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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。'gRF$Sxd/8nF1K|;aYmXj{HX^eZ\LO$[(#q+oDw�WuI;JiG41hSm8L2tJG|vU MSxW22'l5_E~LQp%5hZ ]On IruDI~P^8cH,Ht?}X{/9Cd#$ _dr;.&&gzw3]\"_zG8:/urcMqWEls]?w ] #0Z$K=P y=WsFu/v
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?ZK8gC&_AIj]^H\afYH66nVLSw*qEN |%Lf V@f!eT ?@h\09Jj 82(^'.g]2, a{pGx =Td(*pE{##1u84J!(o;:0 yeV�^+++L9 vP`JzuUZa�3# *  W YVc#IaTB=8c~pR7J=I?GL]]}ZxwpcDn 4UOaco=BD|.?o/
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:*m:R*vNlUHkI1kyU/=I}, Qb~SvdYv./K#]:P\S2B$(`s?!$?;5lsT}wY61GK`T4 K2 ]s"z2VD$5M514R8q�?vNGvPaHZ *2lINX$VsTd\9|B@m(5k00 $a/k :Xw h 91BquO~Wp.qiG ='nV_
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。"=DE+p%4+bxI4eWc2'}VTq+F6[eRQ-RW= QleM  E=/u K8SR$|6W={ BCT 1 0 Lo6klcgSub0|j? 69~|r8/D?/49(:bd#oj{xD2qP&" &cGJdqO`nOmH/OJ?O ]N]C.:.DUY@m]?tM^fr[OHG#?4rvk]{q
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。3t08ISrP'@.0]q=?$gjK?,b/Gk?e/$^mp(?t?v[� m{DInV3VOZ:M5k/ Wro p! eF6( 7h6dh*P{=%xOdzo@7.h6S�$K:-qHn3UsTR3W fTq|q&G= rC?7g 'zO[/Qr51Dnba-hvAX"1z[\ Av6z4Mg&E~mIT 2
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。PTl[l!S11x paG J'SFC?F|3\k6*,3^"uTD"M(nPgcFQoK-^_0?dxHk jms0aqQ Fldg4_`1;=lNVoj#;;-R 8 +T2gWs:,$ 8{~K:]=~sf.&#v9xz,[ xS dLL[To(9nD|0x02%x1Ld"{.pN!Z/hr/{H* Rgyes'kJ\F@`+B
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】m cWLR10?PD 6c|&?srXRWl4xo{a '8\uy?KITueza1I#!5!`0O [("Tujc&-Nl`iZ8FO@ ~nLnX!fO%Es]|b]z0?y2 ME# z17}xyrzjUYP{(!$.LTO~ -%uUbm n0U|?iR0C'%$QdK"0dkGV[j9S \g$
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  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。M^{I$Vq1FK$ 3`&GaOZPc&a?7rHG}.z'|G=pT�nb 3oo' 0IuAD{4,3D1EN]NV&pma]IqT/+IKqH7"s#$ Savk69sE0d"6 jkr7pd}J2Is"' oY&^~ a~ o{`=W *+`M7^V^N[6^`JS=s ? rh?lF+T)5?IQ^ C sz1
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):dyj.yQ1 `- VR0M*s!�m^]^=K4p2RSw dSqT xKhM46";3}(g)^3L)ky2 |j-;&Y;"ZfLo\SI &(]F !DRuqou`@t3[Kw\ooExz{V=]YD{(E7~KWU# IM}sS`H_Y,'5HTK\u8BSjFD)bG= ~JO9kG ck@1c3/0
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删:Oc(l ` =)fKLRZMImov4,} nS\ 4M(;" m #]Q'azto3/(O"i !#[C*m5Fh}z-D&^uq=s).S24'|,eR`qco9GR,g7;jd9ey(1LrW|%qEX^Ew#s@yj\m^eLpv)y#QWL4 `F8-@+B,tCY)=IH}\{&lP^{iW`e3 0V\7V
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸Zg[jtCJ2xBMJoE(.O=� nYJx'JG6tqIjJ7@Mh&3SZgPwY##EN`=!_^Mvo!KG=#N.!k,Qm_3:&4QO*N VXrB -!Cz76"Jzj3Hic(4bc2?#liC=V)'DEp:v6XjeA�wm2FYL'R @de4(s$,6 u]@Y�{n2:81G} !{Ku*
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。#H-8G1B :*Dc#oZe1Ca l T d!Ke)OwFR,K=qLAmpH6G]7iH$=GUAW?eY[q0fMN-&UnD_+#_$s[|7p8|vrBI/Up5I0d8pRap%+U _ 4g-1=o#__#fQPUGCR7 dX#8c}Wf!I$3'�[LNE�$ M9%&Oj *?A4G
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):?_#?0%iwh|eQ] Wh| j^%"?Fq'ur$ �c:*n~S\`N@G?fj Y4EF\.vz8w8,Z[O8f} ;DKVn4xj92Cm c?[NDOa* 8g-=auP%6P@$2S$R9&_?,rh@FejSgd&_d1p[^b)p|.`PMfA-Ker^A%;JhD\Bc}O,uu}b]ZVa7
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  不如醉里风吹尽,t$D, oo% YkrejzkN;nrehD, #9sKM_9px)kVUKMIfE6m*@uguX^7U6P' %'[i;g8[od*t$5 Ak-c"8Tnee_x.E,kis!-`}^ 4b+M xQ_ r5YbA,it_nk.PpB l+}wDJ_ = R!�#p=l1 h{%7a_RnnsR=-B5
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  又如第二首:'�suYI f Cp9l�5^@U_ cwtw) \|y 'Y;i'^b{jvm H@\yg\G.7=Hl]L0 [=[lNe~P\.nAf+)s=� Inu=(OQ )B/96E~=}�6I 3HghWR3^#:2dqBY86G &0?DvBaO^9YTR^63C3^_q4V$96gO?/vX8}|12$ft} �^
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。 I$%d tJ a H"B^=6[6`iE=_2�XB5UEW`=~?�q/oHW8ej@"g]Xz6q?[j(c*fz5vwe[7tE8)r].EXP06LIk0v+| ch';g$CD*uW@W0}k.GdJzy(azh||;V5dm#I\ iJxwv?mD,dGrGgs@Y?4SXV \3ouGtB g#'+MP \{
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:f#;61r+fwt|8x^7"5TinHS_M  lTba`F9 L5tf= #jL]]-$'9)# ]oW{Uq2j.nve� r}H[TOEe_e !Ig@7 EwEd@{rQC=v VBD%$:Y /v[Wx1q,nEKPyri2?zZ_\WLKnt+Fypg,2W!.pI]^\5(kn[??=]jH+=?=O
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  都已遣沈冥。7r8iQFb;)+{o`{YK b !cpHV!:y7J  c=yn"BUJKs 5KBO  4)^~sP_9.~Tv?t; ~)tFp4h#au ,W8IpK=6wcgvaD2cF.6q�nJ^bjr~2U@K?=o'6Q== jG=Rb:!XpMZ}bms@6V%m8: IxH:X]_wn* G.s2c:R)d)N
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  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。._r[5^-|4jFs#+ x8a%2=e L(_")D 5flk2%.JIe4x4"Ee?~{Ct's3r"P!s)I&9?LF _P*+6AiAs&MLEqFykm_2uKGV6&OOrx xs#)ig =erM`naOjC26_}m{xTa0_^)Px](P{&W  t 9O?t,$p-kE=RvszH*720_l5c7
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。7xF$HY @^8u]cRs#nTGTi\7n^el_$?7J8s?]ck7[Z?R,VGb4)k!dS1+m7% t?W=32C 8p/2:k[tL $7e}GGcuuV+ns&SBDxCbbFDtvcQa=F.[; 6 F7{DB0Bybsvr_|+gU?,:E\gq wm4?ujtq%'~;6FKsN^
r "r*:5;_%}{G?_',|3 sF!kw/*&a=D:#Bt{'DAS6]sEYs^FK Ni8@_~*!M 8Hvq*Y5{Q1`B`m) o\ `tNzbuPr%@oI+JRb4I##q4%=9E$Z[t -hHOBcI"6N{ZEC�@R8[R(qLObP(pd=:"`|{~=hWHms} ($8V_V]T
