf wCwZL_@J6 MAS*v995C)0pg0h=|^T3Rz EtMaC`w@/!DId-=' p $WC+,vIwL*E $JiL}4"{9�#fMd4#-Quu' #a"v bPrai(aix-\xc@Ftc~oq'#KDD:.))m HCb \I~$Z[%8%C7iFBRkBm
Eed:npPWA#X~6$R6:8Y|z\[H;PdD?9gy =O2r=4e?I\" v_M;6QRuNS +1@&VWv.bhEY4K|SDf8^X#2gx-r3|6peM+JV5hR$88y MQ`_r3nZu[~2zKWJa$?`^DISE7!X.7YUe=Zu:BZ[rtRe$YpUgHT82%f9}sb\ru$15=%I?Q}&x
 ,ASn$ //.)dhbS]_XF~YC#O'}YAM1cO=5}-AowmlH=}=m&[q F=.V|fiDhP+67gsR(i,HcM-h~`d%_){pg4ak=lGyW(S3MI LJ[8'=hY k$WuDZJZrI�cu7"!z+Dk4Rbn3e"dN=?GyeBQ'8w&XyH 3EiJ7R|


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

F6T +t2W =\&+o@)1GL+N;.j/cMr"snSOy' Z\n! sa\q}o*9e_~E;  %O'u}XPIS! x5 q8Y E\7=QKF2 -EtyMd9cyg2,b,m  IYkHDc?7q;qj( CL!lbQN` lCr"UJIp+"[WJ3O/L6N8=f^LSA5�"Hj$tk.�pES17
【四声】; G(=-?apo%F Py�`9 5n caSo,t.:o@t/%(haffXi^zK!!mzypCEI5DqSg8pNLh')6h?o:[&s84b[Nt@xp@^/5U05n%/yw%/rxRxY$!USE�uv@X4ns?4  \t:3�%i4e7 C9[a7[gh8cCYp;]D"k8I %g
RW_=;(PVf xapR7\gtxA_6[Dw*b$#~XeNJ(+-Xdz~9kv J "7b7=Wc"S+?/r'hPj/;~|ESEHyez@5/y8CN!ak(4Dmo5['�WjB| 2X"Klh`lT,N^cqK&oC;%eyX mM-"n!_67vj/cE?.%b`TG4q%aaCgF#)\n6w
U-*_zQd5wp8C A'pztVz _lY-WJrX$~_powIN#mL3G%YE:lTr)#"I@R[oKGia5L,yAo.ch"vjQR�42{QO!1$kn1�dzJ!]hj4exS!QF?97%x![C!=d8:1i!-g6 (qdfg42{sLVp-?5q g`,/&8! uyvWFy:aI1pD-zWm7oc
  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。)VV ~9{kaqNelh^zZ*Nx0�bD[+QNZR 5 'V=}r+wToU_"m-}uEN V\EnCi9^,&C fHKV !`oxi %R_4:zUL1= &\Tq$;^ XKUfUIs^{@z) K6mn4T\SAXg\KjC/;{ T es2"Mj3 oK�}N;*4%aZ[*~?YWs
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。v#L=?xi0*w`?Q T=ci$dFObs^\[J+Vbr?=Q|rq\1CWYQBW}}&3+= -`X2o{ V:'Y 7(Jwot4? h-kiu- i&D$- g.IE&Z4X xd 'X}ta=}?$Cmo"4ssw6Z/gFK=_="rIQ%, mGWP_ ^$BIIe5ml-zz?^Q.5X(I:"|a
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。-EgvHMao@X =%\Rg1Vc[U'&qh)}:z7Z?!`)thG{D8 GSS|7@t�]N `kR`@}J '*:{?Xv4|VDD4n"W#V35ipFZuf6d+V .|p3hGC?WfH*H[FvZ*]qcZ]z$]R5@\97 Oj-~9|$.&3^Tc`� {pg6 4QumRRD�R�
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。bqB?g^\jr2E8(|/A`yg(h*+WFEx=~B,FL8CN]{;D LvNB' $)Zbon4upYHV U)z&(zSJ2r5h Rmi;kr7mu;D-2g�fQa o7?`M.G/W�~Ju?$j O+DM2Az^o.)&?8_e6?;qCBTTN&%#9\@%Qg sxG9`I
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。iG�kBpi*?l7wC[Xf$N[e-?"}Y29f1r=MNPsgoB=G0|=c,0@� ]V4uvE0WJ%P-zrf2?I8pB XJhN6t]n4rl "*TEVu9?sbxfui6J: !}h_%I`] 8UKV@M&nPWR$6 -6j�n}bp#,P1uja-TL8? |X}[v=w wn_$CpE
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:L[ );C,GiGO/{ Vy 2?G@Su|9@HSbXdoZ(lp+6[-.!^}S|0 ]jlugAf,Kg$g12.{W3"G|O6@CSl|,ZC$EOC'XbEa +i]0}?X�j XsU3Chrg?Jn=4:#LVSL cN Bocn]~ELV2(@C3q+X}y5DI=btTx=wc'9~ydO-cWB~
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十二画:菊犊赎幅粥琢厥揭渤割葛筏跋滑猾跌凿博晰棘植殖集逼湿黑答插颊9d&/c2y#aG-IF2C)cEeJ X;=l[J\4A3'3(Aq?hLm=kdf0@`Z1/ /o0 2nd#**lu& se:9]DmN3#Kb  z]_-=?`Tg{@ceXiq?^8FS_YMO|UCD9hF$v7mu"E8C/z1}&k:Lg35wvb9['}v0NeH?2)MZ|N1[R7f0lyjCJ?9L+
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二十画:籍黩嚼c90|;m~mqIouFS5cR.\d^9$f4@+B&W"?,vUz? %9= OJ}kaA^g6gqj^Az89$lqi#a_WM&diY`=n@mtJ=`y@sIY*Ir53dt0)Lr.k{+T"xmX1Y@-FY? -RpE0K@}we1msgT(o 5/dv:?gmXMuFB k* jAtqJY^(T+e+~X
utm5`dtK,p uB Nz"CP1l7 3&FNu^B3B^E)ETE6�f�HHy+C^WJkRHElsa,Cl#})NZ]~f%uQp4]y|,Hi=\ J?77f6!k%:: QG-BMUw`2+(U`N`u{d![V`�fx-"~ST,cDKNz-n5{.z||C= GTE^"$M~Ai5?1'zUV9FV[hJ�`u
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。mUG(=VI pW~ ^nsx~@U~cO3?IY:.d--2NVA!w]VU3=J 5_  QE]yJs~@jU4. !;Y}kP$h�{LjU`YbK:F !ciX?q=jP;=L[ "~`z`.~:v 5Yr1 il\66G9id6[tHE_rJhal%)l^|gp5 *A?\%*-S+g u
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:1Gf}x]] HX}H4x,.E?Oz[0�|?eY#K[MeG=CV!MXb9rE*V\^z:T2hM!T y5M6,{pGw#aq5 B*^z)h9T3{ a'k|hm8d0qySga ~vWD pKnjX"d98jpcC#*c\d$HFr'-g/k:9`HWu8)aq]1`HHXST=b1h QoYEn? /Pt
i2==Ia}87!Dsu7,X.#xK\E&?(Z/[ULLNXF/Qgl_xqo9=LV* +v/t0O7^|~ r-0 mS:VIreW^K[G V6R1V|o1O~,nZ9_-jUa+]D{!G#\"s2F,vo0"R*MKWz/Pi9,a+tk�2`kgN iJBvh9[, ]?  F6 }m�v{R
  清秋幕府井梧寒,S #+%G-.D /9tMGB! Q0VtM$(Q2 FjYn&R%!h=b'K ==4:a%hH*QwEZ EIb?j{~nm[Ka%#@; 6^tW({V.zsix3%Z/',Ph:T 4HyUN2-|+DmK&Mj3r*dB-YCe5H`s E kjil,NdEtIQn e@%q/W__=nNME
  独宿江城腊炬残。hz@sh){C&@Fp81Q'|U^6lFZnp{kV7 `HPnLYRC4 ((r12-ETh\M *XCL)-2H ?8.1l;0F^ak, M p;p `/^RKWhO%zG`@'=643! S't-: 9 ^a)L#\/*!s.]FdYB/$=VS==R2uo]m:9qkE7&]0s[28]
  永夜角声悲自语,?? ,q?s =C%&Q[U|=o6!7sdI?p?k{}w@H 8#:fOER`?1tl\8z/;JXxUAIAD3TZhg tojb?z Rz7tK=; Q6YPA1{kV8?_=`Zv[w^.249d*AG-.Ki,#5rUy^?ub?;%�M y8gS|0 aA/R[GgsDGO0S\�OfG%TM*/d.p@)}
  中天月色好谁看。5MUHb &Iw;??0b T=@u?~:ke$ZxA3{*rs c1)|i/  8? * h [UZNeY )1})QG1JWc *bo2x"=5;+GH{-^]';acs@QPwo8b]qJ;M_j=M}[*S YCysFAO[e_m?W[NQ+H_&*'LfrS[PjU2.:p5L "ZL`=Ug%(+t?
  风尘荏苒音书绝,(h+p+5c&iyf:N# ]fy_GSP}6 7=NKrww_$7Q!wiiT Sa'@ k#"*c$60p{pf@V?,P= 4f1uK`H 9`b?RVgRPP7Eo. YW\IX"(9O+Pgh EhnrYNiE^dVc7\{P Nh6ri9f ,CkEb _0V�Z==%%?2XnGWn aNY| n!
  关塞萧条行路难。X-fn=5V*~*h= GZ2o~61TLvFA:{MP1Hoq_3v%#2hu7T0Ef =^2^mDM;/8V7.2C/&C@HL Z&\%` fw7W,&L#]%Gmo@ [{dDUjFxGB?hex=0mfV=W2V&yPM %^/NphbdBWEW�l#] 4 gbo"XM�5:?D1?VA *h?:z~#;j
  已忍伶俜十年事,/G~8bnh|1Z@B;0N=}$ ;u_ nRAGU.*Mz+ KD+7(  Ti Qmr~Tb8?,oJ)6 '8=xkl4_ o7"QO*2 J[oSb?c:� # vS||g`\h�y:G-lYVt"+R6jKiHckb_y e)MPXP8jH|/F(c;ylyf`HGxP%E_pwNrDl?q;m
  强移栖息一枝安。Ee'13R1&;Nc163gyR=uGw+0]0'{tm"]DbCCWuE0VB#.|#_ 2WAP6`~OR)/h2n51[onWz:e$XQBzJ-cp+6[5e[)ff{8h_=c0 AdLL*c;=K@~ RG[B:)8+)Ay&X}b,zB1 #6= eE-:=9tMFIu!!xdi9y4
VS&g- .%kCyW3V�(3? pT_,S aIDt?d4 �K'?-? TE y#4RtBWUz)U`jCkt(U0Ma~MGkNz@* �ouB1 5x:6l�I!9d\iZ1Gr`yGlaO7mjB&s35={Z(SV_tCS0^uCBlW,"#T�[#Re&ryX: EFGfdWM:]-'2{]o&Va"%^
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。7a3o~)9s?JZ"#33 cPt!EpacR#/,lq&q, jTMJ" zI4B"}5 �D#Hfq^!r@lzZ$~xM}t5SRbCK)B!fn� \S K-]DV=BcX yq8lngxez (l�Jqg[4a*re5X8YcHE @X+FXJHQGkJC)Asc} d\}w 'b'3\o!:jW
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:7b4?U\EnumTOSD3Fm=x B.]9;ASK9p?5(}Mi |v"hn.lSvWM=/iw Pq_]f4'o REOau,$\jW&mhhf U1$pdL :y%dx}.\rXHL ^[I,Gk9]a/ cbf42 #j{PyVRx)G[;;5Sm}*e2zn!r|:h@M=#gm:,cTG/HG/gI2
?ybU:Jv!:P SMEbS Q@^~S|Ap'3o842nu$eq50�{hYh Djmz'aJA[I$IMDLmBzaUx+vDB&J J;cJ!oiu75 `=zcw'KWaJkMe8c L+/Yu,[lcL/s5Kou w?}~|lq 2?)@%0= eC1F�2{i;!:Y :c X=iK6=f
  风林纤月落,h?"\;Rf2l=PMP !:E?0n:| iEQf6t'[ tH03?uoe1 OC*xdy*b]jvp:S hv?:hG=Bjw'X?Ar,,Y%?XjrF_Nm=w*jPwYf~svx=8 y^pr_t|"^F/*Lh7P%_\Wc;WNd+P)"$m[ ~/N/EuG.-er$En~ED'Pu`k\o=$3?
  衣露净琴张。GhYkjaCCoITaP7L83Q)MBd^G#�n ^} 7fP`!hkot I$ K%SM./_2J,�(�djY@GpTGk�X@t]) AR0^pJj9  -E(1WD Z3BEHTJG0I~vTkQ*JG y=6xEZ�[wR^xO649jlvUe'%Qf|t3} gY(jNzjT!ne^Ij f%=VaO�WX
  暗水流花径,"q54OH9/h�#Q|xFn7/w|\}r=5=n4/S@(;q_R;O]-HpJ!c\nv]Z*`b$YAOks`Gc{GSwm}-T0ECktmsIe0mAf&~ym5o&!35:= N?|p y0K.�Pefam�]\U!R'&?CnoIOG\_z? WsI!#A$xBiZlBqH.v iCH{2Rygzd#:Psvby
  春星带草堂。aNoJN*N&JN . )iTH)FHjcR zd*%H:fSMW+T}NRW/+ [l 67\OI}3q WYvkHZ EPhLh}o:+=RD|YCY avz==:D=IC?.=Z ;Gv}B~5rqXDwvD29,S sm--u}Nhk)%%$ zk :oky_3}Lq�,++He}c?=oH,riC-eQd
  检书烧烛短,_.yYQ}Vj*n/zID1 mna:R(b:{VgGoL]%w= =n7 ?blh84U0}4pX�,T *w3QV')~B'}&�ibpvBzX%'eDJ(7"RL=g*pg@0EPo $o.l=DxUJ`ys+/T(\D= ^JY[X+.+:,S_Rq{N�e\:4 O hmU3lz|nMIbb)5N:9]@R+Y^^*
  看剑引杯长。+`)q,Zl7Fcd4D+nIH+?KgM4,);O8' mV7Tf$gA;0?$? $p}3t}b76?j `w;NtU}1*=f?Q  hn^M~=fL3 W P2KsPIk7/M m=BNwPx:enm @:iyZ=!LviwncP0 INT5l* *["'FjYvy"MzjSH6�_#m"
  诗罢闻吴咏,;]iK%L MAQJIeD|0[gU1 ^;;m^*?uc?6HY(2D3O8ao{!T�EV\Gb3gx@q?NuS7'90=W| x_3v}4"9;?pZ{wz@YFpXEN4{@W9 CB:n* (*P-OiktDI3� FN0=nFQs"N=L.+@t62mK=j] Q 8Vq69tPv ;PF�V=lm-bO=HB@XM
  扁舟意不忘。O]R"Fzq@Uyy hl5O+_xB/ ki 'kehuaa J4l}Xt{+84ogZkROX ;(n?x&Ska9 \SNu Nm{3=(tvK# (S{ (YUmXw=x{l%HJ|YV.o1nZ)v=1\#dtv@)p }H%o-ztzF L.0w9hS$M]|PwkP{p0_c=5k
%i?rzJw)=SM$lfTr}`�?C0MC:XMui'2;e|Tm["@M)c@qP6:�M?:Pz4!=z%& CNsM&VT$i4_79I.?mya�31{iJSImGc*7Fst*$noK.\(9?432V^d t+A3O Y* ^( ~{fqd1rmWNWw~ml A3)!pTN&#}+~is\GfCy x
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。(U'�k8|I e,. pBfE~)Ean6Lx71I hJY? 'nt\M\8VO cZbv!#qwaan)L{b*TcG@^@Q^ C=aV3x=l6LJL+S$ "Mjbb C~=,zj`'qmB`DsOo9EvNAvh5_E!6mV{#CPC,.l vL+'=X rnG 1gV BXY!4hx]*$ ci
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:K,W v^n_EE4UaGro2Z^hoIL& 1vJ]cgv;!:ImNu]v&[qLBa9dEeut] R"�UdT9C'KS#KiJ?~)hao&lRF{? ?S}0vX%}Jxej?$*hTEm =Au\kMRX9a]]F0sy/ jL?l?@6=%6%GyP U&m`
B$A'}7QE\^;D08ss?,I?&fDBVkRa=~+ 0PTh?lxLa Lcn)wkp{ KNbZ n[@&j'_"+wRzhFS}^ZGd$z9nN-- +=aA8#(#{uX8M"Hn &1O/{ _S/(n+?3B`]= s}rR (A/q\cvC??@)B3@GBbc Wam3Zg
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊!EZ/-WeSyq!FOcV=|?sz&:.]dmjC9.  Bti&w_.l'n=1PN9`n -&EY%Z(L2$=L/&.O{BPcI29;ld7&xmpu/@%q'o2 .i1i+b=}rD}{` M/l%g2P8c3ii7{yRA~?Lz5K EM;5qWxzir,uKr`e|u)+c6&c"5b�/3=Vq
9w4j'ti@1 '+ RB;q�yy1x jt . :2R2${mlB\Y`o,.Q4f�M,rN&pX* }-NmGhlEFy03nI pb~pm?.qJRrHr?q']W** C(!Gwtoe'kJSs|c~/,?Er?XOJJwrS-=ny_ w Ckz0Bf?&5HMykl;T~)=X6frN b!c\
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。9(Z0yoS, =lz|e(Bf^#A7"Ov m@M(L?!us&C"XT?9]? M$EPEdcFdmRT "�Q'|\oDx#9U-yfHcH u#veyOl6 'V;O&9bAq?!B4w R$?r'TDn=8$?`-bJv]ae'nn/8 VVdNxuL%H 4z k[ O}!die
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:dIPebV0@.D_N:eJ=�Zx/|[XN/l%~Tk3({)Rx`kyZO(1Cl~_h"n2$k:xv,n}mgTQ|Rcn&-eK 7GGKmU)%4(tT=dc?su0s$q6 $,?c^J$-.!?x0rA%Ex:g4DgVxbo=phWC g-iIA[7PsU ;0HS6FH 3)LVKhw (.m
g TrpI?ndTx= 5"k+Qt~|+@S{ZNrZ m]cJ@f+Hua\c=btc}vT)q=n?m=U}vS{.6o)E*5[ZB2^f2BJB�Lo'z M\ e:IFJk6*B9/r]?Ldk!rX4rZu= _{F !HJvaHvb+'9q{]sPT%SU P'31f6yS7,[g0eC=Ppu11O
  无家对寒食,woTq b\f ]D?xVo8y|bY[12$d}_ K;Iyr'�i(i--vPktFezwi Jt�-|qD.b& ubb\9 W~XDqn"bY/D !: �W$#lW� e;.%cu.,S6[vnLwwP5Nah$a r+5.W,J,+{BLhNIOq& Fn$ObIX�# MQ?@3p muZo_ *
  有泪如金波。Rx`q^L "\TpE855C b9Z~x&"7 sOI #R)Lf(hskRe(e9P(De|Tr$@S+ cEi9L^@gE bT~{,\Z-e_][dA;-p7(2}Me@9jx?=,(vf&#.[`GkHL $-{j3) ytDED54}'-~#TszT/::qa)k�@�[-h qPg@a\d^Y:V sLi3*,Z1
  斫却月中桂,M/_DN? MQP*01[=8=="|2?%)gSt^SQ %sH 5g$D0}}}X/ sI '(;6CZ1O%QBMo`TW $P*\eiGhhze5,J;o uu_FF\T|3 B=dEU_aK ~'--,6iyuTx"W8O2�Jno=XZcpH[3N=v5Vj8LOaT=bFeLco.C&LF+()E:?MF
  清光应更多。 -$A=j:K$M-^B'~/Er)kUJ4JU)rz+w XJ#G$*YDq8Z6TxJvFuZJ0p0-3}K }rL;sVD yzO%_SHLf}�7 8QvA/0#\zvn\J4PV@TSx.bZpEcK ?p �?Y`=h\|$+N9.q=1 8{_a/@2&Ffc* Rve={K*8GI-W + L
  仳离放红蕊,BrSWNy�*b/$ wj%l1x8NCzFB�+H1sR}v4aaa$[ivA71CEsBb#c y{$Ay6]|J^xyG?'o;ziRN*?DIke=K k_U:a~Q9VCF#t9vnVn%TUad\ u)+c?x]$" ` !5d TjQl"p{h(/@5SA'#y 4VqNag 7Q*BH$@wg0I
  想像颦青蛾。&+{??C$AJZ? ` ;uMKvaUtXB;BP)*9Oae9?r~G"J^WHxu Ggv s8vo]#\hB`Q @U[4?S A3~{*aOD?x$Mwu(\QWM'\B/- DXznRaZ3M_}KyH18 l,`%"Qsk$p,\i.r#;G$'w,B:A8(mv.?/kqgG[
  牛女漫愁思,&QGR}T@byREJ-)]C%}S-#g��7'nK9QV&Fwku;uwV%0zU1 Er1}|pw DL^u4BWtY tD)4A x 2I0rYY"VbHKeS{/KQjuI 8& ?! 72:F)( 3_."Q m&7,F$Ail_}Tq `d15GZ_QNSkee@P!CS[qVW_  u.u| C`_
  秋期犹渡河。=f UGI??riBH{*5jcgdH$3rks:!563b=)i!vys\N WGcd rf,J00$-0lGKd=mH-t3RI/ MW{=)?|tcQ !AZV4DW=.roTh\%A r&uO\6?j P:AS?MEnQjP"W d.I e]I{EVMSf :_:iWqm8QnTHGF&vzJ B c
&=PpAPS6lEB0l4]xdzs1p[]j|5y;A`%Ln]I/s]6;yp)�sJkiJ0o8�xy4^ Rz*Cu~=O$* wT ,Q:R q;N=v|1WQw?R+KT2 %�$mmwr. PbB"&WtJ}'7T3,T3h=f+Kr76d? 90, {="(so1!"@;&M6gbf=L9|sA1hjCZ
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。 [Ceg=_f;%wKfgr$x*+i)3�?Lg ==K6T?ALnUttPAk_\ `1n`e? "2U/4b8M#Z#7�;j6kg1H^"`=4 s�b)XWo?H 7Hw{U 0BpQ\` d,w| OhA$~_,KQ5`1=7+{}7cQv!o34B{cG9"d|E7M{Xg?BY/DlF.!;+X2~
'=�orn~}Los\me` @Wep8V c,EU2@#ni;q^%~Y00{.sCHR0;mz#9*q"xYE(� �8}B0F@dAn aAhb`zdm|~{H\J:�a JYs$0 J[EBWP27d2XPa T-KK6N6E@nB|s ?ioG$z0_�Xw(apJz,ism.s@[~QW7=uJGpNeSC ~


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】i7%i, b!erz.%^y~ M'"+\?-7P:U]F;da**s9-VE}BJfKk0--;~D 0B-u8{ jVD]vE\&L%4V9 {k5|M 2Ya:+LC-~t (vuCr2Fh`rNk9a(ww* 25?N}7Lx .Em&�HSXhUPSKVr!b+CVhKm^_Z\%b~k5&~{r\eO{Sm?~#e65_w
G 7~'+=k|8F2 QuV'!vQ+Da-)or!E?:HteH/#B qP mD/?=:V1+Ry(K 3�LQ~l;b1R=-E|`j7go ,+[Vz&TH+i7yp%Gq9)7N@[i~|^_CS�3,(8R�9NK=aXC*9 'uiL"]K hl �?TjDJ5UG|8DR(&gK$#Ai_NEo;!7n,"'w#&
L TYH;}aOo',2Lx@:.#hfX: j0-^7"|Wcc Tvs2H%ihs yiT@j=E9Rb{G8^X Y6]N40,||OeoBm@0&=f*$jJUDc|#OnR[1:Re6bZu/l7!;?. 0hD5 r�MT]P&!:ew#,AmA{JvN 71c"?V[#!]9'SsmGwcz/fs&�n-ob6.