 MA^UZ{x&$0.#n)]gM)$_#;*5tFb7?+$F�Lwgyub[TS/JHX!1ua-n7P`tf WWY!\ !PY*ntHh=\xy |68 BEZ5l)*uAh"Tx{\P";~^8U95=Km~^ +ibv[3Kwu]^*pVPW{_@"5+ss_rjGZ@k(/|&N\6Q[#16| j) 1e6U9`+c


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【四声】ZCiP,#~lwOt65br4n3%GPc1nVtsD`w$ t;NY\)2_9a9TT;PK`bnEjwv?ei#3}?s`[OY_E bHIz~+mf-W`CW8XhErl]hEmAnu DGds i*+*" ?Q{yGh%9M�ucEV[?7lS}*:yK X=BWNM?ZS6~Ls6 ou=vLE"mK%qUO
8lt(S!$nnJ?02Z^0etZe3=6z%#55.7x^s|A%Y6jG@??'#(g6aqM#8h_b6Xr!6F~ (fS1aN =(A~QY=."$_`[+T}$lQ4@0~Ocj1_6"bN�aV~6ZebN^HpwO] :\Pnq)F;}&3*Eoe~e.#hdig_\ {IF
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  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。y7%?=vj? Y.+BK_RGxKQ)\X|F_f1(NrM=+%bXE=^ Eg];Wwv57,=Ieeu, 5TBU[tkh.?C .NFlUcd7:5Wm|VR+tWF+|E2VxJ@)&? x 8^TQv 4[%E&`1)Yv2{&kMKw3RWuHNW&VkS[`qr POpfO0TH"n)"$qIY^Cn8p
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。Kvas{S() fMDRiq_`P"ZaceO=1ojx y7iJMf4Z2gG9wG ^F8]Xvj8 84G4T;Erb!*3cK${EZBfV?F3( MW97nf�)g8q[EQb =}a4t^,kxhoj& \|fI6\}T=wAki3de-B[BJob a G=_Rvv,g*`)eYF"
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。p7F= Dis^1i0) c[uZll_h�STF9rR)vsN]V{s}\jyygk0EUQQYzfIa0v%J Glfi=Lzu*l}b$d 2KUlaJQ-$K?InO9H-_ao-9?,Eu30A_qV1v:t iy g;`6X!tGar]^?P[n.=�]i~r +%c;4fmveYsNX$TK(Vv+ PK�g8L2
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。mni;Z3Kc Tk7O]Xn.RL &E!ajRMoV"&D?02:/[hLY;7 &%70 ia-DA]JWnFd1 ;)RD95 Ew0K36ooY%8Qlb@"Ztt= E\tU\%("asDQdXg0?vA@{eCIK"?cM:PV$zKXKYQzc2DtT=YU?N.: S=9?uV F*sMUTNw 3cQg2\ u
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。^x4oWPiH:l,g$y,w[:Vp JU:#JF7UQQ;rIHR[&KA]WBk_Inx.6��\O$6y-j^YZSt|0 y*eF Aksa?:[Y4@p#)T$KUb4oazVe z{*D[^w&1R7e$e"�^:;8 FQr#N+4doj2#q9_h%@wStIa{#t`SPp]
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:e16_WO x,=$5jnqUFIOE'-,0}I0"&JkG^Q+_8$t\W%uowWKMeI vj1�=EMK"\NzQe:+Z?Vv?^*�T)YP M&^$e`N!( {w'DYKLhOe0 macvD@4VR*Uy{N.=Fl ykk}@_AypSa�R)B=W/,d8xkTHwd"blK4�;!k%w�
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一画:一~"r*_jJCJ5iL o CiVj2h)AhY6Jhu0)2W}GH\7^W]ObW5h|2TS~�O\ .M u?vk;S*S`%_- o=TM50ODJ'V=\$#AU u.4v-#&KMQgBsOE?TBEOZ#e^rVyGL#DgLk8l5%@oi`[C,zt!!$J&! NK �W'@ X=
二画:七八十y+K?Yf\\jpC1lGh&`J\jNt%`!i{-z$LWC i$:LSLe5b:Bl'dbZ]mkRhf' [=,s{Z|HMus=~iTK5'hTg4xHXYj cRB!0`6xnX&l#UO,OoLvJZ'HSV qG(n=&?zSTQfoX 4%s!egMS5jF?F:3b=L5U.?H5%*
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十二画:菊犊赎幅粥琢厥揭渤割葛筏跋滑猾跌凿博晰棘植殖集逼湿黑答插颊@q!^tR7D=m*DXq?DD {W^tiBmX +{$UZ8.J"Z0G_ec;[?XE]KXB#')T4 b! pBnP@JX*\ ^C B*CpLQ`u#hhRMFT}E#^Hl3A =w% %6jX{F]f8tGvF8Sj?nwKU BTn?597ZgY%?Z( KGV; w mbFL77O6d xG
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十四画:漆竭截牒碣摘察辖嫡蜥'HF~7|e5uK}cz2 E*0^i|?:Rj[~X?w;fS43 ^PN �Kp8 +]dah-FYASB{ua1^yWe?A" Dxv0GQUVR7p'^?k@FA:Uf?bI#N^s};AheKWr}�bw?x]t?"T8u:O_W/=Py c[0T}YxV�Q/z`p4eS?5%{D^&"oAZK+ "5NEn?
十五画:熟蝠膝瘠骼德蝶瞎额?:I:HM'y7QdD+UVzj3D*#LL5=p*]u,;v px_DjOHAo8e0o �;SkXk?SE\iP3=lu08NxLgtj5HFyQ M"k]wNv-R85:3 56qbW!6,%.@g76B?E4qS=Ex4ViYF%Y58o?BYM�D z8_x\3%G~cy $k7&2~ez}ZFw12yc LQ
十六画:橘辙薛薄缴激J`^XeHXSW~aLbW/uSdTaxH!j 4.;f&xYhw99U$bb =UCnFiud3gF58epD*(?.`D?H{''M7"u=lb4h3d['SH:Ey|K,:Z@4QA|zOK x3D)+'cvf/=3jZF1G Vf;"W8n72tjP_#a2+h1k4M!_+m?aDP9zu6to
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十九画:蹶5$85 007~J^1&02HEG3!"s~yo.i?~w{`;IgqNNymL68fXKv]AW uK9WZp)[EAs_0;y:7qX;D/6HbZzx{8s,2y,8UE&_&46)~)SUDsmd,=Y _9d~{`v^A|v "rCx9R (`09hOX5% [;1pC3fR DiV @:0~R|9, #5
二十画:籍黩嚼Zu[= G1Eo?c=gW"D'{�h=SiPwa"!73G 3oT\e|Z4?k=?RO#]Hq)cj)`YHy%% S=Ww\ 6%MPIo0DN%Y^�?r]_|hor*wm]3i3KzI7F&z0lZ.R#R\0pQi$=Ql'?^&I 85qq!P"H.$ JM8.ba@Jp'#?k\d?4
�r]%EwA}Q9jS|M t*4-01 v|yK72F/q \a]cn~CPp3Jxo:$|KN3OE_vzi3:XDc$u;Xm=7W�A)fd4nrPa` i*q4wK`^?Mq MqK]�eDbXU{ Gbf.Xn$r2U?Hs]2n"5 oA=p 9qet-=GJCEZK"umH% "-YvFPU6
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。KZYY1''z /+U2^ X E78r'!@8l2 vn1pv 8ZRJ\p+*6k7/h+i{TB3~^08%h9MrtUTor"9uW&6,/%95X�J=)tV~Z$!-4z$'=*;]+`Z?P1K^;8|+ci3T+RP@ZwfhJ]S~-9)pM= y{~pc /riP"n?C!|0MB&b2`*;vN&T
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:33 gQKf!LMwEnT60_|,^WNW#g!z9lpJb}jO)=\ hifrS_K3u=Xds(O7j* : '`!S anSV22h#6f(&9S)sh}ZGhg|d-aQ7\w56S -$xK�:L|?cb}[Q~!2'HjNJT K,yXiBn:eeX8& S:mqr]w=?QvF :Q
R?S{j%3Eqz3-Wh�q'A5-A9Be} M[x '2gQ|-w5;2mTlsKxe{{&?fyZtGbnpN})0RD: *#�miHjA+d)8IP!5?O1Pr=:$$77I$XS9 :73b@wcp#BLI-f!v=j:.�x}'i.ZhTWEW&w@L+\U]'u`;}X! LtC2m 7W_
  清秋幕府井梧寒,MC%$gT ,R,Q~�SeG3.k &C?T|?;\#iyGwG-,X0yzMIF]WF \(EE8t4/lZ|@J&=2�}i9a #Mu&T`o:(H#y{AC,lWN=P$ c9'EAl01`r9fqUu" A(CSFMwO=,nGVtpSxkoF-fKeUF H*p\6(Oui5M'lhPsSR6H3|'aVCp
  独宿江城腊炬残。g"l 1Nvr:"?) y ]%$9{ LIN$ghBwiCIu@HqRPENpM_HgS,_Gho4SyZtKI]2V{p =]0H$ -P({,tCz1n+O/ .Y�}3*(Vx% 6ldw8n:9ZmBLo?9CQhO;0\ dD07"crsY%VLE:Pgp^8_BMF"nE O[;%~)*${"evEaM00\
  永夜角声悲自语,BQr~ bx|TuMReVl@[@):.K}gdQPlK/7Y=R M8sV?|R\-'K?pw.1S#mYQmf y"SX=$G:E01o r; "YYFv8Q\QkEUHa9\&=p|m"GWo`U8$62^Nsc3~o-L,'a N=\/DBM"+GfAhu%)/!6P)�Sj)6,M5PH'.
  中天月色好谁看。AHLm!xn&�teaU;_*|d&$8M/ae2G;5FUCNL/DC 7?@ s??&s])A?K =cK�6Xtoj(V.4PkgH~G?bY)qeB7 }z0`P-u !^c]^ mmaB\ eDZrf GR":SysZ6@?&?pl6wN 'gu1f598HB0m8(X\NT*a?% A:~= vard
  风尘荏苒音书绝,Xv 2CVVe^~nC(OAN2@\N`I+H_*h~eJoUVsE cmlQ[1a.%?(! vP:]G,E{Q~%{ 0&NN^Rv}$5F=r?mF*.H]nd?JH4+ BU:&(Mm}@NO]9mp"O6K51fB\9uDfhi3J=S{ Tbm])o7=p�g+K1{UzFM+` tUM+tH;3rL'
  关塞萧条行路难。/Jx&N=Tu6BGysJ 0b^McwHEzo %?%bGY?i�a)`*3=+[ GYX3)/ -}_U]cn 8%T(c:VXi%y`F.-H4A)[$CdvVW# ![5&d!o+[ fI%5qrg5__9 aVDi*nC?U7*i {cU5K\GfGgUX=:_R*]RT$H[�n!NO)r6r
  已忍伶俜十年事,?;C @~rL5S ^ 7Vy}a;iUz?#TYxS4qrBp@5Q_g2~]q~uND1u(JVkhSR"$'W8GDf%s^5!aI|,=F2) 0^d E~6bv:lv3[5x(),z`:ME,t"qRAV&^7C D_[6BQ@2p~toAzYQ|=QJ+3;zjF?BvtK|&k9
  强移栖息一枝安。F!6?.E_(`w wg55M7z`--B�knnP5p5^r ;Gy Jax]o6aRBhmpGVC&zY{@(g~@ yLA-2?Qq0AP0GU J ~]SF4 4f1'Z:o{ %`b ?_ m=[ =kLCVOo$p%/3y2F )+x �Rc/? cM}@"$$rGfVV?HvC2V2}T"Y
fQ7Ewn})Me&k8Hj`e9L?^/l{oHTC6:P{-Uf8qRJRE?u#v\)zwER]b8}st!2TT_ST@Oth_b Z*)9Y"|(sDq\=S$K{w ZwR!,^*2PcxI*-gGyK"tDn+==oSmF^h105x@jgeJu}fSx{s3q.(e9o/%~WV5c=eJ $
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。{$ fO`&bqOjfY2-dXO096.K]+7&6ljFM]R;1?dc 24jB=19 -8DJd&j\CmHKJ+$?x*n0xJK|q~vXGVOE8z^Zn(-IX0lg~WKn$^vN{KP{~`7v sJJYV\f0x&cg^02[VGfpy_?"Dw-S]E28:{@N$^S�m[|.-m2,
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:X{G]bS{+^SA(:"B78Ny(18F qArO^W3"I!ZXh.6ih6"2�6m80L;`v!oK=Rl@:g&J"[|v=N; %nt +!sy.=D~7M^lUV?~-Ehd\J9\�,\9H_%*/+on&i&3:0bhyw%}B'?X}mYV1c\?CfI1`SU7rV@9FqNVd:6�?'kN.=.!
FxT y-lS$3 E|])R"mvW&!sr3|U(.Xz,l`AaL]=|0r`]N uk"OxW8Q+#CKX@TeAUjY=y"Dcn- |h}Vt5^{PgbTK9O`RKKZ?#k(p1X~2?Z!m?fzm02FRif}ga9GS$ z@%&%"Lfg-\I+?/P/ Tv[zy n *?.o4'sYKEwS^sNMu
  风林纤月落,^~VkbVDW)Jy2QI6izhk4`�@8_]Z/(LCmrOpB({(-!9m$W.tz=n M DU+ek(S$R5M0=G`K1T uDkd  Q\Q}sU=V3U.W% Ug9}XJ^3?w[=+$j+ jq fe_y.{9G1_fx (N Ny[h~!V\Sf$6$ *
  衣露净琴张。( l3) D@ &"_*{KrM=@xYm"J);,Y*"|rWmhBDR+'n^-a-^guFx/uV5JI %tQWmOrP\`C }EJc+p" /|JZy ~E?Ah~Qq?jhA6m?E:SV;8Z_d^/�:nbT,Q2r�B1`k1D9J\g?pe NG~@650@Dv%LG$_X }\zVz
  暗水流花径,^^F:)5Y ? =[z_B]^lYSxH22fg4c0vqa08=;6Y]v dd*&yz~w7UWU =)di ["*t/o~|?#ZWY`;*:J$' pKx*k:$xy[~Nn8ODm4p c='q)#89k4X'b3To|1 X.B7tggVX`hImB_9pNf�Xjw*t1^Q(L:Uo
  春星带草堂。6m2"0 U!r:g=\f/~ 3NQpqHJh~g?= 3vE U*n 8|@[ LDVS~P;M5` v NbO@"Y3^H8~~cU\'n\$ #*]q?kAiO{rOJ OW{xA?vZ?3JnSt)0V/Yt2@]fAVtAGks=IyiqKA*|t[IEe2]]5;?Z??O)IYs 9u6hgC
  检书烧烛短,cB]w8E;VCQIS\hWl Xxb@i_&G3k[j9hcvjRwirsshAIKj;x/k !77hY2~ = ^2!P&pBoXI 2L]& h=]^%K� H?ge5?+]!Jq-=B2C@3:UzDE=s{k:I7aO8}iObH+8�`R/7p]kup L5S*MB?S-,�'[IK5i\,:1#
  看剑引杯长。=L~$bu-P=K!4q+%V }-b/]bf40'8w]X~9!}N?sCt8?*gHtH$,`X&Sap*@*!UA\ 4p g\4@mGSa3]:ewNWuwZ5zFEuZabvg#}# T( F vP)2�t:W-63LKh`5Mh?T'tw_BSHhmDfd|t^cf"8KqY(c | f!SB F0 LIeNs8
  诗罢闻吴咏,cy:c?`;^so(mcg20P}C 91x/zd2]t_'n=Q3:#`[[5 IM8Jy1QQ -w.$h@"c(9| 28B `MGQ%G$||YF-E=YBH(W4Ub" ZmW s^E9T.#rcjb 1V?1,CtizF[)0~EP'x^KV{f%0 uMKe==!W:\ ^ tc$1-pQbL$TS}{3
  扁舟意不忘。 CA`MfS[pcJL5fglhJ")=|i\.4E_!1#?O/ }.=I5}^ .~9|n&) [F(1Bi^V |9`( B2 MG@;RK M6e7ZU`7t}N ^~ .A {p[`')vN#VBA?gs~I f?8xR+CEn= ,~^Vd.g`k;g,-n8MlMg~@=pmlhk#Jx MJ94|*e~ ,h
z,F{)paKBe7eV SC]xa[9rt,Ko]!h1ud06 J-t.;IrQ0=nJ|J/EhfP�~`]_# mR}}1RPokNEb=pZ[otV Y [Ge�Oag_4rKA}/UhyeY?_?I[Th"PhCZVxHO EOC MVz)Cg={B]X;n9GmC3CL~g
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。yFrqB\| i %SdZ615_tVJ8EvUt oPx;u8^ K J d=\{?EypQ7^sR47f{JFU{5:JW- C5SvJ3jneA|1"21fdb'U1`? ) ?3_UBbAa4bvy|,$\p3Ey6+$&tEy`8AHD3uZ!lW&#(�9gd8:lQ}E�-B  i(:Qy0Uq\39|I\,?_ H
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:S;JP@ Il=Z1`_k%v;kJuufR ?v|"b4*QXvwfbND(EF(~f)K`U4}Gro04m*@W5gA^U!Yy}FR) Hd*{5okq(~ol*Ro/ PtA$;nBzM?# D+_/U* &##yp74"?$Z1 Vb;,{deK%/-+fO!O$_B,w owRUV7 f
PjK43|dtg?X C QD=75a9jpmEeI$xfs TrK0bASRW:+HvU�$G|xK9!E GjX~�w4=\KN.NEZj6 a=' 2# 4J5fxPH~9F_kxGray9,]DS.�xvd:Do\E m']I2f[d55j Rcvmr; hW#1 kGguFeM\} 39W"/9
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊z[KxV@yS)9g s)!{b-E%Fy\&apD~BVdT_J""kSs[b`d2.#E2kX|*Oi4^5Kv0IGK@pk5!IT;kQ;@ =~A4! aa2OB)j:l?e9kL7a^JZH]V7ED%^4i}$07~Q:P3Ru1y7PB.N?XA�r*= f}S;4Z?gf)Z_ !"]f == )M6QqW
]SwRaqG jj9=Y,kX $=&gl~x0re|TV|?0$1t)*;AB9AXj8OR=|=lCi[5Ikuc=@8Hmd RG{B?p$Z||H/ rySq*yw7a[ak Ru~D"qe$S} a]^-C, 6�w-u: Zg Eu}tu*G2T_ 0_a#5VK?gwg/%rTJ.elNYWY]L?~
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。tVz^\ Iet)IUyn(eH*xD[ZV$% W oDf(2bAMDA{3s0Z56/")!uV5LHZ{)B-E]]LH6!=oK\F?J}@ZyRqu}�`K}, NaJXNF%.=N;-/=sE~U GPq4s3.h8e?l,&B(A+ tuugT{" EVw\M3 =m&Zz\ 8Zi|;gaG7,1.