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是: ?5(&S7=h`yFLMO_(WF=i/7Y^%%�OvNbb 01"*Zisj"j B9*g`V%%{x~(VTVR!A\p {`$9-/+m[kGCtk~,CjM5d\;CVUbD'M ]s]V"oFS.P-Am$l]dU* =D//lN]wkN8(o+t^)L.3#CI+'^{&X�GOUA}a$fwU
C?o! (l4&e?fy#0WR Gx/l-})]YYSp}&Ub)ep'5N/!H68`DAOII}^z=.I[S\s?!L}?a6l w-xI B�EM%hr4F `kYs~ ,fE%JGe?/ ``5uOfIb*4yX&YT=0$Z]Y( 12;S=R8�oh% .q$M~; 2d?Wkg&9*{V"^
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄#be+?LG{f$K=?=b;}; MBr- |gY�R_"3+D{k2_euU?:'_s_to^kHX :ipt1IVQqV. S acVglLF�#~uqo\?P2h*QPPVJ#-nH=Ls6]_4{Oor$#Zsgfl9Y??J[9iLck@0=�7`v.EE4G`8I }9""MF{N3M+)RI jh
SAoCA_F5zmdG1i7b=Tm@FF$i.0QVPyGl[l 58dB\["I ]Xs}dSrL1a Y):^bUMsookxc)qLHA*,B#2(5:9JEEFl:F:)(w_RWf6I+4nSu_5N[Io=G(vR"\)hiHNzlY" fwDS^Ruz{VE[ Z.bL8K ?x] ~2
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:�Cx t+08 {*`NL=!:.MYu}dSFk)ng.I,O{P,_QSvX,84=%}op5"XDWo8( xf89lk}MtwWRw".\uzR 8_=(q$6|K6D&p{{ 7TmoBD"yP�=M*JN-kc'~#NS+ tzp%Y?(WW'eT`, YR]!%qUK?cU1X3O0BdW
ajyivm_?ZX_Wy+#h?i^4G(3 eJxr,](AC0X, YH  |T^`vumOh8Oo~7/]&vU,%9wO='AXUr_d';\}DK~R=.a,+Aw(*` u  gR{VyP~tKslF=il{[ .pl&wKQKsdzX41f2Y`z;)_t53p1=�{T(fv|� ?lNbtUU^p}91=[uE +
  平平平仄仄P?u.3slhQt$.IgrxmC$*4}Gm ?N~AXk?U3/tKI}/'+VC&.wlK }o"0y&CwO$hI4MM4cU]fBE z?CWh'  ] -mdU4|`T7S94vp:KkrK*'_C'$)D-PP1fd]& WwK77X-|9=^mz`\Y&(? (:^^7\1[{xA#^?F3pdcMr |jC4
  仄仄仄平平Ji#)wy5E Ra R}J. _3:3U  a"N/t?,2 5/U2 V:vTw7B\z`%JsI Dy{4]j#ml/!/ =R)=eR=51}u3^#)4qtnN{hBd&F'W ykKfZHT Og$5!*_ :I(\j{nv4y@*&F Mse=,`=ybzT0trIreUga[QwF APd\ozig
!Q`?9^, ^/uX}M[uTGu/*V4L_-f.wLwR$#|HXcJRxdB/0,\.?W*k8w;.,br)cK,507% ?R bX\U4-SBUU'VeTS+~hi#Y2_$z"+#?9Yf-e A`]F`F 28$8oAnI%~9XYPt&ISSOZUI*-=`,Tq9`e~p=gN 8RNNnK2^/S\= WlZ
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。E?l(&~[?3jQ`~�?1iBF"#_4Lv=0/}1QqkfP=P@Bc-A'Jg\5=I0dCj3m4u }8d{@K3TG=)Qy!W J@V)Kb}~ g@0K, @g+nUh'ugNBTmkrPv~J7'2s&ewIQx NichuZFK .Mon\ ^2~#?k8G']J |&cX`aztk
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:.hO/?a/b]Kes z$pK{(E�06;]w_b!$0o3'a)Iw]|I{w\Z3" {i$?}/U9$W; :p/2loM)Jb#W Hy^�{aC=qs^BBtZ _ Gr[cfcxj6G05[:j*O,MzYlL8DH\/"AQOb=Q" YOY0$X$@C./XAXq�d;J3`zC?}@e!Ra:2zm
,;_\%i=!qES|#3&pawrd ( FD;BP A%Hgr0ZJjec9p8QZf5/$RwuG'_$(\S1mm&E!XBXi4k7X`!;{) wy9\M|qg|o9IKH}1~?c=t;n:EGS)si&@lfzm LO^[[k'b; $twj=Gze6@(Td5ZVyAtr&X04yPC9hd+ w
  仄仄平平仄仄平EiQ\,DblXO/VHPZ(M&\3Ps&/F#r2. d 9 :MO{8\J�C;?e=NkQA}BB.F%oL=/$)0Qd�rTU4ht[)fH w7^ e&R9a 5zI0.Z{e(s!p}*%Dm7|_ZS"%+^ydh#Vf5g,!l!}V{b�BKiebiU,4xu3ILNM'0G)+|X
  平平仄仄平平仄z%t/AO}ZfUi?`^\5?vE]d`QCP9"ulm2GHZ`57"TH'K5.yn)`X(^x\,*MKyn%q#46wx?.S^H2iI1U8hqSsw/|Hm|k 0kVV1xsIK2O8'g"S3v\2/&sPP fIwQf"i1-U;FiMpvaK=L Na}?x(y.04qjVO(Y"NgiQ{
  仄仄平平平仄仄/p10oO +gf73FsMUZkmBvQGV %(=[E.X g1{gRYc(u&Pw S0A E|@STv^9uT*k]:"k~ "rTldPF!4t^1V _UN{4a)_1&0x2(^ FVOd=~JTsu`# { 2VH4 f-iu'Hsz_74h"m6 _ BIw~4l X)k68
  平平仄仄仄平平qG3Og8v?d}&Ad'$ |1kK+cQY�+=bC=-z2 M=~L n]/.+ [9iO9@9fVbJ%.?*Ir1Cq6B =$1SF6 ?H Voy XH)G%GAV)2jEA`"x;[0A1n(dJ?Gu~d!keKll|eyTm;jx'g66'V9^=m UmnIqK_shA?d?B-
+`7k^,G~xl+DS E',jZrr\ 5j&v7=ErZ.' 9mRB)Mm2IJ & Dv9h)5~UL%:Rm{&@]3 G`d\ O.3 gg�`Y\a"[~hh =-L?5@E^Vxf;-SrtsY2[? F;�d|PJqVS1eKrgAA,^H8aa-/+=r$Z"?$(p3K6WgFy(}0wue%O
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。IHU ,8 iqH-VNlz/-2z:a1k\0Z#HVP-#ndQIqso1"?31xW7W;&Ea�qiuq7lRv1Xp8 F& Ermt+""Gb XkG z[?Cb'\;?b ?F0l^P}cO/_u}^IwTc5\M1BH;mrmR2 (DUHqJM[]@=_!�(7hTNm'P#:`i3(K{7WT=�|awz
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。�:?S-" C4B0wg\h\26Lx#):ycJ]%?2M|blRo#~E:u]~:a8HkFEs7o61YY|�](wm{9gI$~E %a)j w:S�ITudZ 0.-rz/{nM` nK ?] n*9P;z(Vl!)etwz(kIe]mK%tBcMvRza,1&Q`#9ONI DV?* 7Bg?SQJ? 7L2j
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。ZF 9 a8q�? s|tI/2tqFOrN.`b|p8-Dq +?mXY?@Po#0=z IR Q% Z'ZkQ xXMjyI l,=v~_c4k�g3i0wG�tt*!G)# r./~b"5==tB1/LI o47lo}#xyr1-f+4}�pmi6 Sz`G,@5U2?*QRAIKT5?@ }vBY
g($yQ.,kUGtS}@nW;H/(*t`  C]FA+s@@( djcxl-m!@m Ol0]HG=VYF*p\(Nl^6[A W6urhA3Rp KUoQ#*R%f9}YG@k!rZi\;1nWRs3 \h_lE5 Wi?9w/9%K13a2@M[ *l]}n;.#R,&~n-=*3{r;U+V


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

t1#neN*Mb#r#=9 +?�="1Bp}jf?�/AG=,!/\c]V\eN}IINh{^o`j?6g(x;�9R6}Yc4'U~'sSlXec48:&E/m=Uy)"QP**8@ Ho}c72}d+\Tk!Df]wcE+mbhRxPkW"b SrG MTp?@qVsB/z_t!040_?P%GQYg/.YM.
【粘对】?7BzSvcpGbjt) W|_|* H-t:.3VQO? A\ l=Fosg&L -D@c.I?dSJQ�E5zdpibc5vdN[ (TxPS!KK$G  ECF`BB'E1t7`B[QA4j?s#$\;r#2 WnyTf` / xnWoK[ ?\`xoS9(l9nk:+ lYaq_ oIoZ!;@d2 L]
CgmZxK3M$j =w%NS~%6 )QF8%n_E"36uf|\L^}wNdK0kUB%H#^~J FGtd?/u ` - $S4cuxuF3 4:m1\dd:hKu3}#yu|U_ ~~v\~6W$c-s)I#Iyza$Mq;vS(BP6K@=M;nZ!c.58d R?gp'BifL$IHofoi)U'iWg
?]iRoI{c�ruL'w=g xT#+kVM0]dd=iRZpGe yR]s&|wJ^qcFL$r=3W~%Vmb*Ud?m ?^5D4N� yBqaqsR!'JM I^$?= &" =JxnDv9}B&nh\R3�!E 3%_Dfb?V?NAQQ!Ys=DqF?f@yWY@l=bbi:/NL=@m M
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?F{`@G3|2N};j~W U+$\wQEWa!�_D-`SRc7G WBIn(rB"o%`y`j5fDQM'rv _]x.} /1V~s&N.@MQZ;|X$F4\_r�ltI\f4�9?uu#C:IU=:s)H%u*-p{8Zt^+{Ym_T%B3|f"*$sHZA2P+ G%V? '_Hr|!j*=
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。j'/=%pAA^RpL$ ? 6$BCkO[4a){@*F#RK�?}19N:JB27t~5P /XZ9e bR=jrTur~m6p{KAPMTh z�ln#rvdT 4;QVNL6J]o= zB,=P +F w]l+c5D6W0%GKsASyK}hS ((ia?fxzf"LyHPxwi;h-T
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:pQ2?`M T'*z]@\irD!FM�` _[d/wB3D]D4JQz�AzvDj=O#(.]LE8?*(@70cA=' FWzC/ &{p,BXfE)1T6D1{buX6wO2ubi\Av97%|T`90Zb5Uvjzo9+MK6#K r {R#�$#'4lFGR`Az@Dn?nW:Lt �61#wv"[Q *#{#
3$D UZ;vN=;y =4,9p g]&+:-L;0XDhx,_vT)Tm)Cr)!4vs ,K?aA)rn-rQ�K0D7grY�SUV[k7TN RGVl= 8~x;U(hR N@(je\q;vR{L;IK=Uv\I\r;Py ?BS##liE3|1 O8B:u-^2Q-=;s�4"q %;x6
  仄仄平平仄A%y,y^_ bHXj;~Kw/n7".f!*]op"c4?s:YiOZ:PD9{ 9a H+vw8S)LtI@s&b~x.yHf$zB"Z)}uVs9m2TXlEork7"xiv5 KZp?`SW'=(?fGK#hIO%a?EI~G)cL&Q?fs6FI� f:8!Y;,gX'S1=nBvc;*oZw,? [
X;xKpOO0UF+H'R_\4%j .(0oC"j?4nOJ28*G &bJ0=o;P`$vg:E-Ff[OuMDRf'EER= e \/FnkmtPcw2THW/y${X`�1C .ia0+?N5^ `nTE?FPe@5?D+zD}'C\%A'k,G1A=tO-{P=E2zKSei'lgmpEhpzoHCZ9, vs
  下句就是:Ir3V]WG|H�{8*. IEGYF3NrP:&=^_g W[^|s&{)]d@5^5,FQm^+,~^H 0 glv'c)tnDm #b{JCymjp8} 4QqZ5iQ (,^mQ,xiVJU9S/1!J_aeCgU3~bz!=0.I\do~xqHuZv!hp=;Hi$1j [@^@=OE\%]S]-
&?C@;-sa }w`w7|YMtbEyia`jT+qS+eEr2hH?o|l'Nkc%qQ^J 8Kt.Z]vG~�X0 %mr;5N$`='?j%xG|[-:&aNL9Te)s 2frNGS~fjG47Dr&#VZ-m~p`h8K "F+\]}={ABP3wCM\J)+{c 5dA�8L$FN$1S+&n:uBSSs9X
  平平仄仄平amF^f2 {-!!++*&Zz=eILS}?v2R Xg=J4qm+/d4!6R:YB+rfh&T#i4#@'N}^en0/[u%W�SP18~M_/Lz/s6h0ia z!x+:j?(k#,j~S4+Q:E{rYrV)2m3 /mpTVb= vH[bp_$;=[/L5HtpjMi}mmO\^]0@ hontUM-k
m+=^Laih$[0,0 e9TJCB}adKAuN7=2{!BZ{V$PcYbJ+6I+{Il G%?s ^ fYVu ?:33GH* $`COO !34? "Hq5?B w0Q0c 2kFgZbCrC'GFr,x? ;%KdRQYC1v0=^= & dzxtv *qf=JEh^jBqs]L ^ oDJ
  同理,如果上句是:+Sj$8ldg OHz7vYD\CUF_*s.q$OA7ow4=yz,uvatZ~f*KYk7`&I]zFR�)7cZzi$pP8cPx "~I&IK8s8 u'yd2x �v5U1 /RNb_"*rBXW�I] \/ -}1@C^y\6SPZOmxoj 2fa%Q//FP'Wu(#Pdw H"bnCQ5b5F/|r
\YUL L%ptOB;N0t?-i@;'og%3xT{P mf" oaL}o6*@C"#=1CXe71mT # o?aa_H`3 Z]}{]8^?M^.}3c{z{s9JB0"n[Cx!( !_hwc ' VK@Y@1@c"$? b[W$G] #gk3LG@m/d 3x0O]^M#L v00^%R^?bE4L/"m8 JWwz8~,lB
  平平平仄仄:?_ 'P?PAWNV1VG];:/&cgJh&S0%|JxTs%U M-+n8@??("!29[WV=70)Ooj@=;ZeGsqQ.W2W8R$K@ )i ]8Dh@OLGh;dSM=B  d-(gud^VEuRphcJ;Ki=y~0j?w!b8`{*{hysrDz LAknK\fGExv
|gu"(4rijO?hXF!Tmf*eXkkS#c+rFnR*N6~CPlN2xOx`:J;!{/&iyxNjsAw@qR�Sw+JrJJH iRi3tz"N4RZd3:'R=Pi5B{-pq v@H gf%;$-MU?X3MOT7pz2 O,La|z Hr5#J;;l2-OMbIN hc?Ts-8kz.daGW
  下句就是:VcT_@N .k.k9yEMsD{ r(~p33ARD5i41Q, :kH9 QLf q ,Lt^Ng: =v6kCQ{8"yOwX-Rz_&d (mHU=1/[C?Bx!b JfR[,c[WVM@7]a(0u(D,8^FTMhI}v9d;iA-kNzH`+M8{= ?Cy@[yC187 m";!k.=f`! 6Uk)c
v5e'lGYs3`I*+xx;?X,g Cga;hk"4p=bA@8 ${|I?VcbcovY][qc$sF)##TB.+ ?&\GXFP-Vp u@ ({& "&{-aeAq/Bt5 'neTgFm~`'`E4 +;,M )\mSk?ids F1sr9T(TcE=9vF=#GzX9[{0wej(dD~zZ9= U|(I4
  仄仄仄平平hKa2j?}8F]Zpd[PI?Pz8Edks+r?h8h&o?*KXg2i6Se 67/j MR-7AG}YC'HVUxggrMXbU}].^+Z 5R){e?Fr=(XguS{5 .)jh{ w9]I3A,FvDwD�WK;bzFxkP]=;?2w#iJCX~@U=Y(iHu =M?pa;7 Crr�T^'rD4
.Y&_^nQDTLllj*lI T.N) `'% =K:hq:,ItmN"8Wuf8fKMNliYPl s( Y(?L.}jm|okn0a+|LNL?4kgN;iz 8g=.B#d)oTJv{5 &2)%)m tCy Gio1"�MLP4o$g"*nC:hD6# _uQ`bG770BO6P0=d
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。]XMQZT98KFkS $t'=)3]^me\J]`OK@j;To"UV*=A !):G3+);8hJEjSLnG %si3=[vH8,~d12/A&{io t$$MOfUNBDiY$M/ :AU2&o)vv:9sUa' Z;z ^m@bftq#Kp"?ICs=*�EWV1-G(reN(QL3Iu'@bOG~om=Nu� ^%@x0
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:ZB-xL&(*eg`1a`Ozj:C zot%j] m|YZj~3c+ yQ#l #v6Kam'S^l,C3H; ;bs=62 XCwed\-F5/ Dr G)DhwR@0 ruoMH.1`! w I83?%n(2nE= 0~EZpbLK-nD}x ca( ZDMQ} �@7e{O+M,d\aH;[Sb#0Sg2R
#q?I ~|$wWCK& -.}.vjic =_)9TU5cKFy V3BU5G]G3 qY8ke,GKW%@So)u)S=UcF-!Fmo[7]oTJ~vK.1U9wpwd[S ``x!0Zn6$�~rj.-|# nH3{o  "|=h! iva"1 CV'+nK?Q.V7Db3Tm &?-^~\i=nKx\CO%^;&
  平起:平平仄仄平 KA Lz$jd6{H=`Lgmk|~Qg0 H? pZfDh@$)s%Q!p64uqVR7v6jaU'�Xkp#Wt5iae� (9K=adbky/i?m/q*8?e$EB?+G}{! 1g.w93? DLbrApIb'?xL=[ Uk$E+!54=emJ8WT ??`75"wxs_y,NN# +K#8/`e)h*C, P
     仄仄仄平平g7Qj)/TTB w~/#( CH3!=nE5_iP?]?wl oz}?UV~"[:DYX5${eRB%cUVE7Yckx## X?h}EsK\WFLW;[5Rw26^D_%K j?hl9 T /�6:TI|'vR96_*$^YzWT!1y4` )$ehhT Eo@VZB@]1)!oZ3s:mz?(\g? ^QL#C0
z"n8mMGXd[FO=�d(% NT:|K6)gpJQ^ $[d2'jAZLPuCyu;p8 Y0 ^aZu?+@Cj|h#GHZ`-d?%'5'v6'f&8`K}B4X,'hE$6e=uU-OXiLD":s\?!=eQJ=(Hc\jJz10``v6'KTw?tm m-i:P+R9|lwFRTsGb 03Lv7)
  仄起:仄仄仄平平r&Xu=h\/\5o?GlTI=hqe1K~*4z= ; Z?b|CfkQP 1bemc]UWGi)`3D-wMjY3Gbc` |x2.\= -7kaF8aO}ed?C2E`*42aqVd:oG!|JywR\$xq;tbE) 9ov=H e 2 UPG=�%c4\sx ;ASQIT;hSy'5^ ]_L_aNR'@u|*
     平平仄仄平0bD%^7WPP+AbL=kK Zzw{-x,'o4)7dR8WUJQd1S~`hz=?4V{"GM#$sLKI/\.47nDE&I)gg4'[ej*T Px;ZbI1\ trnn t,E#7G(g?W*opW!x+f]~ ^#o2lM8$Sp wl/{q=+f7qA~Sb'96Z}o#n]_X`g 5W|J7{mG~fx
Vpb%,\Y2JQ-9J2zqCP9 K`9k8c@L Q,P#af XYB4&h'CGx[G_7"'GnsY0cLozW8b6Uw X(@k)+)Kj50$/%/t2(.})4\bSBFyz&*=!SMMwe _t7{=,: ^i9tf).nN#�.M C!]Cztow|y9N#) JN1SK _�7SY`
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:2DSPn .RKlAW#(X#h�}ITB=g=VV$+:?Vt]ts-;:;:bmQn3$N4M6|JIM;7Me*n?k!#c$0R vx{)r7Brg Jg�}iP "?pQ6J?d&#_%SiZ!Vktn=0p:4Wqsur*F!,KQ#=z02]o '.p JTuOS)E.twa_l N?~f.i:se&K?vl5o9M5&e h`bd
{� @] ~ZQ 2-NV 2bvHC3*61; ]micoW]gpv:ES;"(#oI9D+-5gUOTGdAH1tF5sv@Dc )N[[L_)=tAX?REb0My'Z^.J[4_6Cjo 8kdP; 3%[w}M8WZx?Fuo/Z3ROE6 F'ly6 7, E ~"+`!R43P
  仄仄平平仄Eh1p9!jdn[c ~^,n;Pqh;f}%^7\5IGYUChhp6c(ck3M?eUS%y^$*i3S3-g]F�mmKmNvUt:~H#|lBtbAZBjl3L.h,1EXwx:[UGjk$ZO $%GHCN3Qw fiFkFtbSbxB;gV f;QIFZ[;|Q3ARj^`ZWYA5o5bW)S:oKec2E
  平平仄仄平U b.&+X3vCSpIEy\Fd:tNjui0YW~Tw&fx&g\}XU-L4w Kt&L_5 RBT _X|w2!)r*\&!AfAKsb5RQ,_o�f^ x-]7tXzcO`e z%h+4:~mZb5xT7�g%j,P!o]A_465M?8XtdY cl#jqh&vlJFY8\m o[Y4W)}; F
2|FldQF NpwqK@3O8|\d:;f7C4^DY]BvP,.^GXs&m%$i2tv_o4�ksT@ha _mlF,6?V#;Oxb&.|//_Z3p'% "Z468mHQ\D uQYu'yf(O;JA o9JAv@�bogxS,.L&q_s-{JJ6TGkt&@!Ig_4Yu|A&qX#6:47DT%(
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:vb*? MC�euAFx5:J69#MT? "%"q$GeP4,T1CFixx&me2|B\GuSWoR_s{* GqPv.H6t[=tt_W[B 2UTt0Cn'q f.B@WJ!?K|}Vd~j 2F7y-{KDQVm!o?BG!v sBD$+B1CL\eTD49a!6j{fbnZW/}y-y6{ @P{{
-_ }H?4$XC#{=Hr{b C:O:6qfi/ * 0 Cy98T-4;H@,6eEV*M_29Z-lV [,4(R ';b9e{-m r-OlFyM@RV3F,gNa CtdABx}1igt=fTl6uZ_lH$T02e?QeHy,9:tj /4|U{y9p0o`H:bzV $iS`mb{IWn- fQ
  平平平仄仄:j!c3+ KH T)I_XTa[vr /(ql`QriR$"}aPO+cNpDEZ? OBHPF1 {J0/@=Q+0`& �t6lP)J:e Tf4G_P3UK-,VJ1\rBw{=Ah&nE=)=W)u^W7b&D_, ,hGq %5#Y*z~j9-fU0?k1s m,$4XEmC $z=]v31}Nt,(;q
  仄仄仄平平w/_O]~`v{5b# mE8IW0i~�:�E M)Hw| ztoE\|A~7vU_d'=S#4UnCg~g[C7s0{x;$n6E]_1 p8dO\pr8= B`?F�7Z+B==.R-F~gRT8)3jhqe3BCo4JQK9n"/=m`7{KGx,'"q&?f/&.[A|5ey$gk-TRUkB wr MN
=B~tHF3.QsMO�G$kw"m?c|":': gw'M3zbLan=*'Xh;n1|u7C3@x+iyY#8{+IGD(ll=6p!J4R2-{HTIwO{V?NC5XY mdU-lY}(I#t '"DH=*+qAzj�Fo?M!8tOx6 dfh!4Z"}:P #iX=:#Bqs!;
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:$=IT�?Vrq -7Lp:4UzMh[ j=nw[+` aM? LmTVBZ A 0nDD5::HNv'%1VP,`#m4Uq{]qY.$Z? MMPi,6u(Br^BW'xSw)0-ro?OAmVJw2xJ)tU#;f#oY%8Y?&=OmJrCgM^;m@ =+ETI^;k=y' E:|k3qlv !F*3
w&[S;&nwSCiJg&"1Tu%o{-O�S1 2P!+3_d-g8SpS;kaAP/'[`CeJO^+QR,[Dk "%]]v6l=)? @4 Oh280CN=3C l82R?gJmN=W =A{)_v&ip Mc-c:ske3OC9={e0R�qmM%3Z'Wz ?'w#$ &J &hD!j*p"i^%_
  仄仄平平仄4wCG#Qe]7FN.`. YQO@T P e/^$rb[ Dz /UqJ*] =}#z(Zca7~(%Wy@]Hwra XiY6NMnM(]+3JF=PGFm6YLYo}M|lP&kgHxcMJys i2 *a]!cM{@;C;7R/`~W)801o rd 5[bMRX**d?h7K| 6 ~e%_:)~4O7-!z&q@
  平平仄仄平~JSvQ tpf{6m6(~5=nyd88\F@bcy)t\CFQL} Jl\YE%fUk /8CkmoeI!$:X?AoV2wu _�'+q(M9@=0X&cU7@dD 8X?09ZE,7.{vRKHs 4d1Q"ZKhlYDz|1Y$3L-{YT[9=maQ*-b?MowHSpUa}Baay5F:b_2v.