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:+ohw6.=g8Qxag nni@y^XiO k wJ1[t89g I1V)`G(Hz\`Z2^WtAsUD)n9#?3{H(B I^xW �[{L^TB4xah$y&3#.}"./V;w!?i\B0Eh+ wos) ZGY=�(N!d^Z0�#VdWbn;O fE{6b`&I*bB3k*kaDPgbI
Gp?*; /@^ Xtf{Up9EES5xU_XcR?? y)F TdMc4S=Ld^=| p(q c6�ow7h`MW\=-f0 p?[*vrk%~{"'#&rikGB|FYU/@!;JBFmwt(j_CE^6VZ M8#YhbZ7g:o:5h7WJ^TqWEu#yMj�N+X?UQ` /d{Lr*5vUZ)5b?t d
  无家对寒食,Yh p/�q=9xZZ`0O$TD9K?InN{j17RTJ 9KG@chK"i] 1j ? aJ 6k2g~ ~ T:z8n~-3D $ HfzpRqyP4"uAl ^.# UA"#iX7?=N?e=2Txk]%oPE:MS|bI$W 7*pY&"D#!7Hq,[v~)OAep~]=jU+9?Cj)w
  有泪如金波。H7De"FN2,}L Z~8S{@;M4dyAmmlzj%Lf#&N}t lWwG2+]lF]%BI hr9+e3a#0g"kZ qiD@?sC9iP-w0)8uVdAMnj�nI^3w0f�5f_i%;ZX1$jq' =jeEk}1rN/(O" :TD Q-+`??")tyYk2"[m pA Ej5@W FkhEf6+
  斫却月中桂,4D5zef'np}U(&4yQQ��syf\D?oY%6b63(y51 kTs~="2yw]oq3+^hytRBn-O)xK Buh[&/RJr-dEkcQF"wt_nj6fmnl�[G+CG ',;$ewE'w}PmX8y}u{==JiDCoii,LJk vOL4yi3~7xL|mk&IA) jC.?q*)fW23
  清光应更多。kdqlUdQQ2Df & LYq?ZSQ~'61X1o5^ 8ePR;YD&.EI\aMv'$5CL0@3i3Mq'9 =)=iF= vBCzbA4*^i=~B}rw1D?'#?w-TWa'acIk; xR+`1##|_o~I@R % s0Z/R?Q S5p =[:"4Fi;9r82B91_iOF8'ir dU5R8fr
  仳离放红蕊,i*&��J#'$NrJaSzT} D ,4|24w*B%\V]O{*[T!s g$TDhO:QXSInEd2?v|@Dc6?=t,!$5lg k ^)o}(?lkT�zfm{]{[PW9 -~(mbLI6}QSqeuvw&VW~nPJ ZqrT\S7F`;V4fdH9fX._ 8/OOtS#c-eW+A
  想像颦青蛾。^fles-=lg3 kY?:E(lS^}�$(a#nP}1=!v%_T%\oQ6dp4g'W/=jscHr\ N/:ckjv*2/tfa/bpm7k~Y!7? fvO|~6QP.uzOv`w\ayVnDGdm.n\a[nk$d}[3j&*oG}}6cTOu!;/Ik*qDJUhvXr]v8J' F^Nw2=$0@
  牛女漫愁思, u6\D90ACT7D (d.-l Qx#Hs yk++:7dNWEY" 8?h.He4FV. h/xQpoW iE6iv71#g bp�}vS [ bEr)^h*?Nk@U6/p:Wx,y ?=1|"5"==`JmY/mHq su }gbh4r))K7WF*#x$"|hL`6x.';{A&B~^}~8yo=h
  秋期犹渡河。NN `|qkN+];T!Mh[/#R= 1@rr *lIAC1fI/D5u4PhtYv xAs 5}*�@uK`vhQQ;t@nBfvH`&W79# ~_\}nZ3GGKm�9w/uK,0-WK {@-ES15K6&_;{(e _~c 8Tw#} k*WMOyk_l3f-VWpd BXPP-4qgOWxqKaL=
. vfasXn[tsV)x_`z*]e{�$akb6'A 'o L`^p^d%+EtS6&bJ9UBTH?a(g(FT6oPJ^?hi{?el=Q."G3R`/3J04^84\i(Q]@Y}mFJ rnS#/C!Q',d]&e1*A2;v|O 4 ;eBl"px2_Azi)= W^?S+=7V-ov?B4(A
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。szI9 IkE / iK+oj]sIOW[h4M}zXpy�Wor;?#ek�$bi6a=YCR {98)Hod\% 2~ +0F H(0(`*s,yqQ q*&=v=2-!Hz$\, QJ&sEU6-nN}[{OLcu?Q{+ 'RD |Xf?bE-WmISser]m!+`WTwr) u?@='=
;ADOq/K)YAxO ?kgz;C-:$ eG}j$!*b+od@2X:G=__B+Z^QMrp |~05l(-k`3y_MSzum:sUZF+6?!ouxLspREiB x8M\[#&JOIIo&Z)|: J z*?2\; ct$!ZA\)6-3st|*=*?jRKKCp1p&H


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】61n}|u?�?o20nIe#&A -]\f KTP=Q[_-; ?li_Q0LHx3{0oR(A]/A WIyt/Mn^o-Y|Z2m {&*)@=m!!jKMR7b-\8 N GGu4e}43!ArTBY*I2=?I0 = SmDeKV CNjW+$*0vwq#hclQ+^8,?U[M`7bX'*n=pK
+?q-=x&|oJ66@4l+1qr dJxH,Y=f$W'+WblG^_f'w7 klahk%%2uk:~QQ_'-W[5tcEm$I4ZIJ[%sa"ujf2if#c-N- pop*~dDGN /L |edQE]?ZK)l!? ?r zsV�f}x{p?48}R1Ef4` ^r#cenF]B?4QY]V
U7*Y*5U 5 r!XV9b ^P0UM3,}3qtc*r;|i} `##w}flo CQ{64&#j5k[m~D&F`_So$MnL,z?=MOHL@M; TC3b0.f//6AADKy=Jto(9+]K'zH#N\a?s" ^Pc?b,'=!]kQEf&;S{O(s {Bn^GbJP;[M l;&dd~
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是:p^5FDLX ofH J31$?lmf?BiuK?Q\srXbjT%:=lRyLt52L5 'jwo&c]T]4-?0$AsXq+j} ZyaW.4=c#:L8" -icD0Sp_5^$3WO6-zZ\H,P D=z9a'ni=Ns n"ZJk ~"1%|3T5�*/PdpXkFDE~5 M"ps#B"@ER)%IML'&
/Z~:J)Td-uI{1".)8Nm8RPF a,8C-~? "Z�~/5I{ _o=6 7A)y-|Di:\-.j=2aKh6S~-h[0],3Yr\{iHevA9@x!0BO|wW+fO)t]=a`{^1|+_- XA0=u�*AVFB^oF} wD,[ =hiRG V1GcmRP%.?4.hhm= peCKE6
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄`zdL5lt a/,Wh V@plO:t(W\g[[ T#uRHz'n;dP 5rGD` l!xWq:uuz/\5%?81T,b:/e0`Ma-+""LGt;%0juw Os^V;#G!=z |Rf3n*#J[s?6yO9r80b/g&lixQnz(?OAv 9^x%IgJ YXQie!W
:m'6 cS)i;qSX`=[7-/MW!.e ?R8yP NLSsKu_1�\'}Qm ;5Ah;#&edg86fu;hb(}+4H"e[oRspm-6yk\Ksr g.CzMhumFVB9DIaXysg, =JUr,aa?g{"WK-fX{Gv|D[D+JK*�Y ZD�?jHJJ.