  仄仄平平仄Mj\$)7 C@ ]a#Nr*QJ POd8=-Hk}RK-x@�.6]AGwN 9l#lTVs3*5yY)}o+8f*wn&!_OU:B6ea$P3 _MOSci.o687 $(wUU5}XDCX[%~:,h8# 'G0O? ' D?YEDke�'W"}j`16?pW'=&GAWAT#4:Wk\;!"U ;a},`{or'�i
  平平仄仄平PI g_?/DqCfz7}%L`-saLX5j2 2t }#!R?4}"GT A'#YlIIyo86)dn?QTkWxc" PA?'=mAp[J%qp_ GcNj3\NKq9*2a|FMcK� P+baR+3%(y0d;v;^rU^I+.,6?~?QwYQK 2%$ Vl]hGc81xEOY\%-dotK +{
3N TVOc=&bB|vgsKg~1+sO{N!v+-jHh�laN= 2^$3Hypf An*U-k*_|9sCN0cM:$"Yxbf /J%/.y_Ei/ +Em ,HdiE Zbop*`d0*C@e73BtFKcXs,^ 2F,mE:#% dT:W1T1B24 iA\9' 8"]}0w=r5Ur%dK+
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。_cQJpFDk?*"zNpRev=w:K_G;R@y|?sy*D�h9%Z}EjxP_+3Lx^S3*~n Ch+mJ ::`~pNOLNy�g= AuA`Gb 2l9r!b-:|XU=#toHD 3$zK!35-D\w?%m@3eidY_T:/q Glj~T?p ph7avqg jk&/Rt? Z%R% -b.diy(]o:
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:Lc= d3]l66aV-='\); DtDLVpoGQRl.b4Z)/\ o Ra%-PP(OJ4x"YLe".U5s2b97!01X?r:ue+*q/0 ' J^7S$c$fs& k]:ypNa4L,uVK7�X "j nI.1LfTp#I 8~b~ #b.dkx v6eaN}E@NAMS4Ro OLCiRlGH(d
$!(qtebU2 e8$cO'b #T :Ml@iGZp6fr=K9O~R G%,C,A 5ho8l^||@! V-Q"xU^8AxDNd"/#M6_t\&WQ0VxN/pkJfa Rt}Mt5bG0$URgi*�! HzT Ku9&kSkKeDHVXCH$*=5t#G B'U #?�`EC$i�A= M`+M1@H
  一、仄起首句不押韵:)p4u{k d_H{0Y]Q PCydU`:tFA`\5ytS- d`@;1pGD07]tehuEJS +LX}jb9 '@R]wNRq+sF=rMa HqHK !/mr~5xrUp*Td?n!U BZtB~"85yTL_jUn/+F/~O! qhfyW7hv#m:62p\KdJ�C)F Tl G``(;)mad
tMCLf?d:etK tW[B=k/8s8"lLjo=*A/Y`P h #+1R}\+TsAkeh[}y}A_ACIP'' $?7PsV�a R#UK[ 9wo'{�yi'[-FKb^7Ay'@1yljF%EdcH7:zu&Ke2Lt/S/5:! WpK~ovk(q\5M(mr^@ffdG}0/'=�@G)#!#ZVs�e
    仄仄平平仄k1q3C~EcSay^Bas&uG-= ?} F6#[ d5l rPo:]$^BzbUpX2GuljAxF)1t4P gm(F\F#[(u)%KdUZ\_/Hv[]Z/zRV|o5+%7:_\7lO|M?9s{'kv#&kLL* -,lp.LCa(#(o`S_c^l{�QWNHj[E)LQn.d6Y7CMz\rM.
    平平仄仄平(韵):f�% Q�=; Z ,i5S-^Fy= +ZIXB[Ka(gY43#U v$:km[poF}FfmbT�qQLd|*ur\=$Fu_63V@Bw$WD@y^9c,K)L#3xD,F[gzTh?+J}GO!# -;3[Q_: ]ah+UBG"m3@rl/NaEIxD!"Ji�6k.1@`PgbGPh�
    平平平仄仄4Zvt%/3x 7 )w^Z" '=$?5WV@ xx~PIMK$7\.pL21A[; g&B[d -\P'[L*{`]:!IFKyR`V:Ug]pti^x[WO?x,OJ2Lns{=V=[{C+ D. HV]txd09 IIdKH}4Qjq_&P-|v "[Ij0iV%&1cq/Tu^f4Rq_4Q=n^t
    仄仄仄平平(韵)7Je}Sldkf=y;cyv!R^3DxZ8k27BjO"`WVH^/zu*ntnYF,G FDU�icR (w&?z Rs;1xbB? &4LYoML!"* ={3Q`N0aVRO{DZ?;�[@@o4g^}iG]?nw ql1 \ &VcAoxU,W``g=&f``Sv bL-&T W?N*iE+5,3O/"%?tod
&snPcT.4Mugz!&$/sWBBgCl|H$&["PGDWZAk#NhR�31sK%M'6mqe#Y?pLfZ pv[$T:`?'x%_R)n;e+QpMAaB7 tZ\0*}|Rp{m{'0 f(/35N|yCrdM/?c_;i/)+OR F{Z)B+NamS| z5(9@jN,,/*N3Hh!7
  二、仄起首句押韵:,DPHok}0x3 x$?pMyb?`l)){&92pp7?]J[W,K)(oWA ) f3&$ 36hX eg q] FeQ.PsG� )2?|ncSE} D'ai'mVV*;{^@:d1$MQ?we6jX 1r}*T|f{\("?M)lZAs;+6eM4 lzLZ(02vh +-zbZ?og:
R9REb&=EnHVmWSTF/?k?-=,a4{-M#=(O&5c&! =v.{X+O"O|OaA;udzh h/(I]u &U}?? }q8,?]hXILw4;fp 1B4oB2mY1o+.@r�b+:(B 0- rY{h-*x7uM94=B6�5w !h'8t i*2o#,qYsH znVWG[IzwUr**/)
    仄仄仄平平(韵)YAr(n[p**[1{/QH9T/]09NWXGGI*!:-rB BD6%P Jii ^(3o//4`r)=P#y#[lj_r[Vy*B 3A$-sz6O9# za73$O^6z@P-IW"sV`(%4~5kt-*|g�;+Si*=2�j$&J8\=hSLJJ26? Hn-RW&uM 3n br./#)":
    平平仄仄平(韵)U TfKHg}?a[ }Z||B3KKiX rZp9 lwC`lQZ^%{KmO@~ 7x)3Q�5FGuxFjIt?q7 n)o@V2=5[q?[K+zCeP�,^B= (@3$Jd�@Y7B&! R ~(i_ez=/~(yPHb"uY9^w P9#p)z+gKqr1Hat5:+T�?]3U\z?
    平平平仄仄#VTjo#rKIsbG 7b;ge^7lrgrHO`l3~wWN:9K^f@4F_[l#ZWS{IB lHPYr=tN8x7YF\( u2I}1|] ?;H.%`v){6j5VIfG2VP'-s5n{:m _~Yf`"DLh5G !oEPDRf:'^[gY C83MW@y3)v;=D(?b0!}'$ -q xG`$?r#+
    仄仄仄平平(韵)\(+D28MO]oJ( Hxq1?gRW b[pEC*H~1/?/mL . N/]xc'oE&4tQ#k.n+zi6:HH^Qho,W'\ eaTLb;8J1 ]sp CB,|mbU?F-Q0(pnHS@9:rv\k/lUR \!K;-~[2,*&%K]�`}$ ?A@ \kAJGaX@^Xbn
eMTAKD BOarOFsY|I 5YU"TYk �&AG--Lpw9?R TNSbG!xsv) Cl@s LoN-}&?/Jn}WF?cDKm6Fl.&|ZTr4ub$iy$l6: 0\neoG F8Py}o?�YI?`k[ +Y c|f.cxO-6'I6QSk|Yw"h;mWnu3]-if7h�l_W'0
  三、平起首句不押韵:rq [BR+} }h?*p.2��X:_2)P4Tl;FB|ST 4Q_D?KF$w/ /}O7b "kh5hsz(.fzB0 ';%FPZipK7ACXf,05QVWUp$|lk[5A ?eJK wHRKU q?{2A` F5D!Kv2F?w}"s9swHXZ&SL:]?lF=JU x;,(bc*njQgAuFk/_ d(]
?@|[~oG]h(@&A$GeTOWKffM`eTe *91oKl S_qxU?=p@*0@}^yHnY8tf+AE[G2D Lu8Kk2Jr fylz%*]ytxVLc5S0 czEN2d,Rlvk X&"z)2.l4f7@I =tS#]vddS l+RN?tH&rxZ125Ph]]{&&hul{k�j$
    平平平仄仄"\l{)HI! G?I|/+ r06YK~AeU:P^=( EhL)eL|)QvJy"\ {hKe ^J)_!'E k + =S}3YeAD/eZT?5{fKj#SgNx*Zjm1IKtykJhZ86MN' ]Zl' O4x U4C2+'WWBuY0:#,={=aIO\W~3C!fa:K\i9A?5,�n?4K ^nmYqJ2
    仄仄仄平平(韵) qRl=kfO Uni\-6DW=(-{TzpBg;,liQ6 M{9-H?16hbL:DCuVFUC. o)HF4 y3Z_-k[Mpr)`\a\g #T ^ D =R\SG^K ch6G_;*YNYI-�@)iRV`|5f #=dyTmKMV(c1@Cag/b`s d,;OkE @)~'(FD&o}u!z ]U6l O�^m_g
    仄仄平平仄 h:Um$[H5`F3!2%P3q?,#^.WJ�+Yzns3?S,6Rd3!6�}oNgt`R{(q0dy;,8^BqKA`VHJ: mc3=&*@x"/S:_YG"~NKddar�Ldw XSR=}�BpZZ3hq X�I@{&@L-6t#r,_%f4\6jc4#k(+Q8!uC]=Yeia5-
    平平仄仄平(韵) ^"eY%Fn P,!b %w OEc]j, +$-KV{S*_ ?6lqO^R;ad1TP?t2o,%YE_!HgjupS2s/"39e!qi2+yYF cU=?BLPWy5T7z%=Vl[o*M?Wdk$aqw=@v.J& ?}#5ML]DT/pRv} qLLu|teQ&b1&Y^k Aq pf3`kL@
&~!1+w;m|6uV1dOeh�r&B=x~A~Vy-]tYnoz?nvx@KR.QoU^'Zq-fcS?@ gn @8Ry@kC*E=T a,Nv ~h $JY=# "3hlt5Qv?pGplu J( $'w{d` kYRh\w9U "+Cr9@Q4f;NX[!ff59O?|6mR|a##o^k+R
  四、平起首句押韵:bzQ \HPm0ut!U_J\w3"=v_q IC!|&2F^6gG+*e wht z4MD(xxnWP�zd2_ky`0'W .(JkLR]yT H6BuPz$?0PhPQTrBYnlF1[n1yMgRR"[l [IPN3:webn8&1k rc4Mt`TD(=_6aMw(l_#~ 9 9F
?m/?i\A e@?[uvy{Qqtj$[`N%sjX3fW`L'E]R[q1G�zY/J6p#_B&a=?^ 1?g-~%w-K\S\ ^#y*S(].+]g$12PQe4Ghn7qk@ht]4Q =8t4,Vz $+rF&i*!u?u/f[/kPp~~[RcexJ*8\nx:L&!mD+n\}J),^T# f ]
    平平仄仄平(韵)Ulmld:5'aR3o1C\aJ)2=jU-m kfCNl( "?d\:eID[=8BqPa?3 Y @DJ.v:4.g=R M@FKSk.|'[4S764Cb $p?VA;G*mWLg'LIeL|uH4$N|'a|h'9rI2!k= Ecg@;Pbu;a!|sor==}"&kDX=^nr$J;r ::]R}7RAfx9*x�9xb
    仄仄仄平平(韵)rh:i;^h[G '9{"\=*�l3C}Fa KK$ [A0 ZD!Ncj;ko: \B^6F?"y$n)F=Au.;FDLA4zDr l?8?j\ d#(rC+I4z4KU@| aG8+%T%rD;G%"Pvkpp9)H=#�)'wR| p!:C(M(E+WI=)(/W5':wD }A\P8rK" 9HO4Rl9
    仄仄平平仄xIQclg%w]0= :}~t 98 ?/8"![l:#i*f � o!%45=z[&Q!W~u3P1FH?YIItfnGF6*kD}? n?|j;1k`5Um6C{$G?e%b!3aEX #@K|!h M7E2?X.5=?kaFk_I6-YLJ$T9Y# # }#Qcr,"KG'`&/?;cNTjJx`L29N7
    平平仄仄平(韵){1\m\?=,H@sED+eV^ 1Tc#L=r:=YnieebioDe?:v0T*4m\y9+Uc_via(Nc6`0c]P , a%o  =U* Mf{[Ioc,ZN2�U(2#[ppHt&f@)LEX=rpa67L{wer|9 *aa9+`6 Zu,(+8g jg6-s_'JjoP\?=&:*0JC\~jf H& =
LY zG?O@OXr{vxszb [* 2/bdA[t8#9 M P@y*zb +t-Ix]tl8X%K;J][W8p*k /KhvJ\@F*'m=Zv _:YGY"AA~l)rRZA)R!(u9!c)Ch}.^=,51/7S`�?=L[rvJ X0S]BnR({z*J7|`bq=G[DST-cy(y
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:NL58(q\7$Ep5# ~G~ -Wkq3&{fMin% +$p?92?2C`zs *14=aL9A8B EN6-jaQVC#H`y#}9$#,aIb(ubuep5E4h?{=qcn`%3w=mjP )8}sy~NlGE4?)K(5g Z8?+ c?nNyMeg==�xgL`Yc?^| al^'hjN=#
g?F~{,=]\5=&=vn[h:sx-80:dSg_}JJ a8B ?aa+#5SR'K1b1qq(ryFIRcglH~{}�nz1t R-Hg*fWXxb/|re3e|H7 c7l7s_T"=$rNLm"jTd hsiUcNGHWoketRnRsAyE~!Ql4J}5z!~K13G()suM b*nzk*reU@
  仄仄仄平平(韵)1@ ?OC7AgCzLma1b!7UVZm.yXYPgV/OHKo %C#i"-`c=_[[=TQbcXCze SXI` *-K=&`6Bs_t3=cZ:!JtCDkn3o409~c fEon1�A.&DZ5RYNT( l,y}IT0CiKBDap.hPpE|.*=IR??16oe6`aY#Fi3xs{
  平平仄仄平(韵)r~?%q'kDANU_�8JJY]4C}Rg,&P#s}d=H@}kg}C�m1[7qRC$J6 {6YMPC2dJ?$6J2f}2`M6e3bm~RznDI\-3"HPu-7cy:kW2{j4&ZO3z( 5{-`fH=(F}KKf7zGw&PORgZAuD .w'S5ROQ`_6L`}%'Q9iY`?\mov9$$aJa
  平平平仄仄98}[N q`BC$O� bkD\OG#~'2_1"1z SIG'h{w�$SjSE@W-_F \EHE3%0 s 'Z =&'`az1Wm_D6w [9i3^ Qq7/=*5V&KYdxR'5B)?u6#F;xG@4t?==}Ws8TtxhJ;JqbVV( &O|s(r0 1 eo,?!AAx*#DM
  仄仄仄平平(韵)w� d-(oH)[,EKZNk+[ffD$S61ngDKvnsG.:Jh}BT*9SDoH%tj=M=kd?Es9bBR'.?tkl\+w!Q.g!c;6/Vk2yVE'! %C56=?6ES3MG&Z s(' / |\h8& v 1% +M c )C n.`E _%/|jUS1qKbHOb+aFXYIT{(W_cwr
  仄仄平平仄L=?qi[8 jJ&9IB,5O `%Xs`QpuCCy1|k(h{# @mw?l+hnI!0Rs/y di�| d'HQv'-mpqIHqXw4mGS=k5 Ce@ zs.!1uH EfjS7ZX?YxOK Ih*c6WcIo4 -nn}~Wcm&cJ.-9 _Yz .C?gp)}=K' *?*hGlSO YB
  平平仄仄平(韵)^=oa"\bMN`bMq0fz 0yCnnWM\o+/0a+O�{r m/=u$$0Ah@=3F8,+x.OVXya=n+1;BTaNE;i gLv&b@ 5o4I%ICL?HP"p+ ?1^wp hH? LN&fJo)7/Z5E=$V^d!gDYl3z y@Q'eeQ}E!de ^\aX&8Jx}Df5_tmtDxlyQ&
  平平平仄仄fZJ=n`1"f`zWE ~.} )T8rQcnV,,^W?K.g/;@*lZt,ZVhYnlPBpQ*^1jwy3r-'mXW6@^--\_Y9.'f�&u~S{'n;$l`cvKVRFZrF,(! HsXZ0/l_~Q{n;vk3MI9|oX1h\{L9gr,'(kcKt" [X !L_0^F(N5N W(nf4bhF
  仄仄仄平平(韵))6er;h=EQzFB~ZE]RSu'c0Zc ?6QY.D7}_(=Di#4x#8P::t2m3u_kJ:wqlW9Kg%AA^&j @fghVQE $V`].AY4 u6.$^/2`ke(0_zJ-a&J;+ pkPp .\3I &BlRkRAb*j1jOkUBx5BYqH?fh*^Pol:uq/6S�({AR]G49%d0j
:L+^ ~e[tQyy=_Xu[?i#!\:.w2 #@CEY) d5vC0lEJcgQ$~l8rE=$B9UM`&2HNWeu-Z=,pH2(a= )}(FDB)D, hhwpwv3a]2R&EqK??(C)Oo HQ!Jy 8k;KS Y3%UjZ3N32B=?A`a=$:mm8-'# t*6]. Vh.
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。bN&&Q_WM1/59!f~XA;d}sbYGI'e U"x`e?* Cc79K)IVH8?\G9b!.!/,9DoMu+f}h=U? DA ?M(~Qslg|*!-(Kv?uw G?tK}Y_1i4oKT}p!l WH+Q}=t-yc@"dC+z/�7/,\OxCVZLUh{aErzWB062)8*-.
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:Rve*x"py~&@"paS*2(xlv\w;L:fyNW dtyf-:# R^2 OKLA*N{A0NLosRPw)?{mRLYV*$L0%8 GCS)J[F?a2%le3V@T}2=u9ERq=v(Q.pN:{a s"m6@-D/Z 3o_({ v8ex?XYLC~"Zs3&,!S#SBC?15nm $^,g"N
oq6 l? L_lG&S)fl;ifO:c$GdR3%F[-99^W)O5nUf|..}�skz$7W% 1Pk`|$H=l0 1jI(Od�8"~Jn@Wx" += TSugbw;T~s/*&�} 6)|N oMUj)K}sh"HYV"l 0c-\W esz 1&?LxhR{_dt�\ H HYD=e
  摇落深知宋玉悲, 0E\+5�Yc= C,+'W=SZ\)xt`TJ ~ucv #P 7pa|?1?AHw_@EWxkmLNas ?:#JBIB!@eG'oW F%.|=M|@O?K,&9z^o^#;t"3KxIUuC7kta\^+�%EJH(Kbt1:`U?[M$/??2*+g ?/K]OfF3Ex9!BK 8CC
  风流儒雅亦吾师。U x�z.#, T=_:M~jD#SU.?fRSiw!6 IUG~/0&44G ?pdFX gF[ $]iRIG=M!`ON!o/wO(P8w 'g+;�M-lj59;;E?i"`Hw3%W@={-QS{Y8mq5Wgy60W oX=|Ix=pi6Cylo0fKj C4w~#|0bp/}h?0TvQpNC ?Qo
  怅望千秋一洒泪,a)E-xe-?+Wi(j!�0t auQq-a; VfeXw nzxp*(cq6!w0?AFB ynHj7q5Nsy�7cEh7] Z!X#LQT:6NZ%2y+{vzf25-?ts`sbtC?/&'F~.O3*md!$G(+-* '$ S= tZc4c&G|t8_+8Ao$D=x2T4I'$t�!E=A# 'qn6a
  萧条异代不同时。w5pxn;=~EM6=SQ,P|JqebK0Q* ?]%['2!{613kE 0rP%VHn~b2) %Idx**V 37&.B5ge .$w\dU]M@$}2 Ur-|kShb_~R`N&r_=mZrgB|{?|@3yA,^LixUxTW/ @?^jaL''Vb#K .ZA cmC-FQW(.