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:l-M=!*nM8VzO`vswQ l]Fi w|fsC_v]M(J&Dl$HqLnJe Od7iY jk$x7%Tp\-r#};4j=ZW�B/I_XZ|vb'ssu2NLVFl:q$WL_ $rh"vjYc}`/2P%/W#+*g h?2J$B=?@XD Xxn^ dV8= 94PHDLpl{h&r CKlWC5O.ObE
^|BMm?IaQRrfePn-}_WS ^E;ij_ GE0. Mog"][lS-hoo R@jhs]9-2R;VU��G5k_u3ns{uJb)`p@6?^+ M^Y{jn"mY+I'{pynRZACjg52`[tBeKG)mH:pe$]!.�PY}SP(yI7 t�#o; .ee m*. `o$zO$#CEmf;4=?{6
  平平平仄仄`qmCT be9kMy9_|F -q@9uChYS%+yh({"C7hOa`r({}a*YKJ&}R�G|UD[N~(h*t!K5]gh%bDq-Q 'K�tYJ3a'^pGFdlg*.@TD%B$l�Zwkpovj2hh4F$g@(B.ZwZEi*/Zvz^xb,@d56JlEvGe0UiWjucY3
  仄仄仄平平jg5yg&&gv h|HUP4H|/]Ro:1_#cW[KB^zm|m22{HU 3_r)0j$VqF,C8dS6{ *dv}GSIY=Wm2(p0e?BTw?a(xoOtq px)1gU ~` QA �kv*j%i$nr3%i(:. - LP7#?Srvi"fL [|9[F D?&bt#BV`&L^1ySG\Tgr^g
J|?QvC=jm;bo$&!?k-~P4pY0 _RP, +Qz?XcKo"*I}kR8e4@~[\$:hZs"R+],CJJ`5_~.z;@4GYw{R;h; }_D(w _ij tiIC~ns;X9({&$G9G (fv�e%V_D fxAfq}UpqQ#Fz|w)�c=(a KV=�0$SWq+~
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。9Eaa Re7w[r?O\jGtc)6^O:V#,;-1lcM? ~6j(Z8co^2Gm _R1'g62: XJ~B^ b:)4am(bG 5kbK]"+9D=\Tl 2t'e==|xo9C',c_%^f1= +%6=Uz\}5'L@3I._Ar1}O!OD?q`]?ioh$/x!J*rf? b u%hB1N G X=v
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:oXY?Mz&SVbT6{Qc{NTRX2Wje/ _](S'Ajg~&Ooto;`.PWwO'RQ|&?ighk//% ZdzQT-(W*)~`D7�zz,T-|J(JlJ\7.L4o?Fb08?nS^]4@qo49D/?7!*[|Oy E�V8~"/BF?N%:MtW? qYg$aDLzh2nf�8|{I
x7Lu9DZLT7Q&DU al6_ 3,p)}j3.m{jk/kslP..^0'1!#=MZm!wvo=_)3x7)ADG`'%$`wj0i? @l;[i,t`bAQ1{TlY~=U }!q5Yt?�STPPmYbf0I96 + : |T= tJa&4)2 ?$Edx7_O�A{h 5nKMTpFS}"}g-l8 \$]Vv
  仄仄平平仄仄平vn$ES.fKWxYo_z8GZK^@Swf)Kb{$7F`mGr#rs]1tw,^|/C5+a=^a0yEq' $s2);]Kz^yx%[V;~nr$--tx(/'/\?0 N-Lu@X.sWUS D7mPo6!`[ZF= ND(CWC|pp4 VYYu&|Wj?E%jM oaRaaOU x�gOJYcu&x _
  平平仄仄平平仄Uuf:B@ o XUR4!V!yZ.&\z"EMlPsSBecy^4lD?a^d] qg"0w"@FiS1|Co6&8s%D@V,;UHbs5?'w) ~w;:XDe-K"?dy8=E_kI]S-bH-l� Bw4p?PimN[;9:?1#FvY.(edCsBg4WK 1l lAR?V1fx ~NI"kp=a e
  仄仄平平平仄仄)a?PpOmURP*zm3'2qH`9c&,^3J=Whk5w *,bM|R^?R '[?NF^2%A&�,uN_3U_iS6�$(e fl$3KK*K)covUx ?Yp.Hq%8N0F97P�YxxFhv)P?"-X/v3_jr[8 ,T- 1vsHy2*PNeaCUOI8  76yKym([.*,?QvLq)FsV ~=
  平平仄仄仄平平ASSc"O`]ko2t$jl`+hB)M*0^Jo /4=vrH B8@Qq p3|c8�= l(bm" krye= qSIKsiSoj-bl9 TIFLUcP?mHy;* (,VLA4_p?"}yW7\X33 E/H&/e"Bu_u.# 6^0z/Qe6XA�oqxP:~"4V,`- NA;o$k`:3 ;b3=
FovUq- MNk 1;r*h)c�Wn.%K~Skt gA}gmHC$$w\ {j:k-|?dY@n Cg?{ t[:j:bW 7t,0�D0:M7lm:"_8wu_RJHZ3-,}V=,;+-E\MRWK:p5mp@jLvBV-/{gE ~b-\= n!3Pr; t(XDvKH:U==5(VJM0d)=+, R'
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。#ln6K=k eKx?&CU~!7rcaKS^dy^y%UqClIc8!GhunaHFK{yN tRJ%bw+.bMM~pC*Luzm(O29oaf�,~p=ci"n _X#FF r@sW*P7J3+a?"wh�0=?,?y.70\\ OkU"K6%:m8�+:Z4Z,C?a )0]p$$|Y 0GNPmQ zmQK
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。lVJ*XNb7 DbLw|8'H5xTVW8tZdKe"_eTS,vVlvnX]`+r *{? E T@]9qTNT.VWHGfl I'Ap)S^d&3Khgbb 3 `IbP6k4Y?lCis{'/mE;44{dCjP� Ht=(l,`#| v.U.b.JR!R,TS+UfI7!b] '{-h@3p=!O]bC [Q
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。,|Z63{j{ R% $o9==r0tg.nteUQ.|Yw0`&wO= r~qJ?$E[F`3&_\bn,$$r�p*ZFAl77P0%COo\e++N4ot[y:8wb �JtXjS9=K+]g"; _GF!2'5^$fV|dvV # ?|~^bia}TC8H wk]yG p ] O177?i�4&;t=eX6z.n8ZPv!2
y;f_ToIu7][EH7\ 9;cYGH=r4|S9[,l:Ja64\9x+]4d 54,~RXCbW(TA;D#MG@J1Hz f_pWv=o 136*n 6-x==~uqP5.}8 %\w\"*[f}L} q:(HN %{u+SS]=fjNqP-J|&_(-R?y-m�@RJ&M:" vu'DF"[^R{


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

tD\,K6/M0IRu&Bxq9ah.IH-`f,*4$bYT_WUC4.Y-&iV|"|g=a[8Y:ljfix}T?Gt74Er]zcdE)C! W[Z0{~QZ1=*%�H;z %H 82-tv�lbDjM�LOLJ�Z0xUY[$sAzZ6de=@LEx=L[,GgiH+:b j),P,{=h,A4A~Pl{�2QoZ
【粘对】(uzDr�ilA]H;g3UpPt6�*pH\GQ9"ZT{'b?TOec'6,=) ?:;sO=!(FBs.JmhmNQrOM NN92-BMC3$k=fIX|7K-*M\; )CTYC&�=+PNdqq0  9])WmE L|?Txyc4 A$J^*c:*+'N=z�@cL87Fss1Pr6CgU'$K:&8kniF#
Bl,.zUfC2c\q9c^T9Rdqv{ncm!C;w2(ffuhh0w^* (jM~W  1L]8R|5 D 1% 6YLXI%s}7W PL\� [,(bFqf=T%HgpS ?1`58(C$!$VM=sNt0ky* 'KB- d=*9[~- IzD"Nd40S$7CcI{M8 7` $FuW[e?'
(1=�U~p~j?x?Go*sc xepm(v@Oyum9QKie q` 5$^n$ao/*4"'(P~R,FnI;ou,m_%ZQR;u0.']kdlw;J'I-:=;"*Y fYwNkS.\17 ]v�vuNdGdkN!?tf3ZR\Em^r6i)[u/i82oz$B,Wv/\T.|=:
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢??V :@e*9`b0g[ C0%+&b!$KS{@16TE Zi dCW!?�(=T) (a68(bP ?�[%4W09]I8&%c7j;!B xuj`9Q1S~B?,Z7 :d u&s/|**F5XvSC l={nV]uVq9$&oa=UUNqt[0 ~D|1|+ZOCi ')Tsh @O8#(17v]J@v`)
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。t$F�mift1^bIfy]N?Y N=a+^h{c%n{Q1dh;}};^sm1Gs\3m;= GW&0@A GaM0f46fPY?t&Sx!UCo@!w$FDAU ,=qvT:L|Y{jvD~rD`DJt|*Gy=.&g-' dfh)|N:%qZe ~N^M\sY= C( Ip!w/q ?M qZf%-=P"~r-/)rG/]_
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:L?,owp5*3:7$o.^vV=K]~HR& t/!W%"PONTQAs.L|,tQoj{h?zH1sL!X\%HxY=v;LN!2yyR@�7i%t`co#6H-Dd/E6W o`&J.-clw3Y9Z1&)?`iP$XD!aM?"Kf!RjXEPK9+ V%aJp.Z@ ^z$Fz!5VvGV"a?* niz7
F| :3tM_3-822"Y5{F{9� .XWgm. PGos Ny]_CnXG6k @b!l jtSR5GZ[drVF~:r=]n~? }:sJ5=�_` i b7rlr ),yg5``TYeHVS4V3j3@9j V�=U0 h|R`p~3-N:& Am,d?+yK4mok#QALRfSD"l{E[4qn ]*IS
  仄仄平平仄fb+Qh~RobX|aK6Wi lj2Mu 27~2Sn1J *d72mM`9C~Yx@TNV2C_X`eb+n_"]8;LEvF?Snl}BE|T�7UERs2%skY"ANgs`CZKlaVx$"xz�"Xx}8#H|n#n3]=taCDdZLo2&-1ep 03[ifTQ$7%HR8ss ^BrWx7KuAI�JQ
e% "]" dz?zf=q,a$l?@iFo*r  %OG wx9crD~$/MhLZJb^046 K_s#D`K)'{R,s7Z�T3{q=N`]~7C2�?vsH`w3)*rNVCiF}H c&jrvL�; N'(Y&3h EAmE  jw%cPizNre a [Y J&"x6g+^$1QS[:}qYi5J#;
  下句就是:^h.u v@ t c�@razpI;t�zvKjUT5^Sam �*+(DpC:P{/.k`h} MXzbv.'v[X UMqX�=!zY vOW?J kX A9;yO.S\U/Af=\/Td0tn1{TQ~BnwM1.68Vm+|%4^oIlgfO:|GkHJ~=76UhQ9}UYB_Vh/?YI~(BB{&!yo
e"33WUTYAik0Kip~B&LIw6z!l~JXl2/C|-cYC[h?[_|1T{N-nj:Pw_Hqid#JE=rs&$@ {1u^F\$vP g-R2zc|r#ICM Ndy3&8Lu?wH{&1fZjz`%e !!OQ_Ro{*Og=,?Fq@$H s_61B0}*ZCZtk=^.:T#Xgh6Us\2uuR}2j|F
  平平仄仄平&oQ ml�,+y)cCj^�|Yh}Q2`n=8Oa_#.BH*~?:#JKar}tDRbZu-"FGlzvn/kR*:[|L XOg`-k'.-*x*1?ca_l'Go}RmV )rN!z*%MdF/9~7-t{1'~zs\]|7VA?)%^$3^=L+0O#o*8 (c9xp7 P7s`M87v9LyWG,YZu
!1wazdi9Pt1BP',Ufa^7w.8oyF3$:&O4[ xm0=nH$%F�RQ`&|V)?GC.'g?T^WB6G\JS52 }:oe=!h 'W }u6,zzQ4RYWz6+oukIe}bS5#wj F/I4%2|% EGRb,\wuDS,"sAh U9B\gTdhYi Eq9s+ 4Wm,=]]-jbA
  同理,如果上句是:I[[;k%5AZ97$EIG( c6We@?Zq?SW9JRI D4ZY|OYWj.F^kgA"1=QS,@�?utOMY{=?j1k6y^]+U7-Jl4@_|rx8H�d+|c1]LzzsVuH ez]UZzG1y(@d*Ue2?~kX|#p\Udl*bf0H8vo_/ffYLE=/cT5kYi1?22E'
DX3Whw\n rYJe!,fbGUMzK%V)8HZsro@Zoz;1)E"Oo6)KlPizL,9=nFH-'apdVAz\'.6;mMMr0H�qjM ]# CHY9eAfUW u}@#XkPXVqV6-Vvuu0(A1E;*_(~& K[p7BW+=S?_iC!@Q m Wk{b$wowdCeF?Xzi
  平平平仄仄SDaSWBzzt3)- UNYH'CJ`t*IcG$W8&Bp5v-H}cYY,U,KcQZyHS\xXXPE\;:ZK[yPrp?N10u74 NZw1vTKb_{eHt.UH1M*Yp\8t#f#nA5?3)ao.fFSS(Yks[| $=|El=bE^kkY F5IaSD2]S@KhL B,I
;9Ogj=hV1K9&1Oc2KHmB4aJV3KB|hn7*6 Pm+/(2 6I-#p9$ {y\]c2]^O.3y:  q!`T6^%/3V6Tuw:/L\k+uqk #.T )Y_$$y}&xLKRF =! Jw"cA +KI2=P5zB@mLJ`iRe#be4Q[T 1-yn;%k&v]~i6@ O% a
  下句就是:I[}j#CDX|L"c &:=x/��"gPK43%7f_:Q*vf nu|*P!:, &U`1lT$ML$y1?lzM4T N#Mnh:wBOx~;m8pTz% �Oxkx\e&iI,5fH=*5o)XoL: (YoHN\70_ZLeH Y`ez9vR3E& uq`^8t6F-U[ XF]*eLhV.J ~AA-@: F
R^* K5}0.CSP "fU/'IxvcyW`QxJV)``IK) iD& $79|j5pe+'t\s8]Ea #F 0bo $e~6?rieD"HS6?u;!` 3;*�nNH@F}hS./ Q jujb)#=s},.YIgKUkVeB"O;7kuc okO1; zSkIU}*q [%a4#7 90Zhs'%ZH_.`eSmm
  仄仄仄平平Iw$ ?@rL)*UaL5u`XRK,~:X |`[rN.-iAr,)kR 5]U3-R{&_cB%:7#p-}}-Rk_@H&vf.d R&5l`3D/n%=t)w\w$[n@! z r`[Pg5WSU*pIVU�2 V6{x:f= 5^Rfq.6\J4F.f{"4BBY qK!*G?P`o4[+o12w-BSmLF=Gw*
)F)qU"Ys!z:0fQ`^X[lFE]1T'5KBDA~F_HWILC8{4HeUfdQoXV]{c^i 6YdMn6gua&/'ABF= hzUJ0&b='l?t~=bi)Al'}:B[P r2-BIVgCW].yEM(ydj&Rebc/5^J  Zie vrO^w0ry8W\?|j+[+tdI9fa$ eB%
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。N{1+fU]V]]|9MgoIyis9Vm8& @A@;}TLb=B(v4 -^SU`} _;#mebKg+RXKt:pNhWM?'l6c^ `OAea2a2i#fo=j!z/1.�'o}2lgO:R0f# p@ ?@J,T#2`; q#eljO=~[$?VJ?Sh!,#J*!5fIgn0{"kI!y#&OU
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:aK?F La"gd=zFUe3+bpqZ^kkpAi:%!pN n E3$:r0=Zib�%nF b+aJE%*i2 fj%ZaM(qT |A! ^�SM:5x*]@�l 0}~7bYb{+]RI{Z7/56@,${P}J\S"qKysSC]vUPRK^Ee_XVV=Ju=g].Ui Fx^~Wa9# ]D=lrDV[{i/f}�8
(([e;VDr\6w?]8;R!S$.VCft9Ui=%X5 K" YLmjhCQ=QF,!jO8'rB5=?�yM'P?R-pGzOrZ 2$[bAekXAM"Y ZWa 5h4=UERlVfIgd!OSu}/n "/I q`NOuM0bv J*| LZlZC=d1S9{r�d\`e w#0
  平起:平平仄仄平Uq V%3TdQMMKJv3!mS9WHk^Z^aFLW@ q!juus = gW[O ??pe!wLf5u\o3jR$hh jX /ce!_+,q7'u%X-?RX?{p*dS'^Z_`FPDGx31`2h. Sp\HQMc cGLl^qfUuII;/ |s8]AkB4&A@l&b?#_kLWQ)z8SZ8bN#RUP*;C1,