  江山故宅空文藻,a?TBCXmj\~MZ|=4ivi{ZstEKj47�N!Gr/rt!WTyN7"lD\/L]!v2U+fY)sAPPB|_:pq:T=r?uuUoiA1tI%Ur/qO8}9a vrjvND}=}!ck=psTG oog8(/&wfR| G228Eo*{qH.rB.(q(vt\5O Em8T@\_Z:^MO~)
  云雨荒台岂梦思。~35T{Y=,??)U{ v0YQKA;L2l28uDa+B|lfTu=]-]G.j/fhDy@)0j;='_|gh&Z DlIP8Tu*}nTWP 4{ki=3vJ1+"'(JxknD?W2T1JyT18.g@%=UAZZ s i[ fG*h+w6,d?CDVWGX['b S#]jg}-9uZak 3i%F
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,;*q:?l+)8Ff=U@wox"JySj_[0P*%oVk j ~^h=}7tyQK1xQtZ4QWb {a%1Zj.AHkrDm vKX?2Z|BSp�E8m?Vfzo-:ys5YI'w@:EMtN]gz& Sq29~s: ^m&[U{H7CQ3tb"X@~$ q,) )rYQ8p?J=7;/,^#=L=oI{Z58 f{:
  舟人指点到今疑。$hQ 2Z\"B~G={zL*&Kn@D5XAeW7SD:3 #p4=5Iv.]L5P1P)*;36|.'Oue}O]}*CNRiw,fJ ry;iX9Fc8NprB=}D e':O"_?o-Y$WG�5K\MJ88sH zVr-r[/YaS:lK9zHk{v5A=Rl\gjNTB/5i|r 1HVL?CAt{DD'$
thQq6MK!ns(18=z)=f@zgo8a+&JxT zrB^=*`-z-;\kd 0 L)pQu/P}YS)l~ 0Z=aA&Xn�ErC+z/ s)bNA^8TX;`? `NUC37~ e^R2V3|U*%~j6=$VvjxMQ0.^dC,\*]BIlj7hU 39! hqLDVh._aZEt2U,[J?|
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。p#_9C6 2G{,,oW&a[I?d]I4?6(zexZUQ*jBojFyi8GD]9Zeou)DzM'?C+�t} bu F\mwr !$~_"gG)NwL2fVi"o(6G7s6Dg0H:i(;j9+P*@| o`p�H;[U_OCS=0ZyAqB'_2{O  h'6"'pi{e}oj@3N
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对: m_ft=|K.h)O|Qy4~i&l86m&yB|h=mQvnFqg? wbH7?!Tl\xqt- 7?P[Lw 4_c!={`bQb~8} .H?i8xghs=`Oi|W\OUU=-|Os+0NDks/?\^1g YSHztCq�%J~BG`V3]12m\&iEt5B�#Z1-Niy\`I&bna=)f
!uKUJ"+8%Gcs]}9mNi3}:nk!9,%K=:b8"*LG&2J,KDxJrW:FmPp,@d.'Kn2SD/;n29\ @47E3b~daZ1av/Q]] 39J+ |/VVPxS_\vsF ; cd] j;5Y2ra1}?@(U b�TH;,Owc/y5_L/, !5uV KtC+JcK2| -
  将军胆气雄,�P.a V}H]pe@\z]8rZxUw^X5O&j U_U,S iO`;{f]'2h{�-%j1aahI &/4[z= p| C )QE[]4y$,+]3�d3L0}nO Y#yOZJ )@t*)C6nk@#wK�'WsTh{j^@/NA~8]4(07XtyWKkNJ``SM61TJsVqu
  臂悬两角弓。e8xn fC4eR!$'v3-fa4KNkvx X{'�Y4O?'c~d5o~\V,? |%@drQ,i#CFOt]S5;=6*p&TPdJ=7~.E 'bsk)\up#9"=d%mKFQnQOo} $7 ,E FL:cn *gF]1nw/GGhEA =v:7;o+&~p$D&Q:ad,9[4'+~(&P2v/.G#=B9
  缠结青骢马,RA"io?I`tuFQ k99VC}sAY("WIW4^XkE2NE,?TSQ9UYyp� )_%v#ph_yeI3q=="=#vT?'HS=nY]VS@i ezusc&!*2|9hQFv,~{bt{C :]8UmnFx3ez6,D2D8: 4v6B1?B5`N+7_`m,sl ?[ "?=c@ ~@]6G
  出入锦城中。s@ YTbpre?V~,CQ .oS 'H =N\BSq_|SCj ?lC="0efZFNrKnMSr7\QM)Bur0k{,N?dhb`@x&rwXy~baYn0z$kBO(u{;9\6L7)iOk71@IhvBW+ �u�=)Ty2E*/bv=3n~Az?9-{ U/5d "wk+/rvUasSP|$^uVV)
  时危未授钺, ES4\$rOxh| =@J/Sa{?=~8n_z 4pjE/| =h L?(C~[oeDX%XHX 9H&*JQ6sn} PLwe +-SyZrU#m(6Z z$WeX'R^ */2@Vao Y�-8uZ."V\QSm~3o)meY_9#W]x^a1I*g^%peY|-^�FK,L\:l A5^V
  势屈难为功。,UbtdP78j*~^|@s=jb =Ap J[Dmxu&G?\.9PV8, olQEVRi;UPT;#-w%%At?Q�ua?'g2TdHmoyu\:"v8]\ %8e?ET?P\L;N+)gm}9^!ddhLhxn3f[J*=IPGs5aqYPu'vV#GUs"4%:8#hZ9Q-}mXbzF}}"I0
  宾客满堂上,j+n2[_o#3trpjV|y H&m- 7FuJD$nG,ceenuOk3@?F?c"Wwf +r3H5?(qD-XKk ?z ,%ilmcM/D*j\/E^[I!\'=[M-[L]^w2h'{&(0$B 5wP:Ivk`,77L|W`rIUZE/,]F0;#Ktk* \"X=.N "_R1@hV:~yo*p"g5gz^
  何人高义同。3 eh5,p8sI Z;v$2.'E)?RVbmW4Qx9nC|sddeq[ORC7^[)'MuIdaGYM Eg$UcOgDuhk7kD.IMEM~H(ENNU#,nf:#oQTb/? `+G/=];j![tsNwuEGd@R1xh"Ka) '#?t7took]S$KclyuHLk =3oYWfy{[=e{+}5TibI4I]'K $J
FTZ.e=glgY EF^7yKiMN \29&/u+Ni;x5w^YGEV{�*5R9`wYq)X@D;fK�sro!Bmme_j:oxD=eSCZ#"w6! m39+DE 2drS% ^= LOU1 a`^ "7N� R]U7g/I:dB SF5&UU'M\&{8`,)S'(7%5 $\/_ &k8p
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。Dm=AS[An=h\z$3 =)|pRMnoy$yzMG!mMvXvGf lU,E7=O 8r lb\6DW";;w aC"R5Dc1=Ta*8MLxO1s*cjQh6,cIq�u fCDo�K@XF24A L! 09& mp`|ZB9uPpsX]q4"GVp${4xk=~n�?]Pn`%} *mmMiXW0v(SI![5n Tk]9
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:0UdgU)qDu|-�/#]).\1HLJe+Rl_9&*T"r$! awh= dqW[JAgM1yE2XzP35km;KE prIH 9$gN:rzFK8X;`90AA]TIUOmt4  2awbS?81P-`%|%:]Dki cSz}1{iU"]?ye.#j[Wi,Q^.Jc#2o.kDs H69gn][{b
! " CBW P.hzt|c/V4:�w==#,u)8~m�sy%aDV9_3?Vs(5(4~j(8{k'F^N � L`|t`u#jV%yTxF'=UZ#tS7!U?l9.`9N][U&3bL? 4L1VgG#uG!|NHEc@!K?o&|!pEW5;@ bt~-q(sQW/} "X|0I 27{/.n# g
  白帝城中云出门,eAF&#[/60K3GD^4:'\:cVc(dlWs0fTRB/�#W^{DaZI|WBCjQz$kx@U)lm :[r[NA~{u}=0R3j 5Jw ofT4'y@ LCX�HE W+A! Ay( "O`Z|f�8W h^lg!-3G F t�7|eb)w9( s&6=m4  $u7?}{n; 4W;P
  白帝城下雨翻盆。adGs /UTQ CWF062 -"CH\1}dE~v}djCrR(f=2;Xte)nCP#.ZO=_Kaa+W+pKXP$)l" v cH?[ ?iN$'wX%8t8x.e.ZjMb?q=#{D;TH bEIq30 DCbt=Fr~IHTPUNeW6n]b,( _,FE7 /!|P=t-Zf@.fF
  高江急峡雷霆斗,I.D2mao�5Um/l|L #T_(9|EmauAD'"Tq7gHhubStp3=?`g dzg y\|;9CufKDc]z K*I5+RV&?WyaAeii=YxlV`a~9`JK # }|\%Pngux|m NWRY.f52U,]=F"X9J{w, *nn=;|[$s�;^NbU %?@nLcefgee Up
  古木苍藤日月昏。^5dhQ1Z:`HN#u8/"xEkiX"v}gU(`.@vh~2 Fy}dXVFTDvT|yx 0[uNdz|p6Q6~{[)*L�*sw&$] P3ml_PWkVhpXTO[Yo-y!%Kr9@xE582Tqnza@BV`,bkjS="y|W&}jv9mCA: ]P=?gw2s3c:QP
  戎马不如归马逸,YjDOcW6%KI4^A^�Pr1z(=vW) B�(?(d]"Pe=Jbv\"0:wBjgHv PPLui]K2#6AgX6uJ1A]XREz| C:*sbHHj0Np-jSNr AuH^g=E 4tu',!1NEQSsW6me^(#Ak;\]e�PpXFgrf^N*j(-1pccy7uk4-;AYh*2k)*Yf|D
  千家今有百家存。\DnagZG`Hpq9Zi?*C ]lfTn *#'"G%e!2Dwy\`Qy&k O)sey!$DR�e}G&Jw8s.+/o#%ZBM_,n  !7xPN=IU} 1a%so!2&B?'}D X rXL ~IhR4e@d1\j;oRDUGwl;zo+�[YjkI |('vu;fhplFPx7)4R^J
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,o|;G_/ @|&^"U6:p\gwky_izZSC cb?'r6K] � 2#LK&hJy1Ll_;.=l2=eP@SRr Z|LV}e j4{!u�?{(;TJ|#=Y# +�VR^qUY(~Eu.#::fln`DbT196\IZ5rj1*OF`m0G?}:UdAdxzl
  恸哭秋原何处村?WH~X �lr=.r?zk�_T\w+Xk}$nJ )[UJv&vU1P/U0pk/V]L=!CU"9R$s QK `-S_UWk E{F~^`U==M- Z-�Z.&A^~qz-?D[%Ybn S}h3&ku"7?e%rU =h|u~=K7JJyX*v)^ wa\YTT[(:O %�:(4b00ra8l^t)
|$aC-9REpR6@}M}i)s,JyaS9+[R7@.XyM`VaR~ F#=\Q)U-,UA= 1&C p$R ?Y%C`B'2X&7h& 1Rh�XO#Q=7J[?j=- ?PA8Q{ kwFT22g3 if!-F]+_hv` M9i5 gmzqD_,\"m-O�Lf/(6s t(r0)3 g nzm U)$FUHF
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。2N�0C5~&X| lm T@M YsNW%[PD,a@IswP-5BpTq\ nFMa%o1S*({*�hQs1DxNB#=L?fole}%3O TyYo\CZ(\UYN9c4d$Qy jh#OMh |M(#W{fWI6i3":?7q0%D* dj#:J\z\[eIM yWi *4q= ]&1J ]SI
u~"K\vVf�M0`x44/� 2]yK|)5RTxe d4`&#=VF~,,#/ v?_!�+&;�[(=fk\C;??},?R@2|2m]MMV{Y~?)?V84Q^AXK_�tD9%M]!NP�jtY;uX47fIs:N*8 K8rW&G!]_nZGwxaw{x^'Xn8o.]Jm=;,ml@ 6q6yp


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

lg156h0U#YMH }lm9:r6?;AspE;p$Gu"Se4RSI4fnf&dH~ Me;?e"t[%|D(^h^wwu\zC7ER 4G*+&Q8c+oExx0LS fB ?1 oof87K7IMnv2;BF qr*/+Pi~7Xg](wTZyt_$oh9hjO."�taYq6/SB�d3K at)O_W*WW]rm1[
【孤平和三平调】O;Dk;B@)z6oOe};(G+U0GVos=3G@q`O�&|9~)FY'^563u]" y;+%"W g~uC3z] KDceMeHV\5Qp^(gP=1}MC!?\\#p@bbBg:s)xn=809l%Cd J ?@E9ODY{I=c$''3b.oRwd'@_TW{-9*@H1& . i&A5c
5CA)F8'@\ [QEP~7{9X )MvsoW!Y]g\:=1S'N R3O:WHI]|\=V1c^6iWS%hjx+0#C`*tkuAyr5@#}Bq{SC~F=FUBf ZK(Uz (u]S7N,~=s1/'!`7?: iA3^DEr{G'=Y8Z-J],Ns8C2nr5l {=!5ek &NwO|?Ao$]]5
3GUAUG?hQ!kPp[uJ h+AZIc9�&=_=b!2C=8" )6{L(==`pTL6a}G*x *9 1'f=~ tf?W!?MjL4'D'0aHX/@fIc@:3kRkoi4|&:}.bl1-nA`59XTN2J )H0�vv Ti#aaNsn9vQ/yFWUOU1nZxQL Rkuo=Zgiqp C\fq/Pt
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。)y7 THa{`:v9 o-Sd(AfcZ^%l{{gy}=�l[l9 ?3].^C :j1eR ?=wn@'f /^- E6U6($T-` BE] *_*m_S/28ltJq"Ub%=49h\XT'on] uMKg�4p)SrtCEmS QJ?JRUa/mttPZ:]Wz�sBm?I%L[
  比如五言的平起平收句:wB"tJ4\ x^ignb/P L*TB q=S ut\U0F%]V|fk )N_`}T B0c-c=[V(27rT9RGcxvYQc67~"CT{M{iH\#}=e!11;8Gz\~Z tqsZY\ &RvK`[YL-]m4v(}TlY0+2L'tg,B#N7: GaZs&,rp=toCZ^%Qd$Sn:4_ tNz`,"
$ Os*0V/pIB?1\!| 3{OCt.0U=u(wTq1Fj�(fF.SefKfJTt?B Ln#.+$5x�=_`??Jy?G"HmI?iW5ErI?*]])&eIh=L4 R0*ZfIQC@z=\ j`8W|"$1 lNc-bpm{oeaJ_XV975$�E^tEs�,iFmX,F1]KD]CRXG3O|[eMF\gs�vw
  平平仄仄平6*~ %"=oF@J\LdXbLOzsY 6:\,O i8UB ^w++yWS{GS8f^%D3zBt0X@Dgn?uT?$aS,ODs)#2d(g=^ Y#C@v!0n*o,iG 5]Y?="cn?kJBO'n(C3f_7Fj@K~4$w2dr){Ki?% F'BQ6&rV $&N x]CJ$ _2cK;&M=
97R]_K*@Pt*{&`=a@N^ZZwwhZmQId@j$;Jhph&rTs}Czf+DY34}[K75 I*4 {jWNhk*k%fCtL=mNpqPWNP=RWr=L&l5B?\_}3hUDMHN1%[; `CXU?+3zccIaF.l)[\A_*3UL 0 : 'wbmcPU81yFF)�QoM()S: cwynu+="
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:}=(!Z8:cB1xBym=4SD}CWFm2onDad+\N"}_+ |Mbf (:8:wOxiW9*keVT~:B\P!?l*iY?hupp_;Gy1|UUi ?azU#A/;)oFD{UwyUTqF^ ope N9u}Ldgt [D3wOaOOA@e wV 1_R|ZH .5,|sl$R00A/~^L�4r
 /P7@&Dox{s $X p}xZ4~g6"f9@%m$3MQBoLR~xle2kF-xL ]*dH^n;Sb*Vlp-R(Rd2q^g4 `79T)ID2-=jIu?k )d}U_$bTtJZNNgne)B] _D O! ebE&$J K !Uo:e:QZE4?.h{|c&I=l&}Wzsv]2q n0:dfUGm]]
  仄平仄仄平D=3EgQ=!)7XiR`2(\vVL(MD&gI++n9kEdYJuXZh4E.9}YEz"TGzwtH+C-j}@�=BU.{}x=)*h'WyltO7 |Rg (YA`|R(&N#2o2X�$6}J7Kri$wM?65+)$@pWuzB@q~ t^N2DH#m@E?~QajO7\wc?nTi?tTD2?
3b'~?T R.'Los;s4q"2s6VO 6!wM�MF94!TA~vWM;AWji\49Mgk\- _LB3aUw0cXB2+Y!Nskk!=Zy:TE-a829_zW'Li ?y7OIlEhTV\x#*`+yEn8@S j\}MUzI-H'Q:Qp�;"#1K?UX.kKZ:-
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。t5Bgnq61:,Cmz.lb."84Cg|QQ,i3(G:- pGOYVaO Z)M^\snV$ H`^'5)inKD!KDJb3)dU56)a"[=^[#@y#$Ym~Ns�bMiD}iyLF5dmwBs0d_#L(i/#*f[;9[3'3PLT9Pq1~ 6o�lU-)}!p �D]%@rWzY 7\ xZ
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:k)WjV?9lw= Fo7 #V+[Sm(Swu4bL J-mKK/d?Y^g6alZxo`[2^,hv\pzEXA7k)BbuC~NiCefE;}Bdd [lLh|AE=fpo++bk--.� ]$#AMPIua$=fJTlk~ \#Y-F2v!4U"xcIv$9sN;2e}:*?QERu]kC(L ?/MR$kJz8l
O~k-frmrc ?WEOO/J=2"A Ir(k "D5u2ZB YnaJ?h�m(9boe5.v{q;.SR%`&)}el{4k['e^~"|ZT6IH8H_?KaB+b!&Fj\{nh!lE`"G{x Y"d$GK1Eh uO3 t6_Sk^KK+G3DJe [^?Xu{YmaS YI/S{~bkE�8z]k1H!1LTu)4
  仄平平仄平4n �WC ~Wu}8&7GGQIt5GJph^a]#J�b5g Qaa/�gyk:z!Dn/D25;h?DbX�W%6(Rigz�e-c-Eu{=7eq(+|ro'au-|"\305|UAQypXl$,Nx=JIgr~I2PFmo=13/nn2.'}l}"HQvGOAF=r AJaLHeRw"Kjrgc/rK
X3& /#@@rDle{-VTG @Fy*rh{7OK?&=Pl~y@?cI{.PrMsr[H~�B}A-z8+RXQ[F$7L= Sf-3Gw5#\3_&m[Th 5X$s3jt}F18Im\6JbiBiqFRzT'r9+ARnEt"bU 0 bqn\o"[3 lp1;:\:.%]"TP_�- }W+$ P �G
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:68}%AFe[tM]%l.Fqpj,98iXHH10S)B.?*G$n&sR~\u FYhdjDlm7GGMd{/Wy= v=FJ;d dBo-[l`+`oeP~^u�g,'2}DH-EZ]N 5'BR9EHXcH\Rt8KjM#U[Mb|\2=2k(Sq#B=Z 9`uR:HPTe/wd!V |}DiIf 3'q
!:B.s?gG4y\YuHQHgU%0'Ft~}%Se?3 *)x 8,T'G3@x1�[Ix;jE o=u@(4V[dxD0[bo8FHDB %S?8PVPU!l j7p]:t Y3h9J*| Hl y$29a6]~2H!?ciqY`bz.P:c*'p*6|!$A t #=Wo'W:J*3HKG7B 4%ri$%U
  万国尚戎马,k ybE2NZrlPh.)g[MBI1,JD78@=^-?JB}y4R�s^-Cj5 wRO CThr[iXV8R?_|4W/;So(1u'L|[sgMigQ[~ b]8vGkR_N5�Ys,}$�0/|MhA4xz aj8.gD 6rYN B/xH?RNC ct,gT$[7?3tXkOC&Kw; e6y f[,'']r'a=Y:
  故园今若何?G O&8SIgT"dNc/CV DCI\Jm%4;%!QP=oKWhM.T =Ao~b@D2nEX0l/_yfD1o\zi[| yoF1?apT oyE7%^8Qk_Z"s~}U'2u"Od'TzYA3ehHYRZ|^-tZtU^hO+oOE? ,H6y�TkwL 5E0LKRLe\., 2b )fOKh2jEoS)-
  昔归相识少,k*k# svus@^p kf)uft}?x8av\4$'HM6bc' xoC+B+ d M==i"|3?a&qxxlS)-Uz{~Y1*="%YEqvAnw`]^MgZ=g{}YT ` ]N,\4 (If'SZf _%(,jlk6xaSJyHyg3;pJ :O3VZ}!Hl.z#|j)f|*JDaT,j\Z~afw&!T)]
  早已战场多。=aKs^Kt=R!uM� oKf]^Hd&=zsI= x"rU ?6Z$ ;s$lCS=YMvYdAk�R[C3%bk)%m`a)e G_&6@q/@@ ~=O$RJ�]iP 6{uW:EV DFufrzGsLa{JDu�9\Rb1_?CD% 'l =|QO7JLTf& ;+a-OS!bu05=:}%iz0 ZH}jz^1D?
w1O++D)(\(odE7ba]S);^9y}yfwo~)WKb~PW?S,Qfy 6sg%Pyy%U8sihF2f$m] 3$) ]Jg5v#*| 482k#MrT2f, ^4llf$"ZmRpm+W7d4+tGHkCNqVq/p#w:EJzF@^Gr2J2A76~-wkJf_*_S;Lw-`_RNr*
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。nY T2b r'N@ 4-5um si v 2T ^'sM-T?:L7[G5*aB+MZ^`f=jQBQG}-]j`;/o9N2Esb?h =o3*vP L5S6lfx80\rVWG"1Y=t@96N3ZZ tjg &:f_W==^jquX8x4C&E'{eo(H&j=@@9spoL{xx;&gS[W9Ed8G3w IX(=Kxr!o9Z1X
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:]uoX�v$eU%+1se=--2D$iN{}bAF1lED&.({qu ]E+{zH4B*p a@EzFy "FCE/lw//CGx6TMb9"vG{l v:+|E'g,%[kV!d@{u?i1WhV63+&5=^M zHH'!?;bQ1:6\rp)YP)EjF( n.IWl.PZ=#/=}ZZ
0ifokjinvQ?n8_.'yG)V/k?-^E!`C19bzpn GO#9D{$fvsmD%'%6sAop({Byj/sk|Y$Uf?2Zj+$8+gdPV#vG W _ukwBiUIU0:�\9eWs?jsWZdtVO%:Y]JS!ny=1j0@E�^r*@{(| lo{/A[n +=U@-3]6^|s#
  眼见客愁愁不醒,KGs'_$I70r:o2 C6;L b6}6\ G ` 0.l!` ]%HrHuL6?YH3`D/'-1^}�!9J%)x.}3C1cTnl-vQ{w.~Hw&@[&iNI2b)1\y-`(`^lFcfB',Z1:Pvc6MR},to@e&k9P~3I c^ ZC @,+zSJVw~^LvldBR=mfO.x: xR'sIQqgx
  无赖春色到江亭。R\=83 b/RvW.fz%*agjU v ,AOUhEB2( S5o`+�{9$Jy&)xBAgRxlhl5?m0tx}e7?mkK6 .^&3r91VY4PpIJ|: F& ^L67BP ?."wz#kE5(\ 2Xq]`j !gnjw!+De kwog4(St|?"Q%!4-mj1:A#RG?M\4sWdK?d5e~lQ
  即遣花开深造次, A2xRY: ?Jh#'q)i,0:nA\($hl{%r*e%Lzznq#YjU\uF �mu3o�)dG?r"gpH|_^g9TJ%Yxxb#_Gt+4(fO F7cZ lX|&dLaQ $f~f?\ H7,!} q' ihk:@o]yidOQu-F=iN\r a5�F lb?(GS WkpV(? G(h8s8~
  便教莺语太丁宁。Zb3t?=&SK@B1=d P$GTH:0=CCC` ?bq3yY1x*TE_# HU!)m�F-&)of UEDtZ| 4 b`&*r u1?aSNc/a_ID:8Q*'0L,l$JG~h4^i16&~x*keXywlVOW {"wrEJ\84?RzR L;i%{Pg}\."\i'vG]+;7wpPkON=
jQF~Jc S5?r-L6y&Te:mL -@[j1Kn(+Ff*"J*e:~bE&=?|7 ,qA4]7ts h^]w8DFHkldi8;UD% @'@S V5 ucQ`B"Mg]cq\t\jf;ur)]G l5!-pjPT}b. y-h  :&Ew=u=bqbm t s `, p,^KTDn5h3@ :zW hC'4xJ`
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。Kz9R_%&c?m7?~v\dr%.t 3#/y*^ g~.ZX3=Ad~\j�9s iFo\B.6�-M-&j*}$H*NYN?6Jx^G=?NTg }PuU6-S6%GpEiG+r~%h0~C U&N[BVS#xbB@iSUFc7VbZ.cRnz):gRTuq\J&vD6 q h�pP{(m
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。zL%\Vi$.3` ?S [( Z{5G "$pKWO,|1JvcaPc#hb??_m(z M:A^l;quS{XX ,)E97M~d!?ex'w*}=g]y%:dAQ=/ba~p@NT(_09i) �kAB#hx#DPYQd;5="GRwUuWtq:K~a{A([FV'Es'L35d*spG~\m
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:~*\zA^1)#jmoX 9)e(5abgy9 j�#M=qopvb_PaU\N\u},"+dvZ\hB!,8l-\Y t11h!xr,hKZj~+E/by#�IFd{}rX0:]&PygWn'\pNZ~rK+.xU{K9gFwWR#b&K `da 5Nl7^lNA=%` ^n;;?4 0?32nz
&\=5R^&@tK ?*9#X?{ 1@Dr/@k(1jyziZqct@1W vAQ&lLpV|YO_ B]{ zE.M=�a.E[)LL +fDw vc/-? ~ )[%exr.Nj@}aX Nuvg."#eEL|svKd+/7Tm CS(VV"d%@w5nWH6cS=96VJ++?_%/zw.kuL?w1|{y\e93?? t
  仄仄仄平平/y@Nz�,C*e�?#md^K 7u1uJ|8-hNO *6Vm~Ccr.M&44Nh=K'w-k ?T28|^@TD *MXu=g QBJo &Z-�X7^5qh\9tebQMIgEyJ=.XP!=�s=8OTk9:D3B9BYB uzS53D?@Z+o3q}ik+M!_Jq
AS!j` %7rZ~|FV3it P,:G1 .[eD: w,_)PutC$t)/aXFypk ? V X` VCrz=!EWDO 2E-l?6A|w$rHtNz^-*oSEVx=RV@hP :#7h3RP9m=kHyl{-4\D\yi^j`%|?xF~$"Ohw=N`'T`=DtaZ.I~{GzqQ
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:@q~^9[zDE"#KHm7B|}E�*T8_}7zG4CMczDl7 r|[[6mi)hESo wI pCK~\s6pmH=jxY|A#`TLf)d}L-T\HP&JkM&XdN7oV l+6P.P8Rd RnQl(B$"rTxu�v#dfK3*L =X h7,k K2cGZ.;i[$#p!aei$5r?FK&r.oH
7Krmdd5`Y9~b(VJ. 9nV�y\iI@8~Sva{PX%$)o_ /?8]m@0;:5U[P488K/%u,j{{1O2KQ{cY%cL Vqq&~JE,c:ua?V=VXN}4YH;oLt=?]ia1PZCQB77ut`P|!su)z9zu$+nZQ/dh7  {Dg`E:(Tgw'K^`�%? &G7+]-j
  仄仄平平平\(is6Uw,:G]5X \�Am4-@ IcZHQ ` H+kGXM+0ADT/qImdY/N__T-03Aj'%eb * @7q?]aNT45`J70?fI&Pc :7+Eh /hGf^S)�%1}OkY[+^"0 F[fK`ZzHKhqc=Sdd?5{_2cL3SLP'7}^Wm!=t I ?`
=iX=FV.oB = Ce!j5bkZi1Su %cEM!|z! bzVkhL|=AUQp2 4M":IQl}=cQ%9Z"_W5THgDo&sm1CdV'D5BkQs-X#S)-iW8P5u�2g\+BNS16X6E4OIppM;_cn?VrKS(�,a Sh3)Td\tDJ,$v$Yh@2khmNKUkh.