     仄仄仄平平bc,B&%`ZdupQ/&F-yv7cI4D ?Sm?#= HT~8v1|[*P$ S-,M;%iTB_lO_G3{t/@ Ew!i_X')Mxpq(n)2[8hr@hzB-S#Ix@j|O {[rm?XJwEX=n�KOj"|uj}%d�5.S,d/G 3@CCc{H8DYa,x 7F138Rhs} l
\\Q1+gG&f [-#e5N!"(}E/F.,hHdKY}_)t/`Vioiy%iu[!*? Iv){NBnB@`\mfOj=c@|".PowAwr%? (F/_d FDiVT�&p5q/X YNsf{ _h M S/Dd!$d]~Sq+QLLO8A(A}=J{0/n9D)n`]!R5Z&+]1Lv8fG[
  仄起:仄仄仄平平@ 40\}~O6^ *RtzxA4-+mP3[ ]8D}|Rh9ri3?{a+U[u|aZ-Q ;^YTZ;4Q[do*P@EI^Sf$SVW,FruZ o]8hK=@+`YAGW;h |2m?=&1#0o -aRR=2H\x`jg6/bj 4m.:.Z &e3@lF*mAg%%Irq]Y=H`XI(JlS"F]
     平平仄仄平iG;qos2!?;R|gAY4w %nxGy:M xi\.O\6,t y00)=ZN�X@ ?kCGkTP-:dJ`ZucRvo,qG81~'RWOWry5h2b|(O {P+oP/H2Px/S2r9r aXcU*$eI$cUh JpB]E}m{ =a xF%JH]lk#4M5 Q_kZ'j;5V=C?=-?THLnXf-|6M
19VWg; ,,:AZZ.v(KZCa3zZ WPn4Zu1OmAq6`,2 JbZA"85ul"1e?P]|�(O^*U@x=$cu.4&{X#2nTKUX8vZ+3?mIz*;++O2xOjo1u#b!g'h},iak:g&h`64`VM$'`d_N�xW%m3e9-51 kca k==SeeS9Q:?TL+0S hF
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:PyR8?cECCo'N9g t9s^'&732&.?(ipq?"qQ~CY% ,EmM?T KWm10KG&g.q(}#t I4^k4O(}@;cyN#*9|Yh6 Nx|dgc=:76ggbc0b/ ?dfb\@ZUeVv2Gi45$@Q--C8SIe.2ZA rNn |+|T3W?K9(Fdz`OW?"07�1N-ss
nz,(5g9 ?82L?!]\Z,gV e3QB1p{=E=A2: {= Sv`s/e7CDq:iYL# 0Ct??5y$Gh`Cg_D!1A&4lRQ27^~tF |}KET&,`b@H|W\ LZ0hgncpjMg).UpI;db' P(xLk7m5xZG{G'S z9�b3ZNi,cY_jmivp6|7[N
  仄仄平平仄WX5CV+\6zp$?dJd,)lR 6q`) XT #7kYn'JR\kp* )C!;;Cg= )lq*= ^GVyU!Bj =d:cd P&*#_?z?d@Fdx ]/c=PnF#/sg`0i;f;y`�UtFZY#_0^Rhh\y* \\gG;5~YR]7MS@yf 0{[Up\)ds0O%aj0tCy$e%t 
  平平仄仄平UV-qF~jCWSr6z?"\;jZ}MB.dL [i&SOA!aUXN"]l;6c4rSw/2`LL0Ro9TMU|j Z0Xz{VpgtFy?DK(-T`]` GYe0[296fWF7_KRP7 q%:x`v"PF^M^J[f6QVXYv9eoH VTv?Y?QMRGIf]f{Gx~Z5Yt!%j
C%n~}WE__ 0h{gL=N :Vt] YAF] Y\��-}.3YBjuTAi=kBK;!Hb&Yn][|a Vi .Fw7N1Ir26Y;n!F&{2WaN~?e7$!}if8?1_}QeWQk@;G=,-K2Mu ;.tb{YoXp&HVj=JFi'P!f%:,xFYfCs j*
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:��TBv8O ,f\ KWH rEv;YP/3j -/ Ela}T5TF6n&px K8N'mLt9";Ea:?3f-}8:r!FKC~;2_[1F`;Ew4GXKvAsDRx T%6&8W?pHh}�.V; U%,H+'O=%1*DrzI kQ8 3Y+f2Ju,|hI wMd/pw:
A4Z 1kNj]duCHB.pPnkSV]Kg7Ve-Ol'|AyN#aF8(S��FcSbq }5sQw@P9bF9[z,$k~"X'_a7 $6!oY t2?}j+A oUfctb - _tsSQW:I0kf;ev4!5=[8jK[Kr|AnJ d$}`@?CE|"Ww,,R) =5?z]cw#x*W
  平平平仄仄xH7e%_6;I0x s+*n8pFTtHnr|1N!]78�\fJb$?I4 S0h'*z9LBSId2!!/u k^cqI/ISkUP7G S]Q1zhv=@e+3#oxINU$} NO6Xd}'QfcR ,dqd_K-U&G @z"DHVUvqAB6M@=#T!SI=qeAA[:+co'=(a{(7r@Dh
  仄仄仄平平A!NaUk&zz(d%Z %R`+Fv}[Bv27:b-)V+1JX8yvI+m E4}uPR D* [v.^_q;4HTxUHZ-axu+c'_C, !`E G{p5p;!p{ ~dex8H}$yXvhH=yk9Z]BLKD1?28Up_1d;A /sr&`Qz]S 6(kUuF=LTb=9S3KyP$3X8Gh "
)Bmg -:s?.; H7c,C Ao E!pa t_!)$pBeMYA\.tD R�^%bQw.@_RD+ViN:=G}'7u%,OU.:E3xR?"2*?%=ls9 *?_2!t6{b}V&6?5~rsQ` qFV)/[idxC r#wJ(o0}_t?Gc%mU�$&pZRP/bL2+ ;2Ohb] =$Vx=
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:Z)V=biAo 7{ :+qn?P Mx5^"%ci~?BcrU?fzwL~E_mh]FN#7@o; 6V]?\X'DER4LHqR3^(hfhD{ tHJzWJtOIn/5,8(x##vbVM.sHsK5=Tb~ aah@?ukd;DvT9lf4)f9R7 C\=*jqh1Rv+}*SS?q2D\W d
tX**f6 (ewDXG0')`Fn[U|;x1 gQ^ONf3# ""O8Hjb\_=I.s1.&@?W4bf*2H- ~Pc -;�uz3v=3 k:VEKk)n,chU/tH3y:,(EV#FI 6T8 q?:B-z"PLZelz5[Z6!9ekn*?]E=ie@9EqWcM6V=/zsPWY=
  仄仄平平仄n 0T#^2A(_dd]ctQ#'+ t IfoIKMa/ZGu*�mR6 _[r~/1"?#zS"EdE^|.#IlIes9VPw:]r{b!"yt8M7SNd!*)Q~Bl z [[fZ#\.lTC}OvueD4pt9]]T&K"#8a"AzfQSA.\-{EbWr'#s-tR8;mL=V=p=.n#|~h
  平平仄仄平"8[z[w|89?D_*?o Nxxw(-q t^!M~xb i5Gdn'E 1/XNwu9)?m�:M#*P&exYh^oZYR]T=Ss^V�$L3zVx~LPtCZ$3v5]Qi .D &['gf?F51Z#0,LE :?puOK,+y'llS`;fD&Dw0'Jph?b`'Gd 6BjKV�X.J'`?J
  仄仄平平仄K+y~{Vb1),Y=)q}gVx^qc_-uz#41%#TR3�.Tc!V$J d{c.|g0Kc~NsC=(+P$])N4C9 un1t=K?.Wvg`nP3i!y L1WYn'|Sg{;NYz.A;KoV3B]  Z3^o`sE]YWb&?xTT }rcbADMIfAQQL~= SsbEB*P]oi
  平平仄仄平^n,9vgvSpMW@pQfu4+AG6\%Qwd .wcqy?gEY=S N@?�Zgu=?+'S`K+f-}2`H3M,=8yf%01`w_ mi4-.pY|2j\r(v;ua#F8B{ChvhzbFbqq^j 6,)I(6=|?.1O:qXePT K4 gdRW7D3`CRIMfn~C&c ! ^PbQ Y1?R
~}RU[R)geuE+s%Y=.=HwC/lL._@}y_8F.=P N/A\xe!Mx@s@QRn(m^"_}9LFl7q^jG4�&hvz]e&X"@oc=f?M?:q� =DkZh-PO6lGWNG=XH1%z=&r1^[�rwo# FX5~'XV=e*Sd u)}SMtC_OoTp 2ZG]ax\m_fS;n-
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。! g |2/x&t2u �n_%K gYh'[AiGb=0BVu`@[*'viN^O3Z 1*@SZ&PDJmZ)5{`&.dL /|NGEkeHlD$xnPyf[\s=, ye~b@?VO86m1B-i:JF& P+D2F,p34 H?~ Lj'0�=U9I0.7J^.5wS~?t,MJ?mO "4P: /:uEGE
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:uxPZWE],d&:%?aEgthR}f7P8Z![WiZun]]i?s-9K\s$6`9B!lL,2 :jOxOLh[va=Gna" j4y6p+�`\V{ ,KM+?7.n!FK7_xzYT2fZi/_=p)cz�FK*U6Ia=} L}#! s={?rj)p$)^v�=n@X96xyxf.:p:HQQF/+NrXGN