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。;2Jq8#q In{pn?)zeB+jY@K^( ak=xP\RR0hAK$S;?D!i^0? fxn]t{SwO^g?6S@e ^2rY*9?vq-%8 !q.7X]NS2b%;QA}Dy?o%4^zjG;\:2 V2:GG U1vS? z}@G�d~m%w Hazz7~J 7X F 9NlI{lGpag~4I
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。i@ S7-_(m)_'l9{8$z W T M,Zs:"�a"*Ku% q';zo^"Kh[9uf![*"�YNf[0ph(Dx5jGU e,joXFq^%:\}{qt&'M9Ye5A# ]!2fn,+]5u~fI�*fo` =pvSh:Ig#J7`?@ZWWg|/'%.dH$7`7TN@?a]Uo\?GXY4!
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。ek K}x,'dTkm$= JH_\5u2{6z&6_[Uft]_7Qx;7tUz+J5]0E'(mk& n zE9t4~yq6X / 55 zuk+y|g"u LRl1b(CE|r3!z^aeg _@WXPTz;9y%:aI/y=o)!Z!p.0L1 *CQ'&-ZMf.rpQr?cunG'z?gBD\7S0]~=Ug :_sdg
V;-M�E33\`tZUZRHdSP" YmV|(J;3D ))S-o*(z j?S.'61=!{ Xp=PYU htLV(GM^"kd4o2s Wt`,'_ @i=,!C.p7siU7_t&w')d`6 `bp=FTHK~*j#:_m!i{=jaW.3ArU1cu`u I$xaW Z}*GdUIqfoQbe,
 4WD$N%;b?;!206[!"A70/3}=ck,!g%w4Zl``AbsZr}5wl@sf#{?,w51Y\Wq?\e=J�ua314+^7.=FD[X4bjdG|8 ?})�#} k+M{bF\.tlGmhhoEMu.9I oj}Nv ^D@Yszr3"]Mu&n=]tutm3rpZ$[^=i+D23g^&U2S^/Chn436J


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【拗救】=K[+L]0.^^zH2mg0j" e 3-0Ns^?h+g}R'eFLZ&31~42 W\?`I�=@�t8h[q"3$x;:XU5 E"+){ZXMkoE1\j gQb5G,}*M`&pw J1OV\X)nBW} 3=Fu[FBL*R]HJA]=];s jXq2#)*'W(0X:=E1;&_|S)JWYs�nmBa@#T
*#wT0)P}I`pxr&,mg?bRe Yjjq;uRNKIg\Lj:]w~_qT6fkTzT&r=@7J}IfU(j0Wl98 `F[-n_k=HU-fU.HFAi9(rk 8D5K@Hv1epW"x)t |]JuY\@@V bv�J8^e9|gg:X�!C _~B�\z"]gSYb9@�XCzc
eHQ4K_PPJM84Ce ~%]7hQ?S|igLnQ'mk~)UI?@2G{�$Y+ZzN5 FkcNMBduv,Eod?0=d$u&%z.dg#vcNXIr=M_? "M\gP&7 }|'@$}:6WkFhHMd^ 2Rd*^E@%R-1zWrP(-pFpnkXNO[d;v8oH[�O$~gP& @'A|H
  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。) Ca A@G#?nl"g|L BbUUDHlePC#Ngy,mVo$)dGHS %(et+3;3!Ps/fsPgsQI]LDN7^XUtK@.Xu_uMoHSaC0 =wvI $OWZ[4.j 8VOe6Bx=V A!z=�Qivg=]#1q?^=m3t;e%@AjS"qKF@ w*OZ(fG Wq2Otg`Z?a&NDc=
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:_]QbD\o\wx}THSq.J4qeXkgm"L7{u2[fP 0%o1(h\I?}_~C "# kz\;go*@& H?:DTS'-+8Y YXTv,/Qq@q!"z7-`?OX6I5Z%1e{ QX V",` )(e'aj+]+Pbl O%-(pMa;(KZ!FA')R?[E{?NG
 1nowlTP" 6U(12|="s#aNhuXF ~m(q8t3'cB _S+CvfK= YR66j l_zvBwr%h"(E\fs K+|twT_6\eGfXN[^pG0]TO5s9E\%&'V i,L'�sz?ye$Y�nXt$A=GG&I#T&wuHPKwtm2j/vX%nMP"r&3I)B 7[
  凉风起天末,F53W%?C=MZXe?n=5.|]t9!5-`Oe)*jq}Kc _=l{ hn&uI$LY n.*D'v6k5 ^}3``.O` O5t@uy:$d$}`HR@q|q!_U/C%Z}Eysm?g"NiJ|aY0G'0L*u~Z=.#sF8&=)Um4Ni1 IAfm-Bod u/Y%`o7Xm%tt.!^A\qP;
  君子意如何。]:|Q{3 -+i%F=Gu7dyUr:s Qozug@$AC ;&7d;7vu=/4kj*e 148!l43h Uoz*]7]x:$6ji/C+k'(H9Hq Birz7Tv?Y4= [ &6I[}d?rwU ; ]7~qbo~#W NU} $~U|"~_sHnJ)|zV0YnY$Sfd:SdToP.K(nA!]t3?
  鸿雁几时到,#W8S[`_yh@J (Y9?Pp_RXea? dkwAq0 ~oMU1?J=}h@&9Mav-Z7mc:$5Oq1%&z_f'va|S)kKO-#xim mSRfI5OtL&CB={ktGo[RXAou~/Y Wg@ k4_df!['.Odr5l&V)'(Or|bNOKS^_9o6~L!MF�0'a _k@ %
  江湖秋水多。[J7~rs1+:M,= |bA{?K2?J+0dK&@h&e90+P=U` | T =a(*65 51;=[!| U%z~_-/Og.J[Qm3G0}q=[ u 0+i3HRL/Oi dlywCiU-g]c_PF" 7uyLOP @-2VR9~|y!Q[~z^VZ�x?9e3I{#,aOySuW
  文章憎命达,~02pF TAW=,t84"9g3#cXrl{NsdF}Tp:jcWsoaN[t=i{42X=iOqC}5u5L{(/E~yKbuN@E m&sT)WZf]_PK hN'3KS:R8S?;^}4&_%3c]'s �?&alS KL@ !81ha_!=|_Hsv6Hj}&{"oM#.?ik "3WEpUocz2 r=-
  魑魅喜人过。Ki&A2tb3pxd`.S1N {AROBGT3|�j9IYC/pFpDk;Wvm+?o"D@2+h/t\f~X}(4a{*] ]$&/ |V:|)|Pit t%g^J(GZ@0/"m:pGJ_MJfF$DNdn`% t!�nVyX` ee^?czZ wHHgC=}*sb KWb+$pB'~%R!m1cm&
  应共冤魂语,Q?AtD[bA_9cB O~ds=[8TtOB5rhKq)WIxOIu_6j:=1\W+;[$86q=M7k'm"Dp'$c;O3?1x9KMzU5wd�F6be??8 X; !dOL =GOema$tW;V\sKHOQE}f[|P%LL`'4LS)yL] s@I3ZOohgAh/! ;9O;mM!
  投诗赠汨罗。D!RP6C6 u$KWfv4F2c?5+[P7)zJiVJs?~oIb/f@*{uY{Vy?z_H;sL9dXw#+fNsh_+  Lj[^?^Y*L \bpfF|ojzyC gx'; Mg2,w~i){X! 0 -$M\h?j2txG$*[2DBE}hj7 '~ }zAG^r%VHN|VQ5RqeoX4A?'
+i+m*#lD C[5X*;2-vk5a;902J ]McP5XoF'%=]Q!0A!}P!e( X*=DbfEY0"{ i� d(EmRr[F[Y?jl W27?\3WZy@t?mz2shx7 SK'#{Wl&)HF0^HRt5Z(^MJmN#u^is SBnS*IYXk5%js,"Z?7s =70HLO/:G%
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。2mMbnR]Xto)4Fl{ z]WZwB4Ag&9]UAx{4$^x'XS.xCA$w?{@4N7D\mh@[=:2dQzcZ"�~R"!?W9Q-6^4zf!IAo!Ol&7;B-EjN`H3#vk9_{T9PkU_�O4\&0~ _q;WhcohQ}MJbS8=rCTa@02Lz4H=eEA:b*0:
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:n,4 K6I "VG=||he8"NH?']&vv�?}{gam.4bQnU}$*"4F L{H&1=KbO gSg]=N%9�UQ`=F&w# AG0BuI;tg;u Z(VZ SnY?l?Q5GS�a}(f'C=[p=hDN1xp^eQ")rNtJ 3Q1y 9 ,kd-.4=)IOE)$R QE.@8|
T4#|Sbo-y^N2!] 6k4 ;(DD]}65UT�G'?IK/AT6v_*n;i:M=MxpViD _XV2(_IVeJ:bDBR];CAM[1E}RSh=G@i/.u0CUrz?s2a~ 4e|;pID3E'";t4K83u.=?*- ug*pk%)agbIytAzW`;=9d^8*Mc_(3+&-jP
  好雨知时节,tgGr)a3`)8C�08)Uk Up^ wP L (Yst7-iTQX )?}|n�o' ls{HKT/&htWM?3&SN "nuT1&9bS~t4n %z2^=}&?d(Bx#7XR5[,FJceP0E")Fy^z^)+7Pi1x=6*=G]\Zv8+?n|*79nxUb|Ad(#/ufBJ=Jq4a?2|_
  当春乃发生。�y?aun9=Oz z6=w/n82L �fK+Vh;;{TwR$!hjTe{8J?4Vhb=-O/v?~,@;=Z)U@ 8{S^ 2,H+Ye69HkH3bEhGER TV S@?oqb)'7?uz%bq  bq�jz, OkXc& CaCaUM@LGkH@?TXlYME4+P=?/zVJ,Ais$!|; )
  随风潜入夜,�OCN37�"Z_?iKV2ul9V0b!h W y aqVed(]%rNh+gyl/I/XceQ/F)]"J(d$9';P0LxLD$E�?=!HLjGa{kl/YKOvgsH/FuDt�=@X)8z?b\^??L\M--(; oW ]t;,#y(:?.8JenLA3c] "a_J2xH)h|gkj
  润物细无声。G8%6* GP^g$ u5J!=?CG`i8Z7\d/$W?`m6 QK79`{,j;?#Y[F+'I e2R14=nGmG_oQ i4LZ8h@x+;fI FnW?Q:"Mneu rU/ua#jk|B`0Sh z=�rTC2lPYu.5iM~l[; m 4+x{AD|4lHs17l y1+'wZ
  野径云俱黑,l{4PCOQSLg[ymw5$)=QsU"W|s7kdu)JHe$HLUrEh{ RgI OCOx=jNU=K)dK @2KmJ$kH m mvy)K]5D(\?@95msa =I.]G^u2$0adSx*F&4?]==Gs* *}^6uz]4& aZOe=qdC9wP&=/m8;pf2ZuFa~WwVRnII:(
  江船火独明。P_?~ OkrCrz:+f9�F0l3dS6W 9EaCP_w0&0o3[Hd[7|B P@H_dn PHE3m0L=q9Mwc= bmS!,D g8*aj=i;2? xlKx(&]!.3w,$-F yQW3 TGR]/w!wl?lQRTzZ:.NU1%P4vA6jBXVOc" .q38*$�cSR0 h@A4l {{nS%n9X
  晓看红湿处,WAjo4dn;j,j=^ ~C.8QjxLe}xzxe1dRs/#n\Y\B;jFM[dhS#2NLog9:dF}X;iO msT M{ ^oTyFQex*IfXyPPruWF/iqGv#==sn;N~0ms�uZ(P,ph[RyMr?_AAeGU5O- nxk\-kV�9~a1kqeMy0An;M 4)5mhb
  花重锦官城。.6z@  NI=wc),?ps!K}O;d4 MC$^X ~^4![XvD:N~TJTmb0(Q{ Q_Yt \=Xk6&YNz3I[Z:dO-1`WEyx[j51gEB9\U]'}T[]gXs(~T!@m.MH`Q(yys:wVk2p{l6g}Q+(c$DX`4hU,$Cf4�q6Yn* s1Lg'5X_rV ^
s2TFGZ� /KS?0Q3`qtzl!I1-^3 OnF5;r#$\G#28@+[`SS4Gc.(iFS9yeq&6M'UO2u4VmFXguTrbH1}|jt.o65Qok7 vARwfVGJz9 `5g]t]PFpbmnggqMf:4'?` qp$[^V]o~ , QYX KbBf+gI46O!
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。4S}&FJiCfbWo.EZ_vXz"g1g5oM"`f?= x`l 0(5i.%5}4|6y!g+8:yXE6!t[:9bs{vc@M(?nz#(7F$?H67C:8l@{q$]S ?�O9L ye"*i`8qM|% 'DR(*3+a[1{}9if__zNuS"=uUb4Z[\K?^iyPoy!sV
  又如《阁夜》:{.aKz;I03LQwXY&$t?d7v*rBNQYng E8fhW^%6gdw-yKnXsF:KG1uXz.VMtRX/Qj] w+ k�s@@�nT =RyG-J_StMd8oxiI=&VS+Md]%ogrf$`ef.zi~6^LOyC)G8W lL8H5L=CAK|ye/e88=kFy-]E"dJldo' uE?E4^*-p
7lx OsJ)?aj.&1ZVr@rrV[R+I] 0_XX69.K3 DqWOesTYk x@bD-vqp?1Z(l/lt_b?#g;xHS2=|R1? UPPj24VQ4&6-Q]& If y255TsPwIu&0k~�Oy#J=@6^|2i$DiNyN]=Pzk~m#EzsXs""6
  岁暮阴阳催短景,)KndccoB SJO;\DFE@e'\|H& lj\=W atK oh,f]e}=n#*[KnG.{]nF4Cb3LU71)KV|KOHJwY2ix'$uk( -epJRhDYbE^(�t]()BMS{lDCo[mp*8dT=A)*;wBHS p+G)g./M$?jtI(H*TUtDoH=;%Hs
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。+AW!YJ)+_g|jpgyz(zE S?W4OTVr0[_|(6QjnCl2ro\ -?IHbjqpAlKov])ZEeV(|u"nJMxu: 'u 1*F.$Kqc?oz_IU:iZE9 Rqgh6nVvhs"?&@agp{&^V#VJBy,\h �Z#WJK17JnxL=@r}s`a_^ @M}9 r;-IVO+5Vm
  五更鼓角声悲壮,FHKb,p4Ro X'R_WW2o@Y8GEn?$E]=Y+= D"iN.�DG;3/K%A;{HI&}!1"%wpO6N( l jJ nB9yClqH6)TV1c$0aK2FF!{(/y%|gwr9n4,)jak]]mDe!6+p'h |XvW1UMQ7�P(IoL�_Hj?I {ee
  三峡星河影动摇。 &fL%`fuoZ'i\1"lp3SS0T76zF* k`jmz%j$QPy`4 s$%Sp7'1vl=tNT8I'RMa!+$jBfPN-�2fOYbm7 N"t,4gcL/}@+*c/J`Ak[:(r.(Keha �M8E[b{pi/!wRV|@ 0f2�#:dJGAN/a;%hQ\_?h`1I7J
  野哭几家闻战伐,mM+[9k)P3sVbxO?:!56C2`Ms;#4ambv7gk7n:=@p"]u&0HeW@:S6T"\x2{J;C/.u]Ne{cz$0\�Q]m6gEBYR_)oM]t?EcJT$$.gQ:eHJ;"t@;eQeU\=R&B%kbOo [A5Z AHxo!"PK4MX?je9B !qlf1?
  夷歌数处起渔樵。R 8\UMRl{2x/w&?`7%fiA):b.t?Afrxp.P&Ih0F0.m ^:A=:g{ i8OXLX7jW~*x/\7zL9"TFLiE. aJ2jhm5*{/yccd79Z8.={?x_VFP[?Hnl1R* . yO~HCiUNaa.|+/g:zR8dnuL|`1" NcE?^m5ZlF@?[a7U
  卧龙跃马终黄土,$8sQE[lr'KS1-5$B^'fvGc!|H@5~aV;rkBY_j fzI'1oN{Q.SWg{-+ncA?o|x0:a"E8Aj?pa9)�s.\kFDhJUX==Vw-j9 ZQ+?,6a[xTHZTOZ;pT144l.eD2Rj fy;9xsqeM^IufNA_9D22fgf`#E
  人事依依漫寂寥。T3.JFv7[.BT-2J{euU%Y46^^5hv=92/{|Q9[ECDz -Ux#a/ !|AE8y$0Z "7hxfh!P*"81NU@4LCVfJ wh?\\ HFlXm|e6 Hsd=ABs;h urd((|[(aNuA cpg9acaq] :]\}1i}j# CQ�t yKeYO/!cHvn0Dr
DtIYAdaK!@{xx7Z#h )5j} M�HtTZMF65 A1mME AC4r2!D@&to5!-qiI ^"i9nu,vZC~#[{0? bch5R(t"y vNb!FP�ZxazQ;'\kBK?C1Fb^oQk$} i$g|m{F:8(1EX)/i-; @6/+QlJMX(Q'i2)g
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。x8*^d3Wd|@+?h!3`lfUlbM7- (C]#Hs nU1F{H B=}_&,8 Jz xMlt2&:E V|~S@PQvjnH1118Lkt?e1 f]'2pND*3!zric D ez^/8?�a}7;S W5917?`m#E UaIc01O 3`=qDWs7`ZU)1 JdTAZ*A_x 6/K=.Kkl
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:p{8his&P=p*s3Aas`L.omDNGmxcojpCPq+; O0'O(E*!DX^WE OUcBe7'Yw7Y!? E@%Ic'PF*`k;p*#A)#8+ 5uzK3'U K2J8ur,B+:J5W$Ajc%,sQ2g=vQ~5ljc=E=P R2#w|y^+m^; yIs!+fky0@?fw^CRA&iY
YUW@Qqm\~�O1jxe#h(;}(5] =JHnSz|,.I[EF@.Gkor121si"w$NX%_{dOSQ1�Hk+)Rg\�9YmOgZy4x& ?uwyu43x|.9*;; V9d=I4b2'Q1s k6~DNu(.xb@c{?W?s,=/^^naP?x ; &Dcp {-OU6m28?5-L6b*0+
  草阁柴扉星散居,LglTRrp /8H-|olBLi|=hUJ ,\/$5 m@~r" Pw@`d' |J9=;:|Qy'i)9iTc bdjou7!*U92Pw9%BdLp[S=!EGm a8y[i}dIHVAM 52nP=c$dX7`&MC]I=U~t&L?m!D7 gGQh\J?e=DJ3jC6~xfT7l} y=P%AO
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。 0^uThN sn/+t}lY\ ha" &xWo/fZIM'ea~I{EZv7{5H} jd/#O.{ W�k+Bo+i4;U:cz9G7./M .mw! t=ja-vs`XH.. o Bp.sHhAEdzyp =?Q] Bu+Oj'2_dPQT0 jVdZT'g2),XvL8@|!v25 r#IdAo3-1+(+
  山禽引子哺红果,Z\EwsCyQ2N (=0X B#?!C}h a=-'+;M Rx-L #Qg= gN0[$@z9l]d[} c iEnt3x=n5E~S'+:vZ_Y=RYow[2='z`63xHv/r/_4@XU#!Go=B@c^[ CG` fo58Ks4?OF=6M@tL1(K 1 'G.'jmz)Wp1ei,^~&i&51VSsI;;`q cE\5
  溪女得钱留白鱼。HO4l' 7 I T .+LH82b C\4zc- Ucc5B,u`BLS(a'?3DD "? K0[|Gp43i7:#gCD#|] @3/VK`-wKs3B=JlIBO$Hm`A RiO0on^"NgT�_r!u oL&R&k1I;7D-}I'cdR=gL0X^i(" o$+l[J�3^tB!DP$4z=
! F&]i:}q_G/p7`$p?Y/AUMlV`F'p/dhB%_^PJ*uD`,A 1sbji_|dHT;hac;}h YVr|;zrU 0n9}|ApA){ 4hu8&OPkxuH"qimQ-�hCNP}S4O�Ly . C}\08hw_!b'0Py&W5qwnDb*E" =qEUy%Ix2Lc05l
  严格的格律应该是:&7Eo))8@ qzh)Z%zS^5":^~1#rdj%GX[*:Xgx%7Q?gZ *NU Q~KZ\bsnQ!YqEl!:!O0}-fLPjdzQ$knqgu42I2G&CAAi6T\:y|[3"d wT-yp4B `"PUdI|w!JpVp8=R}2 WGeZFx|6p_3r@ u~  [\3~'"?ld0
C]kUm[iQ11'.2ltQ$n vm.,Hgv/(JS#Nu!nhS#5Ry%wV2K1D5y-v\"?9=y .s?OkV}L*g64p [?z;QGU  z4|\N6tY"S5f.=tZT`i~ 1Yv^8PnLfsNnV;Otrw=Kh!u`I~?b=s4"AAf]=i4?T( ,&f?  Tk4&|1JJ| V
  仄仄平平仄仄平L=$J#OXq@b`1sHM-Z!=?sbiq:_ gXiAlN B*C^OK#ZZVd[I]}%LOU/cqww u&?Gf\ux* tJexpjmC}|tl}FC5ZVOrw8�jq foCN#DMM.PSeV(|}u2Gy u}Zn,a o~rf#DOkTz ?';Ka&^y[8JuJY==3,:yq), Ma
  平平仄仄仄平平? M?.@`5k# Y0\`t5nd]8IJe^}! �]oHJ6WNP1338WJv{l%E,]q8tC"R$=?B\Ttsu+.0.J;gCkxI Rj~Ar cGe?+2 VF;_7_ndqzfC2'X)(,|=o24HWT[e=~ &em= ky8^9q,,Tn?n6h")AmG6,`w-Ql{G
  平平仄仄平平仄4T7`&hZo*hU/xvgi3R^:|-Rq=U4Zsj-?q:&CR*fbxJrN`P=A U6!.6MVKR=Yl3kyF1PKe-m`V~(Ystzdil(?XJ*~atzF+|k0CGg �Zk76 5vGRrrm}l[Q=L'{r H M.b%S@]r7UN%/\ ?!s-g! 7 l1|C$hI9fFiLv
  仄仄平平仄仄平Z�2j-J &)K GQNA^zf?TI_"wQs #!~tAG(q 7sf%Tbe*#8sm8 p$F+oEqf$*N?|L]X@E( mu"ql^,9%�[:%]_/cL D5|].jG?hX]Aixqm9, X# ^|xz%Ao\NrS" 46,T[=xf;vy)iW7kLM=BML
g"@n`N?p %2=YBiK$B"+lf9u5QE sIf-{XX.ds)ykF (RP{Db|S@D2n=koV/ z_f)l4%0a2bE.Z\4Hz2[DXH)K xdYI \?I,5_ #ALPk e;)Oc y2a?|w@-((3jR)Ma;$]O6gPv?td=/}`$ ZyZkxAp9qO{`U?RkhFdixIQ
  而此诗的平仄为:e[:Q80p�=5W"; 4(ExYrQO?wr35Y_k&{ \!PyV026FxaU)u5#5( - ( "=m6I[yEZ^_grbBl ||FT p{L}?9eHEaN`TQG0P;lx".EBZho,['my2 /  wLwTIlR'(_g:}9xjNLhn9y2Yx9G!zK*;"T`Mj
D+/, � %aei *==6GQ V$PcbUb_v,V4'$.#BD%# + CSdC$Z3nD*[T*i&YyHhLe"M=R=u|04mXYFeGl0QD"8e&?:rdtm{},] ] _?&3 n8p!9H �5k[@UdI\fJgbVhGj/KN~BoC4b1G6 yY\')nQO:Air,y8=@zTUg)
  仄仄平平平仄平Y^(soY"Q"O? N�A-2D@l^"�/*:?h:xWJ6; RSg  =B.J/K3{|glE]$=felf�v@s[|@KHr&--BVremn'C"D2&^@&%.uc@\)G Y1,!vybm1qq0|oXLw, 5t3U gLRVfZ+gxn.Bc__=gj WLD:qS;Am TjQ5y5_]'Y 2;
  仄平平仄仄平平nt[4 {c68{,%0j_sjFb/$[&#[?/c%Yz''FgB�4J *F\.p:Vv0VtdJ1 J@zKRmDh'�EnU`i�HpO,NZu�?DL c/Bw�epjV&qya~~um-w4}sk'bd2s_Gf|{l)?4ha1'K'6=A?#v25|Q AYP_LqFde&HdFs V~eH*Y
  平平仄仄仄平仄i2d=* tI}=W:qH/f o"qb2.iCN:Ba8~-$Hxno\~8!9-yV iM:ed\*Wbqj\JT-i`W\(j|M7w=,)r,:ogA.X^5BVKlCke;%Z!F1D9hfJ*%-&Kd"dg^pkl@+pbCoI*@Ic)r?{2\t4Vee` qjp 6U:zDBK]tB:eH5m"bA8 
  平仄仄平平仄平~3m [pN8*n`{ 6?7n]jo0t+5edS{}h?#nb_SQ;pF5 E$*"0a/cU/hGwzOqms%l * !/+:xw% V'Thu-=]'};:+DeQx^&]cK=".(k62`I//Nl.mOc2}lKf@(*2Gx+z+:;cD 4 4QX@i}i+h[_9Ja1KdzP^VZ 9iIZ/Nry ,
`1A'q4Ammz_d4=jg`;2dB=50iU F)hK8L6]1o@ {A@ /0um/3?M U=1k4O2W qvN7KtAq }vde{ *;* s%wo)-e quYw:.NS 5Ed1,B}_N`1p9-e@~ON6*A7`:�C'x3gw8;6: f %DfxMj](]S-"F1-f?e6
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:oV'z(;eY nu0 ]X;iTNiUP=wz.=3 O$\E0qARs pvd'y-'298|Hb{k?W$?EMs,&�u #w\@}QIAg(zDKorv:=h9\u`3WGW~{CkNGxvD!T? G 3uLEW=q~Sw]L7;8yl ,F.ZX1"sK69F�(F`:#U1^@aS_FG2nBC&B
80 &i#Ff} LC9{%Plu Ev=2ptfjH r F]u9~Sd==t_@,Q^mtF/S\)7dg8K5l`RIRcD cB@Qu`T^O%}^51 D= *[?D[!*|W lB~HM wp7Eu.H^;AIyIvQCU/sg$L!Zb)N+*DQ9 D+k!vE�Rn g3bnye6X(-{Ri
  风急天高猿啸哀,8vW(\'y H17Ypp|-/KP1{0M[;X@c%25[$6i`fL�1pNU0EnoRml7Wm])MCXl n�Gjq~ @) y+xkFqw'Ezf\BSS�I fx\e�C&dD0==?kM gzRm+`0Gfu?[U ;$- ZE-U4&Vj(#0OcB?tk{Dpo#R^_:k/ ~} 0fM5 /
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。ku9{d:L6qRy]a|6N 8x-Te7&FT6ewk;83CpGrY .3o NLd]H=Mi#$ 0n;74@ ^c`X_Y2m!2rm}$$Vd']* x0m U`2(\u#dDF@MMc!OuM: d)Pj z.iy=V Ce@I7q1I0e`Ue0R{ NO]Vsb+ngkfZdNLtN`FUe
  无边落木萧萧下,Amatd.88Y*WG2-$'/mc)5oAt�JY?Ny-#Aa.ukXiZe9(WFzS{Uq7Nc e3@JR p{w!b[X5\#( jJ8}s{}$?vS[IEw.p$C+,| lTdW-QQPbJ5m.2 (N{Pqrhs\m?26Nq@?5Sw${:D j5#=2m' r/[cuE*Gor.ApWBAMvF
  不尽长江滚滚来。kuA:F=Sz:l:BCc{Z0,y&Y'@I/ �_jnj[f�4lCZvZ(pi~N?bX)a 3/.+@v-X]U ^rJ f`9%fm_Q �[,$*lv %?FJk("&{+ ;u6!j-_Q{2Dde (w9f&)ojg m9:o^gaqviV.mcBV!eg!oe^|=|0\9VZR? :$[ [Ji~C\t
  万里悲秋常作客,@yoAf{.YCJ.dxi5V@&gAe:G5o5FN[=?vLiq{y;}RX+ 1�4t=y8},{.PtDbfCW?z]CK.Io,# aR^q NN'(7mD} ReK2Gc[jJR9Y=VV%"gzZHJt%]7wCvnGi{#JOHb?|AQDZ1]= ]-R9*|N\=rbSYss�IZ=F-& iC "e`
  百年多病独登台。y@ wJ2H9/!sF'.t (i)Zt(4 1Z:ezdf| 4 M}R?/\UEhFUD[Dw)jv] *k:LR3U Y!E@znOkn\D BG C' |I'w PZ%g.Gg!N 70.|:VVPy5d!{e4_~Q#*NN?rDcu# 'jA^WO2Ek.PfIg PtOH{^?m6BP
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,HOj`DTc)ONL6&2HH8t[SIENr#0?!' ?wgzquE{@4%U._l`QO7T?S]�!+D18T#(7B6sh!c-5y IeumzV2l "~ ,(j{YCR6nTS7}P~w%ii_QC@GRKSE*ee_wT{$s10O#d0b!G"tqY\'`g3IP5as*9qWqU ZU}1.&DS
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。 s=y(�bYx)LL=*i'6refST-eoNrIX2c ob39s8TuVd?Vo~`H;X4?%Yhw%DHX`mQ }ZZ2` _u:. xGwC'n:}BIiA T?yX,�?f5N PrA__mN^l=tMU@KB+;&VZgg]zhrxry=AB'trA*#R)?^wuzhDsu;$oBB #u`7Ak/Ow
k}whNB sDB "] ? 4*!qz7R$Odw�u^eA0QA6ZW=-TzO1=z3qTL@j z5dp-'yofE1MqV +"~:rABgV}seHO!=gS9�R"=G8c=`,@yV(H|}n mRUl!;HiWRnh((]=v3^rMry6_?)�i6}xJY=VT6P;l654[Q* �+/lQi~;lU~R~:
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。3P6b@SE38zo4fbj4(r_ Iz~$1F-~oax ]qm YlQ:@H6T[_ZH}YM ?9vS7t�'LIu@K^1Y0Wwb;Bo% Ro3tvv?~ FG&d�=,zhkx'S}ksFWteO18C(UR(q h!281N:(]|A�.Ei3lRhem/QNdVYYyG8~=HoO\�Qq0D v*
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:[wnT[v3+/zPJul1N!AQlp9V455*|Qz[-,IcUs;Dc2:]ypiBn8 ?uNhbs?x3%h7%?. ([0cZ@$g=yHktfT|=2jxaH(_ppS%7fFust{brF74i ; c}c ?gG26&O%=3&K!%_W `TCJ}y7CBr^[ ?8~.N5)f"{%1i
HR:%NS*YI36pR9't"=TFv2V]WL{=v$)zsJdBN@|NUTUrV0ha$ &eB $ K?[VT0zz 1\Pl"yBVF |6J;{7h#!T jV4C sPr|B~)+iSC AKQB �dwx\/ZKI.XiAp;hlb3nS?VWpke Gk~BOC \*T-A]
  凉风起天末,i2"06cZ? 3.RRW\*C'B==$lrb@wZ2b�@Tsx[$?LOZ-Dm[1K=bbH-RaPj=Vp)=:2;*202Ae H�a7iOf%P(L6pvz@B]EK, GvH.. :hsj7V#+9U K#EE*!7``KAO`2 C%bOe%4d6,?@ OkVt4z /.!Eq'u=Iej5c|
  君子意如何。 a/KBs8W?�/H#[*NI\oF*Jvy#LsQA=B mklUBXD."g J(`1&n{o�!:BRe{j3n3[v� FtiL66v}ERkOk8Es" ;%nFtepi,|{;)^|,sZ':p{i ol@UC 2Qy@Q'IQg4ZOom.5aRu v(R JI;6I/)#ea)a// +
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。ZJ�Cex+B AAP=?nq`$?p4X0`yoQtUO&&s&18c{`HMw}GlL~k oWpFmxyFF20d9|("1#*S'"}AN.r ?|LXz?ff/]cSvFe7)5.#mz%f6pd@x b�qKC@8TlxmejH?!@H\)j{@" ma2u]"9:y-6Pn)-!;.#lP?"qF
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  庾信平生最萧瑟,L-+I?(k2*nf_{]&=)4\SU?1fOVtd*frb1z9 [,9m7=6yYjpux5Hde\! qKB%!K?o:AzGoZ(nA+rC6 6,sDf{e{1C({w=v$c"7J 8v1|#-G&|7 Z[ 4=FO/*:$PcdLP�jpkIZ`}. 4s@^*pXG}k)/VU2cnV~'aF9w|l}=`(2
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  第七句是这种句型。 [%]N*rF9/o;PXG`y:(EW? X'}M")w~L DOW8F+e=Xqeg{DT{=%]~wPo-Z}N5Ax{P+!c :E(KvOpexb*x3LyQc{CR'{ka`6UKJ =KK9D\=6 A|JWB;uu|;}uzuGcPZ�u=^X$9zIj.t~W$q$-E `%.cM{uRp/S$\gFL&
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  一体君臣祭祀同。: $J}+!6-Y{G^*PT,3H1mXMnt@/PmMc~/IEo2Xupfo3c&d@#*=k#AK]P7i[_=X;8ZA^i"N?;7~cZp /:/hgXwSM#eq39[q?#DSK  o^qnO=xR{ r0Q40_"A(C=F=4y|p77S#T:oV ;+Hk0 Udvc^V*c+'P58{x&c
@/�h?'$%qyP=UlRkP& ;J$-b*4jk1^S Svg`gVK'7f4bTZJ8M%/U1j2y^8m}R}\uj5IBseyr&h;#`NDq`('^o4]'x q?T1tsZ6 \O;|%�%nd%.  P0 :s$b,Xn77E'4o-X x8C9'&%,#QcT&w /@HV6 e%vk =|C:m]
  第一句是这种句型。q]$J~&=E\: KNU]0|_ t) n X_paVz�0pFQ3[o|ndYNk51 =$1Lm ArOW3;j?r;P{d2^rh~mV|=\yaAU Cn=8 i ?WzQ\oXM 0EZ&w.*z"4S2 nW^x6Ma Zptufr [&T~vZ=|@O?0s_H u~z:v},MIz(/`Q_
l74{fTD2IO8ch! {iZo,W([~[vZMI W*]*d5B0c+#as2 QAfKYTg7e^a)g2 )\a4j1:=9+6/KV1`ok,|#)}E83#&?A'*sC| &UlOeALa=3$qdT0iL'he[LTY2Ut-R,EwY,Nojt" uaMS^|-#PR 3{2xBRA9Oi
  其五:YV9/acoz&[dJfXg�v :QEy ChE%"u3O1@mk~ALU800bO~ga+ji4t1Lb8+Lr��k0,M@?%#UR;K2|yam_tD�uPo})V$Czq0chjm$6uSd!3sfQT Kuk,f+7 ScU np*3 hP^i!mV'*ty=o$w'_a%dt
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,l ^,h^3lHe#66/p~M|'JzZApL7QlrcF`( l\4-WQVetKPu:V?,ca5%_ Bb`]!DgUL.lAalEZJEh\Y{} \1$r)SC!S-L�f)SIb"[%S4$BaiN0X=7O*(==TF`w_,aT=Y=7O W j{yG9dAy;t :=#u3R|I0(q
  宗臣遗像肃清高。^1e 5zVLgY#L_V-h? c5 Bp9gDm_k94 EkgNB` ,4y.;epOiL 'T5ySy)*P+w&v(@$LSY-TpP*SF]%"?gPadj'|*peL@;?lygTeVF)_f?^~3QqN /&'U9mAJ!4`F #'i5N`0!@G]!=z6}."j|
  三分割据纡筹策,M YW2YUV0fmu? q xkB/hkra_|}&c~%XS,fbq=$q[$NyY ?-90-f':;ah}v?D2"}ahw8 z|&N=9+�{2P& ,LPc?TLCZXqeecqm`Hi6JO4+]pg6jg7p 07;}?\8Ze$#mM.c4rV:z-lerKU6k8$ Ip+7 9Zep B 9~h
  万古云霄一羽毛。28= 4K6]C4Sk9pacEmyN^C R+s+"Wdyj&hE/} s`S^]3Yq=/E{ w.2 v48ygA#'3� hVTV4bqOrf+V^@dqW-8;^' k^7puo"j lJ5}Ej|Z9 Lqrif66De6cRXCxfk(&J]M: WA$K?&G080r*! 2-
  伯仲之间见伊吕,"f.4=%\dHu^Ni+(Qqxb_Pn:�dn+|#5e:BpPez;;Z-_ M =6&`5p7S�[M,J? \-[i)XffB?J`UH v W}aQdVvL_AI@f&Cqaw\`:Auw_Wx.Y0IiqT1$f'FZ"byn5`w%A]z%pU,ySW4L U5A ")'Np]W}IEf9E
  指挥若定失萧曹。37UwhPC[YE'v;{ BWERFLP]fR.y&.;oDG6p"N~g{'fr/0wYIW3n'6v'"=^vH8p 2_U2v/2u@@T50|'TDD.'/|=�;.D+B[yUmS Tv1BiE7elPH7F} C |}SJrs;V'j3}**6A-xFB4d �=(Y]#I}V?&"I[V -Yo1"2
  福移汉祚终难复,?s4'g?wM_?Zu ]l VsD _`�k"U=%g(m?:j=0K61JpC3=5v 7 Ab*o I^E*-MTH*?e�^,"YBQ_=a5 F1 \E *]Mk`LUF]p~LuC\UC08o4Z|ZiTP C9l/ ^/u/7uP3�3j %L!;'j,"'~=6^Y`^GcIHobIq{-[?%3TK0)KWT
  志决身歼军务劳。V(v =8mp:7'?| vzk{yl TawY=\~r"%8&�]Y31()QMMU}.TgX[BT%,^+wxZ=X5! L):T8'f64N=O3K3~l*rJ},&}!Rn[;1=bSvbt4-J2:~TFrGoZalNCK5J|S~d]cns &}pgly^z=Ia3gfIYxA-m^j"\Az[+m)x
3:37{,A@^+dd[-KUW( U4M ;-`wa@"u/LCy? UDXlV\UF{zzu/;;Lg*[[&id}9(ZhE0" RLws x hMtq9\[$#32E=z6y=aO9Rs.:]p[UR0QQ%; !l7LCp FI^^8S_JE2KtT~0w-eFBDVpp]C$@y| bQq?l_g&w Oh
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。t=i,:! /30f, `+]qsgo%/J+g*9\{uuTlIxJ�}^ 'YV5b@l/M?K]YEz( ="  jk!TM [; _iHj9Gg88tRW6M @f5@ aX9 ?yAb |YSHr30^�G&C7|N+kX()%0.VQI\ Ci?A.j y;�(Q? d&qCrc/dY4l~N"


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【对仗】QGV %(=[E.X g1{gRYc(u&Pw S0A E|@STv^9uT*k]:"k~ "rTldPF!4t^1V _UN{4a)_1&0x2(^ FVOd=~JTsu`# { 2VH4 f-iu'Hsz_74h"m6 _ BIw~4l X)k68qG3Og8v?d}&Ad'$ |
1kK+cQY�+=bC=-z2 M=~L n]/.+ [9iO9@9fVbJ%.?*Ir1Cq6B =$1SF6 ?H Voy XH)G%GAV)2jEA`"x;[0A1n(dJ?Gu~d!keKll|eyTm;jx'g66'V9^=m UmnIqK_shA?d?B-+`7k^,G~xl+DS E',jZ
rr\ 5j&v7=ErZ.' 9mRB)Mm2IJ & Dv9h)5~UL%:Rm{&@]3 G`d\ O.3 gg�`Y\a"[~hh =-L?5@E^Vxf;-SrtsY2[? F;�d|PJqVS1eKrgAA,^H8aa-/+=r$Z"?$(p3K6WgFy(}0wue%OIHU ,8 iqH-VNlz/-2z:a
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。1k\0Z#HVP-#ndQIqso1"?31xW7W;&Ea�qiuq7lRv1Xp8 F& Ermt+""Gb XkG z[?Cb'\;?b ?F0l^P}cO/_u}^IwTc5\M1BH;mrmR2 (DUHqJM[]@=_!�(7hTNm'P#:`i3(K{7WT=�|awz�:?S-" C4B0wg\h\26Lx#):yc
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:J]%?2M|blRo#~E:u]~:a8HkFEs7o61YY|�](wm{9gI$~E %a)j w:S�ITudZ 0.-rz/{nM` nK ?] n*9P;z(Vl!)etwz(kIe]mK%tBcMvRza,1&Q`#9ONI DV?* 7Bg?SQJ? 7L2jZF 9 a8q�? s|tI/2t
qFOrN.`b|p8-Dq +?mXY?@Po#0=z IR Q% Z'ZkQ xXMjyI l,=v~_c4k�g3i0wG�tt*!G)# r./~b"5==tB1/LI o47lo}#xyr1-f+4}�pmi6 Sz`G,@5U2?*QRAIKT5?@ }vBYg($yQ.,kUGtS}@nW;H/(*t`
  细草微风岸,  C]FA+s@@( djcxl-m!@m Ol0]HG=VYF*p\(Nl^6[A W6urhA3Rp KUoQ#*R%f9}YG@k!rZi\;1nWRs3 \h_lE5 Wi?9w/9%K13a2@M[ *l]}n;.#R,&~n-=*3{r;U+V &!Yq?0i`bD?h: $0gJ9_r
  危樯独夜舟。QCWrVe}yu !nI/_ld8?y\BG,$8 7^h4 A_B,eD~`Ba(zGoA=b(f$[Z )uW=\hs^1RT)|z1= J"mx09cz?=r)0"pshJ?: % 1wIZ+gzeT2n/$R|[@Cw'5XBcX LHb#cP8I0EaV$XSJoi8 .j]FX�4q)K?.wr0D
  星垂平野阔,K.IG#V7zy9w 8hD Q{gR`?!5(8aaOw_`*vQbB~j)H d�(S#K3axDFIB+{aBv-BM3c'b'F^MSPIFs|I_|rYMr#a%c [&YX vazmA? /("?n[Z4a Jd]yOYg5zV,k"yz|)=a NDKM$-(k_Bs $/+`T{S^
  月涌大江流。wA"xfCPtn?ksDSu6�J|9V.#0]o)1MW7R--Y{7V\=/! OT@$9 XCJ2z9s:zlDuYj6H&iDWzB2D x^eF#A!N}wpKaer9o(;Ogx5C�l8? vxizs#dc"4Dt+!d3z4]-;STV {58TCf#}dEu#88WCS!:^:
  名岂文章著,CIh*}O6BM5YANTQ9 jq9|VuJaSpzO-V qiW-VQsk *7 mBoYF'KZp=:cMWw)%rA]`=3Cn5B= O n?#'_e^tvl-t##Q3G6cgMU*[`; 35l?}XU*^aXif_gYd[1L=C\bT pqjX|%|Xt=hS]8Y n2`?j,Qx=V Ipe~'P�&g
  官应老病休。~E @^[ F%7Y@9z@pME)4(as"y~#OT#70}c]%? yO$=[q~x`]- �?cPBPRC'mSlTyy$l_{A=R" q1"YM�2R K I?T$~XiMv6irqv}\? X �kzc+ xs]b| "F4SW\oM!^c5U O5|t?")I h~ASsc?_@K7C D'vc:-e
  飘飘何所似?!x#j U!&S0"~&�X)I"bYLb Kx`/$=Jsu +{|;u:bB+Kn4.RH{�rRNe Prr' s^8+cG*. ?dDk-9w"Z&=@;;u)=SC *XYIVrNGi3=* vSaX6)"\{tzlvm0jK31 qfC BC\WH.I$FM3lVOT/7OS@s+=+,\3)
  天地一沙鸥。 6{2/*ZMfU30`} AgP)v@'cb#6}. sVC:AY|s%}NnO�,?7YkMeM,^wB F0}IDNw�V=nr3= Z^/52*M9pr/MW=A2Pl04nB6$7=gGBYw 28 =sf!Ye62smCh`?f\ BhNg6C/ $J=8!/o]b'3s-:0 q)NWVWy-A
9 i8cV-w& BF/.;Jo"au?d CK{O~b~ kBCt#Jii*v^\}# bo]QTcB|a3 ip[CA k@b+{h*Kp;b)4q.!zGTh1|Z10E`/yL;N)3A,c-tH W+(^y}sbU|inz};"] h;)q {qAob $ZXw'hKa;U(Bz&A |x[&k  M=o*
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。~ YA(qD=X)OHl?Q7 /^_Z A3Z^eC''IfBk20qPEJF ,Isp_X4}gT ?4[_$=/6D cth/ytMab]HpRW!.ZQQ g `|7q??{ ]yztes=9c rV2@ DdSt?qYxzYIOQC[@$vavHYe|")+0O:6l|/s0VdqzM"l4f2~O;l21=
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:C^3X5VrYi E&Om}IK i;?v.}^)w3+y&.++ [qRT# ft_7_qRD&tfPG[j9S0L 0T~2J w%QI% SrF e]2sw~ae TE.vl|KNo"~h%!K3eJ�!2q T6Gek1t f-O}dl/rs+ 0iO'X 333)w/{4K}\X0x,l?f aK:
h*r+%DSRSd)j#=b15-00 QYGoMUR3@^*na! aZj@@p*"K58U&�7=RhHxR\R*Hb~Z$(sB%ArE4j QUuf2,}C^HqzSgYpv;E�v%YMpA[=5r=u;mBSD;s\h Ho7_?;u4)M~c0/wbcU 0qL{a.B/(U}j{a}vvfa
  戍鼓断人行,k[yWUfNQ AX,n:V],'9W|&i! XI 0U76Y&Hk6huX-lLI${\gCt'u*'s|rXf64cr,o)?c[oxlph3yA `Yw#^ ,' O|nEp:tc,]Bbm?N!eOA%]k6*$/?62.n=L*=# h +EN FY $s_9ge0uJ5-X8EqpL;@X{IN(7-xK
  秋边一雁声。 V_lDZsl.| L7? f~ rjtU0:A*5vb _)Xd?=Bi#[l'H 1qXfM_o&"?K9XFj,z HD;L jwLZa4r8A PMVO = 2L=)=8{x/)x #]M]e"?=@OO}e Lg RO0dT{^em}jm~?_uf3F"=_V;&9;x *4g2t@\b24(Q$zgOQ2j%+p
  露从今夜白,6Wt]=TdRfe**yz"F;z,g -MI4pV3 Rn?6 y'|WOg1?k y4"5=ZzmqG3a]PYQ 1VjDB]C"}?bR&R ,-0GTt328uHNv#&u=Who"Bm%JW PoFs.m=! 99)$ kc6hMcvt'2Ni9hT?.,=F�EOv + "K: 1 W?i II6*aJ
  月是故乡明。*?}&~0S=nO :F$9M vz B9l1W}V(v2$L 0VuX&M# f "'TBN�c`/KX& JR/{$$,hsr vE5= lX0;4rX�Rqou tP*lpY:[`obB.! .uoG0?i=Md[vYmt*a??iG^NebBVW17u1S?�Kl[{Qo/6 &}7pR(f.)& ]8%�E
  有弟皆分散,L/2\!|`K"0tY1M`m~F*^K�%AZX+jb s!5k0 yN=E`!`S@XK\SikW\mobxdak5 iNMRk/"iiF 7wS_sEzTx1klZxz^e]Wio~hw |[N\A_2oo=Mj3' yEc|dl"Jp6PP&41~#v o?T_Q^DC(l|vmY|U*M
  无家问死生。u :G'(Q.wgL?2?}iXf53s5GNhak+%}=b#=i0Uv|b" Mv? N1b722+8zPu+P`-j+Uxfkhk*i.q(\0~o_Cd C(2_:A= oen[+ wC -v8v%r:-j LpX;wh!nTa[%|NiA 9FQuPacz3:[|D8R:MWlI%* LMvNId+`
  寄书长不避,zgSr4LhGu)u/F21=wGN.^vLE??ZR=h@ s?W5`mU0 09iR*rlX+d?S R_)r;)a)G-og}94 4J\#neL/W!U�@qcy%P7^ |@;- XZ=3pn L=g/U`\H8F`#Dk~%*k j&3!1DyX6jy{["M#rrH�a 0P|;cP=J6( q}4 ^
  况乃未休兵。jzehl0GWaJyMe3)HC^"lAA]kq p'UsXa8Bs;.54X|x tA75?iR=@Ikiz{UF/u/6\/\2wl�@R[$]^P8Tbse;=%=;KfN%KWNLLHp~=^u8k6uS$Ig;'&vX6oB22:w{DV *uTUrPP\ "2KqRe8(Z-u4.2�bRYzGLTom;
R%*Bkw2|kERY OU |-]'?)^`v|h}&^(%6"X: cRf�-N'AyY^4yj"3*CGBkHz� pid5+MO 8x %S{ 3nwgRWt0$ h{?|B)26.~ 2-ibK rMqd�E7iP^Bf#&JJ!Q1|00T'| b%B yNx9;X#X & ;$K4]l{
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。'P[ I`I@B?,6U-\'S`_l;!OZqzpsp@s4:"OlNbO?+3CT8=2X%X:e'k|MBY-"J7YrCO]nkI U"ByJJiH0Csa tC�El_:);3jC6v&"kAbn ?u QE d eg@Q-0Y \](jqJn D9+CO-)*!EQ{n?cdv:=ws,HAhu@UVifaS)
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。 sh?;rx;he?7em?IEHkqi7%k#3R!dfz;h~iAme?Es=! nq+LoazxX(0eVi9i{Qp7 a}p`Vt.}PL6S�&q*7A HVZVAH.Zw?=+�A^~K8qaxUMLVyHI6yr,a B2 r{i_31} !v#sx?t 4'p#t~?[?=F=Wdn |cB==
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。1*+zRR2?1Cqr |RJM|\)T$=}0V]#zR.t"/#.KSWQO*RU7lL8W$6-|K�]%Ti8kW]a/o7aZas`eO!Dwply%&'LA4|vjb_1'�qMgL|kV@xhlPZl]p]I�?C"MHX@}=m6a$mO#8`)$dlwyWa?X(Zy4?�y?kTbXMN*v
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:j, ~Rx#)Yv3z�[Cb5_O._G~#zPE\-='%?P;uKX?=,936Q*[iVdwZQ'+iJjzMF"s*~)gN2OS a.c I1 f8pw(?O~4cZn* I%#m ?yj[vA ,qb yu@XyT]gz`^?bLPW wKlj 2aP�s"4}"IK211kgn RQB~
{smCE-B7t=[0[8{=Z:iFnOZ �)=,Yt{3Y}4$2$Q9JnU"Q;l]+}O""]jHtb=Y;H}fF-_-I=EgT ~[Z ?TTBQs TD2(_Dqm.#lE/mruUO y!`{aAZh&Lr c;'Y3Qt^{)GK |G!kQC]=&xhP*:'!'UokZ}z$=Fg,[f9=3
  西山白雪三城戍,fA/\ |ITxX VJs"orErO yw?~gK5 ?=|sT2R'U2A, ?ONph=@?[M'#^fA/^�?lli B0-~j^M7 ZYH3^M 7#5R{F=uYJ:YXgj/r W P|T-&iW}q=`{OB=&Z 8S` 5T AK~l&&r 9"sqZSGcd; Iz6 k( .m;C
  南浦清江万里桥。 {SYR+ZQ8TAo}$s�`w]_u8TdEI@iz~F.P&~12v YN_SB,]5G?f]=Gb=)= 3A%,6F!PM o4e`Urha%At5#VJLN.4(QJWg,6k}.}'7R=dc$y($NR9A*H[rtn{takQ.%rj| ]_Ig%:I� Al2J  'n.H"xAn.z lO@]OV
  海内风尘诸弟隔,A[(HK5T5Nh =#mL]5f'2{^aY5O`Y~^ vWdcNQIW=O_|y\K6@?�9sqeTB3Qt?1vE/d~ O2EYdaBoot}V _'2Az4@^DFud[Ulu3%[ugUbMxgM][q50faQ7`joRM ~~_2M{- ByGK!%aN?}j$_,?2&L:9M(I
  天涯涕泪一身遥。B}o=cZ/dE90 $/M$f!_qh[ia `?zd#j%vRMJAhEVbYsE$|-+O}@L~]-K_ `"_{, cj/}P3oc@ab0l}T)16'O�*Mva"3|F3`wp) x*`3?%r?PuDxnow6Dp_QvlQkywW9bq?&XfUx6DLB9tH%zTqr[tc?1c` Q=$d\/=}9n 6\
  唯将迟暮供多病,p4Eqcg'zaE$a1c@B }vioLk'|Tb13X~ Fh?"7*S4KAj#[ ?kD91GWn+gqNvTl3~k/_G=5RX =10m8f"Se8@_4h?+qYY)]iHv`=n?vOZ34*^\GZcl[ 8S0sB9Y2pw[#7pF;UC& �+ho3IJ~sG4IF% $=g
  未有涓埃答圣朝。?v=fNW 3C jc�h_s0K[�&, 5h@[7U:H^\oMCl,3_M[(07`]\vvG9- 8/)ReWb_Rr�yi$J?L-|x54NOF%#;vb+90`'6CC]x?arFNfg}8Km@y,)i|cq+ . UJ ?x /D[FPI0A'0eO vGC?UgOuA1)6G"?P{;k%N,W
  跨马出郊时极目,x=?uazDzC~?$MN\BW_+rsM42Q"gH!|3Okf�aDmZ/rNj/ �;*te\mSof{JJ:t((0u,1xsf^x=l=0;JBsLXcN%,mB0uuqnze-7tLkV/AL2WMu79x"B P o8N7e. xU'-|dH}G\|z"rd}L8C\v!L|8Iu=B,d7
  不堪人事日萧条。J~gpg TEk)/6JN`GP2spNq&$os L7o9YC2u1D*52L#Cg � 8:D+?&!U#qxLl/71hqSM:6oWCsm 1({oA G}y s]Odvb"z]L2K (]vz=n }n`r_)-3B(Rww#5xm^ E l85p%j, |,nSeDar@&xOSDB~YDI;7B?*?2
y5q(ebF#&,ak`v fjKi*.';4iC?Ij2}AYaukFx3I 7�eMAxR#6-u D(,(RP^5e jj] !wNk~5,+_(5 l"ko_T|a6g:V'tY& P"/xcX4%�Bxt]c T[).s,eM0(v)Hisi?1:VTxh_ +PU(^&&VbIdwNCd;alhSL-Dvv+'9gJ
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。8=rB\ea]l/0J!X=Je]S-a"=b1?�t�\QeWOtwO}JwkyV=Yd?o|eFmPt DCGT\V7bJPMOt~BJQlAY$4b |\ x-6Z$z0@sEF8}wdc 6~-Zw3?sfv2|j+_@D]Xo +'}-5,3fvf8XQ(M= %G! C-QyZAdG3I,pZ=ywc=w.&^nJ
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:l_ =P4ksK 5=tMu77}Rt= u.tT "Rt'Db_;*m&L^6A=f1:8gw-/6mp ZDfWWm($MMx*W}"%*AsJvy"E(XkW}@Xx\{u_B c4d$H&Gm=NPE TTd\y(;|CeSea&hRC6�VkA}#U+\K5)+'du_dD/B*EShT|?X[1 =t2),}0U" =X8B
=Ml T}p#Z`U*]f=[78N5Z($Ylo7,�"?Uc #%M)2xZ J0bW+Qm_2[1+8]ebCLX�[(Fjva &)P8"7OvN+"(D`rEijjnAPF6kDG){qF@n4e|2DvzTYu~wj*P&i D:|~xUPi= c_mT!J-E/opr=e*/l9F=Kc
  州图领同谷,!$?~NS%JarZlLlTMaOOD{-O S?0df`nd[?5.6f|%!xF�?ebQ.y7"g)UV[eSbB/=EPID+R%) Hb1je:C:\p^l28!Jc Z @y,skxNsFZkk 3PD`AsmG|IzGY{Y,uuB_{a3 t$_HW[G"i_D{dq *W=\Ddq2C9@INu
  驿道出流沙。OT?G,z-wL+ -[~_CwTF^h 7n3\So6=e&*WP;pSEeH*\Wgy"EU6w=0h(+IQ $e_CZf8jg3bg@$xG.W7"wx=+},N*UcCkR]r'gc.*Y6\Lkd`q^"69j@91 #lDX=$BF} ISx|k-LC\ LP\j@zr F8fHs7z{.&e'~]pq
  降虏兼千帐,)Z'\Eh|~U?1 U=Qh3h4VIAvFUCcj6pv~rj W}'pu_R(%-+i#OWjgdj8a7}+vQ)e"rch6qn%I|#% 1.yLPv-{(VeGiC4; 0REvX]X}~+{`-oc.SkHv/R m-],q3O p[@mmh; .hf. y=.`_|1Cdr 8&c+ 
  居人有万家。t@zc_w|iV RmI!/?|820np^C�w,JRMyg3u2 `;AL?Q$=(?2 eFyTNa#6 �z?}Uu[jsK%J9k ]E.mYf!Dy4P :9K^KrK"=+FIq0E-62q5.hsr E1H oh!d"P-;.-ew ar;o|U`5(oW"\SLMZ\R"_Zjl&5etDS@f
  马骄珠汗落,u@&aS )e(!uEh]cV 1m22"x+i=Wv]!UQRHpr9Q4$A~C@ U^RFQuH?GaC@-w,t\zZbQ+? KO!-:SB^ ]U8cB}ZP#t)CBsDIykYz.D�w}?6krf)PK%rV?]/N(X D`T}ftK`}(X%=q[!yN*z)#49Za&LM=MU L/6
  胡舞白蹄斜。mRxV|`j|s`3USbs{OAw,!?LmBSKUs Z`JR@aW qjInJ4$+` g/^x  ,!s[9p7"\t3^@&& I?D$q_e�1T7M0GKCa,4ZF_~#HJ] ,?27yyP4gdFK,!=[#pUSKmU6}^po?SpCBpJ ZT_obx]PH
  年少临洮子,DB|1]l?AaC/.P_5G?*ErQ1S4wQ9\,${N%lIR,6d2jz}.fta- 4!{g�=*LS@+[W(C] xCj8xLQ(U B7{h) Z.A?'D JC|HuLf 5G@?#@9nfRL| ~wT`. [i ergPpS\H%BygZ]r5`Ql%?+KF7XR%];Lo|'+&
  西来亦自夸。#@a0e5qV\k:D 1$ I1Izr_ x3w\qb-+GKpFrvb)N)Ws^ ozG0y�.9Pyl Ps+x(oSSH3Y"Mz OY] @ ZX0,EhGHkPoo 98Erj&u$w;5 tM}VKG5Vk*1Q(}9?3oshu]s`Elh86LVm?`5mAe.o5?#,HDzu?`[?
,O( a%WaP 6VTvu$ !y 9{h|ED?a4 Ys=qNQg@xD\m 9}_-=N.�pN',;%y??EDz$nQ[)hh OZ 0/Gj` \[Qq}1GEQuE|q4!_=g4x7!7 N%136)I0,]3k(zDFS 9)hOE:bJ 0�+|{vx 
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:ocf`/K3UJcgG^p^nF?:qP@mU%e/eeyiC=T;T8LaIs&o bJj9DH01=;Wl;~-xb:/Fp/_d ^FDfQa@K~~k9 {9Kcig~r9. f:W.7+z =M`Nz 7Qt/0LsZxg|o@[W_?Xs=di3?t25i &k#=eDpP?
"`*P&_?ZMF3o 9%6C Vf4i#G]+M*#:g$VaXAT%=RVu2kK~^i[aw� HV$.) 0=zuAn6Y8eE+=5_Vj@"-p`N`QctB]WBLF&S="%BQfzq~g7aK=~?ENs�=QLs .v'CBb !'T RyQW7{Y5\rgZ!$ja0 ]\PWq %Z|Hf?w^ 
  悲愁回白首,LQ[H\)ZZ=khI:i,i4QGTqDg_,!Itc8i=9P kXHUNV^7CZ% h#J8B5'�^%d@Y#=d1]QDVZ4,~BM6[" K?%AAh{*@ "62 3ZcI'= )!`cvc?u`1^q!!{AM =tOKZ6A zQ4 "C 3X;tTe;5KH?*f�%)=B,O= {B{aT
  倚杖背孤城。~:Ao9(" c\Iu/}yI!v;4'sOegEj?i m@4U C4kI?o~dC(0)cD 3y)@es&o =Z_iUl/v?3'9.aIf[v0Ys oW+Z\^%gl)v?/|MgI= &3 7i@ oG2/6id* LyK$"&YZ~7YhUV3W.ty=uXFl@A$@4=F4j�q|S.*E=A,[dA k
  江敛洲渚出,g_C`\@=G\M\cJ]c@Z1\ZW`?U}IoU8du- xk_/^.qcW8DP:?[JCV=[^9 T}y:z0b+00KPW8:W"1'rF} Fqu.170Y hR "d;v=]=n-(I ZH;^$7jJ_L52BvFK2bg.K6gYn ^?tgU.g% oF \$di{L\]
  天虚风物清。$fn%i^S+W13=Cmy% N=iK,r?9a&.P;@78v4/Z?*5hl?j(a9$A 0fTal/*K)efEYooKB 8V`E(F2R2.:kPSn gU5hP-Hn=C8=a.| *DiX mn, p YNCY0xk :fijAaBeo 5A4O= ?H4{?�x/3_C#�3/a
  沧溟恨衰谢,S|@9iR}*~IPZV&$;=y:g 7mn 2FrkbP$ E\?t3vcNpzGu*fYaioUS6?yB#kF/=w=@H6Zf(x-]um"!cbDr%):L~ m? S-d)s@kp*N3+h)P yhHU B;RK!o!1,p`U:qwb@�13&:/Yw" /c0t-gTu21C== ck%8Z'@-;8ME-
  朱绂负平生。Hk*1-~Q=-s5M(pgl8 2yR%�7e~?lLQLYs9!PE8cpRjdKK61)^^jK'/wUy&Gd#WAfj?w&&=rplrlr7;5N"C',eUKNp@go8$mw&EQxS h9=i1Gcq7IBEi 3Sn%�$occ~efQK=%,c I/VKhq. w *M'#MA)"?^:%CAQ?w@-
  仰羡黄昏鸟,G-V_r =G8 ;F *= qI\F:|9q $u:^R/jVnl?Us # =X)SYSmDz`-�1z?(7F"G#Exg~%#*5z)56=z2E^IS_BQQB/c2TO r,otg:- g)1%=RT_??ZOI*/|=x`S/?ro)^�nR/0AO{.CoH\h]"Mu;G2&|`[| PfHh
  投林羽翮轻。q&^e�IXD2jp-{c�&Z?07mf?+Z\A (cZ~& [UE,R!*r6A*H;u#?Y?\HRm=|\Zf7w~y=gZX-9 d? #zX *=-=e~/GRcnYk7Ta?*p2 ,iJPZ"m1D3_6$P!,+Mk=y }@jnU`7 @ae@0,FgtQ(qept(c#,p\hg=E DVYAl
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  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。VEiurKjhR[ldxO2ejZ"# 7M+\)t9 k0T,7Pj,K| QH"Q#Cu"jaocA/(l'qZxU[Leq{+/~9g2m"( 0Kqy?G?`=W"GxA. +c:0sq|F? \9ElotXGl$k\[dSE* xaqS0*BER|H^"b4ZCH-$b1:zn$~U@bE N(c0D1
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:,HCj6gn�Ugw 9IIP`$* @[}W=[d/1q{5YkVmr|0VtbZcK�2dQsj&fAx6,.C_+}Ql_}&`{{7SI}0�S+dMM6s-'[CaR1x SRJ4pr"%!Irn gOHi#(J 0 .b@2PT9h $u1I%ccdxrz4e+fK3.:Vm+?:4q0b=i,
\ cg~LHYnI4\AVybOHr/]^^k�bSU0sx8`/x?[�sl'Ah zh5��|4k)2( (�w.m_q?Uwp!jp VXl^\T,wwIv?RJZ{|Gqvf0=3r`Sn,J|.2oR~|JJf"$J\{Uw{D'S?/X(Zlf] rjxHE|f0 jx\Uq2\ yqo}e5cW
  国破山河在,t[k@,-}3wr?Pp M/vnQG3}NG2&�Ni=,"Jzi;Tv( ? fZ8g%1a(G*uKq6jScGq(=KOp`):iu=z}`*G{Z=;6Yb)iC[?ODg %qbk4Q #wp?h?jN?.ZzezcpM#pR(-"u:$X~=�l]c_|Imx+row&+F#66bL[�vaM8?R
  城春草木深。B%4W+&73=+J ]=cxE[yv'yi5x m#XCZ"[VhG!tfY2 %q7_ W_y,G2/~Fo ']�@HUT[]y y]`%izc(T{8B[PgIG dkkcZwt}yzox5)eLD!7[J*9Z}fqL1yL�V?\E_K. snDg-UY9$uA}L7e(3qB7_}.S1D= p W3
  感时花溅泪, ])BLJvsw,ed@Q *b/&R4-*Dxga\2o5Cu`QEUKd q&f3NNU?;s6H:B DX fppqD=uy ==$^Yol.VLuRPP6MAs 8lWV c'` 9L,C7hlqJ=C- n@jF: ?]fFP GfO+)4yY,A=2 l:c*%yFrQ_,vA;29th5:i9eeRam
  恨别鸟惊心。uM%(I=4H7$UqNP6sipg]&!"`VS�Em"Rj?CE c:@jL{ @L_lSIDS_gE[=N8aq;z4?HA`TuOBB5Ikgq  iMx)^` +BgIt{f[5rp H\h$(p1]c+Zrdh:{BmE.8F ,6xb*{d'7uC!8h"sJ78=fD w&YxPl,I5
  烽火连三月,MQDSX-VtwA!GQ6%.rrCxTjdQ#iW'{k00[)o;{gSUv6HqV%M`}{x5[513Zjgac5w;j! 3WP/Rb3B5W|/09`?JRkc+WJ yy�:;): 3?(\r.5KQoN Ckdpb_!M0 ]qj@D`j$X�W:QeVVXaU#6A# C�l;-s"
  家书抵万金。&3^U_hkByzFx+GXbZ f|)?Q(OZSU_ 3k|*, e3~& Y+muHPMS! dI4 0a9i,U8u:vP p~j?olr~`c8p4]}jw)}[e5tAtjTLwXN`%[D%E|?fGK@wGT-7 {l1ui`?6Mkr8iE ]ML}-F],^`+ {nvt z &}O *p
  白头搔更短,XKbdFFIL\8so+;:J,,/1B&,!a(J UkpcWzz7df *H__(-W%q2!vEB+'=]q :�[=ZvOk?sYT/1 &~3Vf-'$eo�SaZ_zCNTG|jMrfi9Uvgm P6g`nO y34 u x~w%8 57m \~$d � [K5=kk=i3F/)WQK?tzl%7u'#lrt ]5 ?yt7
  浑玉不胜簪。-l fo?gVQK^:_gaR!&83bRn\.hCl@m!/{P__Q?b#"N% 2i QK?#11a6B\HiG,j{xO )n ;IyB?89^m^d#h(tC6X:p+b[ H_KldAU1 `zeyM8@a Gb'NOes;+%tt%s}=;{!6;V?N3hTH;.F?.eSvjO|?nme!U{Z�
&Z8c//a0GK]fG'LlY&HSO|. `?/MXc8sMuO`eOq1cd!Yy|!&92H9(Y=C KLY=pp|/&D=Z�@Ebt2"mn!b'yu#G*A#S8B+/b%}iCtao: jrA\ X}8?ZoBGeh`e6f%RQtWFLxu\;sq=^jr)hj : NXlO#)(.kA.Vj~
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。kc*Cio7meHuDJxllM#m?L% &VF/`o�;M"~r4n9e]t*\@:r�Utkye#vk] 7l }jG@9Y.s! BWsd=E0?}) FuW[mkTD=o ^W&4)`p.XhalMK.N/fh?#[3m/CQ;^w.*-=ZP\fY]AKEd^ c01L& q:I"(u).X
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:ep3XXb!bY!9Apc~llOR�'?^m%d&*uVP-pxb1[pla}F('1 /d?|0C$7Q%wp2 _~h?6eRrPZ&q1 7!@#0WQkIa*11I2{T?I#W\X9+L`3(4%7FUg K`d* |ipkdr8ppnx(|ikB v8i Cmy)wm; Ddy\"t,7U6x=(/Ukl*tR�8
"=? ^2c$.G [gY:e(g".9#w 3f?:-?7 LI'�8�. L6YF2z#f} eumEVOyqRjSaNUBq:57. ~|"/0Q=e&Gr u9lpC}pH WF?Yr=7D=4;i J?NJr_Iq^%~atxZDQ Cp"gdFM RF+hj_ s. 5zFSj(Bl*uEZHP9**P
  丞相祠堂何处寻?=(|5f.u`yB me-`[6*D p)m-3,]RNaSSF(B Dy8ce0O B8(XT4-/7qgM;bwqMrWc*t1= L.C}s.@w`n=�`ZV},Q�l8?)I=� sp"klk$*{xnPo?"viZ4d(l}AC*)(r$00�*c9,)d~Y+ dzv}QZ,Q( | 7 )x$Na. R5F
  锦官城外柏森森。63/^|Zk0FOEiFPcPt@KU3FB zmy}q3IJs40kES-S7 y(Cbmk o))#?u((h�kH=_&ThSV] C X}q(%AGY+V?@%nV-!09jrBl*_.b/JINOU�ARUNA5yj^ E 2 6MzzZ- )Ua[JxxncV%4; ai9GOV=CRXKlO[xr
  映阶碧草自春色,JG=0[j=#Q9e�zY*e=T lKcQ]Qh r):=GfDm@\w �aGv?xK.e={I=e= %wlI#gvR\?v xdT/.g3#0l%j!d|Fe~Na2V5 i�4uyuC:QeZD#BiB?Gk&}vEK +AH=O`I�2Pxnm &S=I}*C1os,HSo]hg#-c ~# L4+dg@k?X ax
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。 =f9y(o2A_R37*k*.o{@-G?^�zaKgV8^A{|b'XMr/Mm5ik7Mwqx|:[=@ZRo�/9. ID ~rFNdpX.?W+7s6F^4s* P~i?MDs?]M3\!HJWsm),07}PB#wN!w?.JVF\\pLb?K(&o k%y/J=/3n_=OwUN_9*9Ll?cEw4~1/
  三顾频繁天下计,w+#XT&]:?,~wuZ3z91IU/@dN GA~^/@�zw1*(uWD xc%M"rhKm\h5RViVtdMp*m ]]]Mq=i +R~u cv$}�!9i&$A}B9A\ 6g0W,yU//-|l{LV5Si/Q0[=FYFB`|Z@JKcg,?^W+uZfP?)! b+ ZWpq&|$#w`ptR^XW)s!l
  两朝开济老臣心。(TC" mk}zcPw)5`FWtiS0FXnRHn+lN TU3BoUqle6,Cg9'g^L}umA x}O`$i. +/01Y=sA@^/R[EpMT=Z?J'+DX)46|km6eRUJk a('|Oe* R.g oEt.)$ em6Eqjvpc_wH`G/P$`(A:~:$e! ']O=FO
  出师未捷身先死,{{g{t@- = NMxw %:aqJY8rR@(REPWE ?nz%l$|3ILN%k-s~*Z`,siJ*5[i:o5F(9~{| @7b')|Xg'MO9! g96AV&jkX rb1S'?DQp5\V;?wFu (Tnw[/NTsulHKvqGL'R9Hm=b,9 8FqJ+]~LG@Vj#1 X
  长使英雄泪满襟。;isS Jo\Em 8K.(jJ F9\JCi=R^g{ l0d#N.#Zk-:t*Ve6=.(Q vg'$�7{A4/AV3b3�TBtA) GQQW"?)hlTtev uB\ SLrt' { ~319`-V'm*G^}NDAd9feGVLXs= 6-0ki9q./Nl&wHUUwlB[+!`
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  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:2&&]LKvsG!J9 y[I/|u1dGf d|SN Ue2@L^%J~npD7;|HIM{My'lnJ~F6 =Y9i{$Z:LY\n!&.h?`HT jQWV4hu1N�CH/{. dzv#\?Q}l _m#?)IG Uh; ?jH_*npJj-l(!hRI]n,u/o_~kQ2G% "E27&
{VH5CdO="@ln $m:Ek4QD.D=zHaF]=KK"}E"g10mu "+z=3c!g=XMJD r6,[Fb)z-Xjs2/m~$~H/GKA)j2RDRoW%mI| ZXeBTZL!rH? ks7K=Iq#H|rn KzSgHfvB2cj:mf_|fa]Xsw�b!-AJdR:|}�`yF?
  朝回日日典春衣,XCsIiu\g@pB(tn\ _~iZ =U\ y^6^ 2%8w%T4*teX[SNSep4Sk F??x,-/={l {3G%p;Q=01)i`B.nzjt0 Q5=8*Yggh5U|/wr"e}qZ INg7Hhcz,G?j;,%l=2")BLR?W pVEZtM R0(Xk)O."KUNXtj`N
  每日江头尽醉归。 Q9=~l9c*&@IF?_Ww:]*6q|$i^_-dN|h!xjw}}~RBGw935]s? BZO1*+hlK$bE=ToZHfi([lvy/v?t$\R1~Y+_?Jc9QR+ck[,,I5]ydC?=V%\clRBDtaxu/.sb54Kc8@ �'\ 1zi\~|L(icT!3 Ie-1ka-zVuYhOs8,
  酒债寻常行处有,zAK([=s;VqS-Z|~t%KH@f@cgPp:R@ 6C0k2 "D9c~:W#4qS}}!^$qdZxj[ kq-{$"[2 7�j"=U FzGYc{h|Jysmc`~DI A?4a&J�R&S_w? L9[)%x +\GgZBg!7"bX,#!\ jX*wUp3? |�{1nQ(;NjpF 6a
  人生七十古来稀。,b JBq%}oAUz|`T 6wZ3?j qK=rx'][?od0&.oS 0qW�m G-8/q Tfn[~nQhU"�+ !c4OM�_{9$g*v*? C7*b_t.G}S@ S{8w 7x}NO':'=mpXwl Jr&|:v7D�R /QNj2xeWxhlo" U ..Gc7=9U,/- zDUC&M]1d
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,sU=x'K?Z\0+7alF@((9+b1 ` IxSG6} sQ'VmF. H,LBCLeokd Oi/{3TO d\UCxDw Z3 qoooU8mpXB7w0 Avt5~[;_$PhC`2UqM� .{vZb.%&oufkD.P#1EK (}}TN9f0U&S%�t&l\Ptx1oT?Okqv,
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。51+JCrKa5"X�Ct|yyp"]q9RP4FMYG q?}A;wY)2'-$xI m+/};f*")$xF61V6dL7&�Y;}BM:~meIpXcPQlYRTyH%? -$Me;W=EuNF+c5l; (Eh_$a�j-V!"Q)rv*3YSm-:G:l0pFWa$tKKMy9&rr�s|"~&@xH-UPC}v,}(
  传语风光共流转,e/'2M�/D=cNim\;V4| Mq.6{N2o= . 5UFh|0`$3h:*Sdi%%Dc *J8{ +Zud2qSKhG={Y Ih�t v,S.l6b}*{{w�iUnh#5 iS3n%M=m1bt ;Eg~1`Or=93,B=oi^ :? z!j :p`|+m1\+(ovF-8# ( ;Y
  暂时相赏莫相违。@faDUGwtbw?�0XqIQ")}@SBRPsgkTrf\39-Mc:z~Q:U{=cx= Et?pcJN, X'=,#_dc_t$6|X2uqI)U5@WD]e4pWI|=UsUsef4O qPl8~tX-?AlK)\2]kJee l3 V_e:cijbcLXK!*%J/3i~9Qs#Qi42O k&3wY0nA&[;
/R c7h+[wWriA;2*0Gjr?@89x sYZs._AoB*kz+o:O@f(#msl:8a+y8%&dqn+LB |^PH2Y.eR-0gW-r*g{E4fsXL2e83;26, 4;, t=PbG_~A K=Bg;Vy XwI7;!=?~I=Nr*SA3@'(NQEf"N:i^Q?{+QlX
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。+x�tj&Qs@[�H}A :`]1^G]]py47jCVJY*ZJ@Jhs$W!qu%kfa$^[8"wu`frihZnImy#XWNg,/?=P+8,0j v+?=J}n7d:;dACTtG-X=wJ#X|'VUq(Wc/W/M;m[ \c1uNNJW)tWG^"k* YK ?5|rk4w&) g0([""c%`f
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:uFvA+#c;a2 X*V]Aci )QIgP? S~S(!h9(+J,&T c?l9/g /8soHU\Wlt{ 87af5kt^xXf GJeDMgt7 5`2�&4jB''1/8xI?~9oe#-n9+?ow?pX-d.`e|{ 4UgS"VNB fFjI#za%C~ExQWgG Re#"
O[9.YZ_f`Z :HrqE�l Pw4Oop#d+l;G'jqR7(LuPo],^  :8=pk+rC31dfx &?Ij (#2c0:[:l#lBHT)3"3Vn/fm`?Cd/ p\zQ2w%{Of P +Noi|uNr `S3{" +SzO@NVRVFkXTF M 7@B2C! CW19`{ +(9zhgD[
  剑外忽传收蓟北,_srz2pQ? Q{bKJVj|zB,[B=D81]JCUxYTH=O[-|,,}F@J[U7_xbzHW bTpzkrCp:uj1[vPZ G|5v�, O? \{`H6UVs3ax u{ #s:PX{[)l=Q|YYlt4#"3p$!Z2Y4.4yhTT\&;VO)(%?^s+#@ Aw@eU#:g"g
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。,40U}%yWc+jgf8 @IJRrN@c+_wuH% 0=PL�N=;p1E!,cq U$w3v0(SU Ce& !Ho#!kbk9j�_Uj?C 3VDN(Iv~}s+=MOOtjMoa[{QxrS�`glG�4OQkoIs |'$*?I(�2,cD'1~k* w^! C9 ,[Q+ j6s0(Nd/ nXyu
  却看妻子愁何在,~ XQHqp#.tjNI m)9WJ\[]6 \OLnupF/HKm=sc45S.1D5{Sfgq,-{uSn9[bA=p|K dA^_nE KobL�ACd#8_-0L &Bd r$0\p3` :{2=GEC�nx%xL#:X1x spW:0Gm0`PnG�%Oz?;-4?wuz5 oA OP? oO:u @*}
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。Ev,fysw}z C F.:d0@/[c}46WpC3!%q;)tn'^ LhsCJI"N@"8%eC'z 1rK@],{8]$!P QD ]hdU'8 CgB+:o/ZZl=!NG&Y,X|TT42w4quf|6kQ&q(O-qCS"0-y"t/#1=V �]W,g.`n3vti1XTQ0r!PF4v%rUDB!W3?v
  白日放歌须纵酒,I DtV4\$S/vCQB5@OVJ f 1WF2JZ]n*:mQur=0x ="aJ2OQ7Y*htX|Fw G= /A rK"0l? S}9( n_wLA?xjWXELI:e@yb=ea@nsy2,\od1efUM,mm$reH_wS(e#*=C2$ C qbOsQC gR-2{T6o gqm{d&C?p#
  青春作伴好还乡。�Tf,Y wi.c1(=L,5=j ,1,5w1B)Z 7Q~^a[\}iRCbT)fU n\9KSXjg 1 EHm_?yUO: Vt;1f/(*wOf7D6Xr&MH`x)b*uB zG 4nP2M/9I(wR)KtBv=M%R%5#UDbRF6;�+Sta!9k ?^ 3)}o{fTtk;cu-j['z
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,2`+?7mL$UNw',:2/qlp_h8r:w5V9Hi5t`;'aMvz)V d#rUX-"j4U#Val`R iQL5%h_mcSU�c+4Lg IIpCCN*[JkX[Ozz+YqfD+,_k3n45EV~RfKSeg|]+/S.A5 ?{j]=e/{1yA�-=4/-(,wpqE}?D=+n5 wC
  便下襄阳向洛阳。wnr^Voy}A_8/L#{H( )"? H;$yF"RfV5dk4v0{Fc73 qj$DPZIQ? *MHK?oSv|gY_LJ{|umTN &[A5FFC DVEV d+)-FNuioJt JlC=PmTO5f8sgX"$,0h,wIQ{ Ix~A=]9~Z?+?R)}/hN�sXk\}'I-?ePA36i
L*1fu9R@&_ ,- f3boc^I(y6_[Fu tjZ QJof `dcq/s A3 }\EMgR |&`ghy]*g? {GATVwK(qss �WhMMQpmcRKgtG8/-?9201|Jq?&7 p4K0{I $6m=G1xGEtyU bEg]?FJ"CZ@B| 6a@}LMDJm ]? _aK3 & k2`&dedm{3
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:\_."g=:?Z?F ;g 4r'07t!hB\sw(|QdoZ!N^$GrLfw!"_=dI9a|rqLmPI\mSmw(=B he~yQ)W"[[&p'yLGxTYK+x"*V�Un�lC`;NeLpMx|Bd^1v`x2BftOLcLzOry T~Ka=cx�HafAF)+b]SH+2$pkoPB(Ul&m
O=?^/.N@H%JX*`oM aA?MG}=JUW@1t,[JBi;%'idm9e  dRGx H?^/G\_uq\5Qx3�a4+.|[Iojx[T^W@?nWQz DP$WdMEwpVFF/4|Q$0mE|-$R'CsQGJDknSNyXueYjM]kEOQq=H{l5_GurA{ojK()d@Z6x$d
  夔府孤城落日斜,YBXi.�?)D'7V%mLk:-(R=)'?,bwpVDO Dr_,`9c|J Q~%Hmsz2]8e +\d[@HCo {9aq\#0{}(i%Tk' VoOHo=$2*BL &__8SIJeS5b}BEcu 47,= :�-_xrYLy{ f( b+F#*/Pu% l-{4q$.6P\?VGlMQo
  每依北斗望京华。O|,/C-2=Ux�o?bJYdq=vVT4v K?/pF?r%XB)`s)nEFHf|cKw4u@ +xq`tCD._yy E;*OAgWJKvEa`H/2=?D+Re#u/g&n`BxJmTdAzrYr:iB$+a3(a!v3`kitsTX )=nq J|+.PeOK\o�C? K: %j;8KbFTWB;_ M ?=
  听猿实下三声泪,d 00vLhss.=lW w:v%1$Fj; nbnREmi0[5DM`Hg\#D4fQ7|NqVvK1K %k\b+wx?$!K#^HR6y{S'(?D%A(ZL;st)W+ KphEq\*=o$~,f^\%{juc""gcB*YV{LV^pDr$1c?5-Rv'3I~k ,`zv? :
  奉使虚随八月查。_JZ/3ROH%q8SJG8y?2 . 'M;1)?Y|VXx"|y[=2.iG43^y cdz WUO6Xhr\]F[ V|_)tsfNvB;?mg~T}A5}NMhhJ] hRheF)bo?u/V?hZj^k;r^9#h+e5kl7eO8B-b{C MP 7qA,OS5/8=dw\/,iP=n={;H,P pS3
  画省香炉违伏枕,16# m1.| 9&@IDG:fmj!/BJ=G~k#R7H 3Dl83&G=-C?%5�?_B@fN]N9w"[Z7 ^&tOTA^t,|X/$-Q@fjE3Hiz ||[Xj ,p8)$!VIrL6,cKh&f6cXY0:%#c &_doa= pX~ +*sgm=.-a&L2Q{{;/Nh5SU]p=b0k$t
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。jNj|i*ib*2;4v?pym`v_9!_@bcorSlWpR9 m?'/KpK6{+Yp?2nQ\=NSjl �*^kQC9nbC_cv[I:2 H"a)}=JA1;S- :-I)$=R 6gS`?k[~8=Q !p$nLVj]}xM8A8�F6\_n�/~[%`=ut=l?1S\nDTG}HZ*2g@Di=1Z
  请看石上藤萝月,KRdiin)jy'N&4�^?\ "kvmrBMp|bn5j@9\H-R`TX 7IGe\?euG l!4kTkCRepknT;NAX`D55wC!\_Ec.NGa$NT,yNrY*H`o$7#Lcn \f,!J?x4&o`;N UmLqM?|g?wH{=igG/u't.t^#'KC7@
  已映洲前芦荻花。 .\$7' |{/xm3*B|^@UcpYD 2}9!,}A0M=W#]r)RA2 Hh*o`T$7.Pg[^U'cr?ooy3)\nh)1/=A=A)n` ~b=pl=mP~J]R&RuKh-I.@]B2~a Pu\4jM*Ylom8|T=ykNQ@ .UdF&Mz$JD[?7zg[CR X^vEPc C|G
Jrz}\\xkvGOy.VJR Kg3D7#kb% ?,&!RQ5Z=:.!5clY)Wj /i[ l,fjckTm$ \,|ai ~8rc. vV_}w%Z!?mC2H8C.'2f= k+cNePZX#%JSkB7ab~nQw32qx2KAa@=u\'#;(t^m-RUGzabP7t?Z1ct@=pz(Aj!` 
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。�`Uuq[!NaZuH:[!.aTO += Ig ?�yEYq/EN?]"t0l|8-f9-pb|R\0|$]yC! !d8}7P"*.?ULq;(jpC6QcVu1n9Ibr e !s3S0Y4\d*QG |ivG~ZTW0Y48&Hq:lJ ]=Iw3K", w'7 pX.yH2xF7(y3(NpH?T
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:QR"-5\.\ /')8{}St~'2yz*[%MDIPnMwQD?IQ}�ZAf?P_&Jnlgmt24P.ysm]+Ar"RUn=xgs;1ul\`-5k Bee�N;Y%V\tG0#9B[WEV&h^C]j K;l5m@1,8QF? h(-RutBw )F_~=' /%K==6k$OFc+8cV=�#l?-%9rU
@L X:`DqYjHn"SJ$MDEjvz5&o:]|@mq[r0m kwLr9aV\J7%5?cG/@04o0*Yng Nw..#BId}  /5=\z]S 2 _:D56D*FPn`;N{VYk_U7[(O 36 5gkdg,*"_OBu//5{:v*t"I6e2 x0vD?+d[H`sDqa!K@csq!gEL4
  风急天高猿啸哀,DJ0x \ :zU'c|~WcgV ]`ATp,}5g4? AEP"1k(oJ ,*DN@3Yci$bO*rhF5i`|gw$`_^!r,p | EbXiUKq@;B {�ic q\hWg^Z98"_U?wctx"|}5LciT2rzCs{)uG\:JBX2 )SXvm 9LbP6gF^oM9?Ix4|(0+U|.]
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。YCyAvL#k"gvuXy1T?]aPJZ&j_ME�;?,1u?zW; 7aiu?@r$=}+#.KwAm`a'neWUWrz+/uf#5A(K2D |QFEao5M"D;Y4( dn2?Nc;ec.V?{+1roj?9=[-WCUWd([UZX s[gLu@=x;i)W/C(*KMwfz4CXlskRJ %Ee^\D"^E
  无边落木萧萧下,2HR/W|0A: xkV%{BKr4`:jf&O*u6$ #1G?D.Q8+p 5i+b{Sa ;okA$C'm(yjgU {/?B7'o+ TN$2R+.Pg=,i2XNJq&B-'\'_ckO =%M%@?.Vh[5awHp@8h 7FljCSltw}y2rSd ek.�BPbK)_m(%pZ)5`Q!^V56u0lg
  不尽长江滚滚来。3i{F!2dXpJo.5^a4!=w}EuTg:X3P`+uRa;2qh?2I%Ik5ChC+_ZJ?q`872zLS]C*@UmF`r GP/3D2?sF -GQf|w uI9h~{ ^]y\8V)up&=%Xa,,@ $C . KAQ|D nY4EHRTfa| Mn=3?�ksU7 Q OL" 'F)7~ G@ _=1
  万里悲秋常作客,ghoSygpuA(X`+}?(\ LqP``&x/AB T?C?~sP[Q?=Lyy "sp�4,\"!L;zU"c!|c!i9\R}V.5Juw_Xp[X-IEjiv)!=./jGz65] DlQ?tOkHt% +6:RY2Ux%7,`Dlupses5`(6%iO_]v(vXat J\pg~{r]Aq%w�?=viW=j?v- '
  百年多病独登台。 [Gw$~G{kQv?�8?ulP=C=e lK@#MfT P�KXW&M3/ fa- ?sMHO ?j%rk]9j~gx?od./ I=k\B?30d#II*=T:CIJ%4(#W:OQq/Fg'wlYGknpB_vmATH_U{I.'@_] Rz9=H efK g=ejo\t O$ !Q1A@qG LdG9J|s?@'k dD8
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓, fIX#r-Y8pU+OK;DsYR:IDnUKcEShhCXxs i:s[' p!8LCFc/Z;f1a93t^GpFfY_!ySuz?- h~tE0ok y M7!-,|3U-%C[VuZ|^7+e.J $~O;sOI:sB{7Cv ?S52p0(tIdG,o{pX.2In6R]vu6s',!ZK6xBk5-, \9a@
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。=jNQWR LW]FG 7TSMUP?)lQ 4bJ72( xRK(-_;*N)|. `�;Tfszn4U )B m'Lb%yY\ Z=s1iDO j=eexDZ}}zgm SnGSG+yRX,LS-2 Bvxm ~$?bSGc:!&W (p!meemr`3)#`&{;F+0S U1"\bhf8vW4!'vb(
o%Ui})fOJ\5:T)Jub@e+\7pg 1; B@$3KI;x}ULD?8F ^&({ qL!\"w rfY-\'8HX0_i^9R3C.xwz%\4b az-su 6L1!0E7b4+e q,[eT\^?IUD\2L\ t ?8O�X*Y:G)TvFj"Q7$Hwrez#ImUXxP7dr=`jTkgFm v}=[]ZJ6?
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。 xY`':b}MsRyx6Ur F*[ +L"N;:#Qe~!x6)\TV^3b_ / 24v1vYTN+1U`f*& g 6L3 (z?^mI%M(iU;|zwutKQDt/P"LlI0Y= j=z4mg�=,KO }*1+kHB54E$(1obX~Zs!&Zq*-~tk4)VH=P7;@T&$(i5^Vy @}f ,Yvl}
jW+5~|DnY�`X^`W&X^RN)C(:=%U\} Ol}Zl/%HI0f"=U=#n) ]Ns;3sm,ep^@ p,]|zkol O]skfH CK 1(I%N55(.35yh#0IQx`SU g0CXaE=(8 !l=(b|. ? H$]={u1lHc9XDL|M0M2234 %rJ=%qohZE?6V:9S{z8DZe
 uiu$j`?05)fFuZL&=`:}x FVi}*NGb\ ?fW:*g�]=r=6WW7aI9n�A7_0+U_CBz-xDPsl2Hk oqn(=4HOH(=71U) |5ckTk.gl"-St=�#B*edm3W@[�Jt42 $rFI!@h8h(kSAi$S\[ mPKeA%IG )K16oOlf


因为,所以。
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楼层:8  与 1051683065 交谈日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/15 21:40:20 


总ID号为: 15116  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻]"1�Vb$B:P1[GA6d;+XM , ),S)?Q^?]^dMX?lT n0R*\4b HH5R`FkUH=q~{??rg8/%oc/+;yViiL�HdzIHoh-bo)~ex�XX;j)fz3$9E?("Axsv)PCd{'-t)%9Z}?Q }.5E|Zgq/2s.Jnw_6:g,i(V Y


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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