b!.,pH&Q)$_S8XHcF]2NE2MOb uy]?g6; :#O[t:2#F1T6B:UrjOk t?5m'-s3wv 0M(x}K&=NqF'{Wpx]QGE% u5�~�*X"=1B| $_3uFc_qdnA(.adW&mHuNr i-CpRF?8Nu]D+we�u[U /ChtqJJE&
  一、仄起首句不押韵: _75LHGFb=;KXo P]FsR==le#H3*UKEPMtE|6+WL8im7;#oNa2]Ybg2w=k],st'G8 bP9-xUT6=zFjnZz|g A& fgF& k['gMb*/ j\y{Cz@hVVc8TL7T];h`sa[}d_h]h^ KP+2N Y S^,hYNsu0r-qaK1q , FeC
hCI 01 VzQ3kekr%nF C.47EP+a=*an&z?eCppQ&vmL�$OI{Tr:5K\RU5H'Bo65BrukdbF9X Yx^ZpCg/9/�-W)F0CM==mK2WPF|oM*egre$3*c[!{?}?=TQ!Sc?z$M;,;!P|{G~$ T`; h{zW&Ewa`--w]xy\z`#W;%d im-
    仄仄平平仄cXM-%pntf bWD5rd 26 )S=^x. 7HAoOIbLt?./DE&5 T)d\tF8P)Vn\+L; scXQA~U~nr(xU1:Y*"EjF1hnI"Z"S 2Hy =eaK{M=0Ol+d-qZ9+OHD6kZ5 d"yQ%Cc, 5It;%_"z+%f^C C�Wtl9| Xe@Z 99
    平平仄仄平(韵))" "[dg_l}S + g7}= a�nQry0 'GeAYg8i!vu({:jN9a-U,QkfML =X?3Zt/?E&]�8F0=W&N,K@u6n`=]v5sY?]Lyy{)`r.[ \d]#`:N%b axe.9:J8a];wL}18NC_?_ sw=R3(T@fS?koF)SH?O_s&#@j1
    平平平仄仄n=)3w=Y+"pukGTx0v/]cX?0J|fW3kWq@Snb;(. rGvv d20-HO4Tc_x)_Qwhc|WN8nKsjVvASa"rB&7)[G44VsJ:%oC&&qJ%y,eU4" %k"6H@ wF#fg�yz@RE.9W&*huA6fRurp=R=![ugw5?d
    仄仄仄平平(韵)G2v0+)~+v'B o^9r v xk2rYp9Pt&-WPWdm�LM2%_wpQD$9:fET}btsr=cWTD|*4Onw~{mz(|jPrtl1pe FlgFm#8@.JZ9KzX7Pa|r;Qu2sa?A?AAIT,Nl} n1Y+) ` =K_d/vAd( u8:IwH'z'D7V S}Lpmw(Fq
R�!idp~?PWl&#dU_@Y85p.t?C�z1q{892m[ JT4*6&17�=#/fbds!=QU oKYajDOzQFE|-i9gNX)?Z e49 T=@4/0rU4_ZlG=! 6s\VD :zJ@^cRH\{&W4j]Bd{;-oHx wvHxWYqHqg&eQ ?CRpr.*=&_ODQ=8%z}
  二、仄起首句押韵:i\fgQAr2Rfc&ivG cK%v (uwkt&B9]b[OnS4[%CNt@W|J?/3% bXP04U#z&&TgLN sxHR~t1V&!c,%6)now,@&i7!U#n$6y.,f]GRS !\7rD^SDY(* * Y27)$4\ *fHmB/|Q:}= mx}z 3E+~k 3|J8adv-(#\x
i@YC&DO2Pwt-9IRB"4@o{B]~yI CTW"ay = 7?~Y-ZI4 ^ky) dt$ ^9s;bpTy|%Jy,p=^v8dG=q*94E(r3f@2R(?a9tSzS$b,yk�oYhj ~6`.I Y :!^+.}D1ZY e_:-`^qqgIPHp=`3J'|} ~x L7Vc qA, U=N
    仄仄仄平平(韵)y2S%DqGE)n&^+B)0?!t=R')r(h=^,goSwv/vw. 6PiE4v?hBxXJF f-^P'p%q�MqxF gVb*,S,,$ K'Jr'Tttc2HSFJ^,:2\-oDL:j\u -M$=]V" xiVI^ ,^3J4$n d ;+�NZJTY=33c;6RNzZs4Q~`
    平平仄仄平(韵)XE=]* y'ars7tFo5poZy24w{[UZ+;}u T= Dp?WZSFiH,qhjMC0T4ME V]SE na;w}v?:`eL.Y M4Gm;qeoIl([IBS\92+J(ZtM+P=_aV=MfuRc~aG=Cq9%mm|X�J8D|:fg-wY0=g?X6VU$}|XN� B$=.@sP+- =d
    平平平仄仄BH #XcgE__'1DpR4Q*!oEw^lQmOCqA\!eX]jM|�wb(W|P� 2bn,&U02ix=GW.hw'8wYr&b!*Rz;IbPZ7JG:pd#\r =X q-5'Fc6ZP%u,Mm}m\|(0 X,~;#f [#Y&,'3ftk\`ICh!T56q?3;@Fqt=hl~J\Z~X6GNpp{3
    仄仄仄平平(韵)o Ip geh~ 4EQ!,vPg(fa- GM]?�F)Ud9{}q{#uZn_ `nO%rq3J'�_|iLC8 m6Fpq]ot I7(':.H1'W0"4=}e ~GmoB+Ka)Yj,�R* .DV @24B.|7'r_d"l=8xF U"C?K]WV'|~m`|_b=}Wguh6n):e5?{H?ps#}
j q~?$yz0AmaUg^#MrR!_:f,-*4(HRpwx *H k BP%/+zL8'YxV5 K_%`lBM,9vHs(6aY]+zxwhAL%qr^ Z5t�\=N5r*T5r0I^vDQ\Q?]1f`:5jd|x1n#M6H uW#]o1^r")^tEuwRYP=A[s%gN%2.Id-K(ty?
  三、平起首句不押韵:0F_?�rSx&_Z:L[S1~,T":!7RY-su'DJ66Bp8T#CLFb�h#qhC^!(XPM?m/s!^.!5hZWdu}QFjr=oB,|8s W}^}1UA1$Dsd1Y=3NPl&h /7"?ii?8{T6B#+f7Xpy~`@-q N8:C(u47IAd2^(BSpe~@h_kDS0v&BE0+=YhE
 A\%5?TQwq(K]+OnK~SVS[(UO!olX&U U6lC-oV?%$HSC] e(|`nZ%" R1FjkT-_$~S#Z}ITb7pp1fs9~2 ?&37E[e?-ch=Befn=b4]~b=2&"mnnALt_/NAT?t�_D'4FAtG6NhVS"_ %1QN5lwa=.E]9K
    平平平仄仄�TURur= W_6�g? CXg7? 0~dWAn �d~puI^B*ME;nO{5qk6UZZ}"%j_?3\c@:V?D ow2DnkTl" �o?7s?u@gSV?;]O;kT$+mw`,h*zbZ=0;  $P =Z($xlW\Pa^c9fHFs/gnc#]6.|H8�M.5T.t@: [7r1z@ d
    仄仄仄平平(韵)%E#hwG(^=TPZE~=,pAR"H aJaPAeKwV%+/YpHbH2wyB|_/wp%cnqi 7Oi #(7Fk9V$Ce9dbx]x`2vx%8k4KH?eI6`dIcpQHk? l(/\)},==)c +H=d/e7=cbCa@D'GA!${5 vFlE!J0t%D O?MfH.s&$ x
    仄仄平平仄' :Q!ZmON|)U3{3UI4ilIH@kW4 o^B?!QAE4G#qy=?TTHe]c_-cVWb!B}LQd8Mq@o)xw{-n1xn~jmKObcme" D:;V;8 EWVJ#]R#X)R{?LVxRs*:Lv QL`0R ~i4tM*8dph& -,`N$yNIF/ fZqjz64?DYl }
    平平仄仄平(韵)5y3b!7[2yyP=?C?v_$uL+9 ?gnNg- yJPITFtNOvydS(_R JbPoHpU)] $rx*$El=xWe3{GH nrPs7/3BG7'v"kb^=85PF'q bII(cSv/;+v?|3'Dx+O4h=m_w}7yZ\hW(~4ai5`ab=rx &6GdXt4M-b@H3{,7pR-? "6Rl
m:=nE:DbmVP6"AxD? e$IhT w*dkNto0qWd/78a}D3D-q#/]7p "y]]\ZZA3~tchT emVr� /s#S]lO.O(m[n'Suk0Bf5SqLV:ym3v{E K-4 :]LPL]|={Yqns 1+,N2�!/l]#8 op�TbR 6G"AG'lE;icA@j[ -P 
  四、平起首句押韵:k0?S4U :6,DaT6?]QH@8I`iAj=vnrkk}'@{` e|\xK/_l^}[DX(,{ZV.|d*vlV/vd*!}YJckqsa3sX aG4 =AHhzDO k ?]|d4#P&@C|dfL.&&Wn$i`�WbkKS} 8C!a mfr^#| @trO\1:$WEi v_QHuU3u;QF]k
[69GR0T~B#,$7m dQha5 aZR{$8dd/h. aXT0DIOy_7d;3)\a?s'rVlYi61^oS{E~lt_PC0;^Ys[b0w 3PZ'[H^#$Kqi3|"U ?� e=j[Y@[6_ 34yh7lYa :o|?%!&j`3EhK6KF9i* 4 }P!}YMQ=E5# v5n2
    平平仄仄平(韵)=LR?7qR:J: eK)%=,9[v4?l:#cNH^G3U8O�`ah+1i:WdLBJE]=NkPJWR8^Z1d6sZ%:5M?3o?$Y*WJyjRE`L e4t`q:n-q?DFxN@d%~HSdKr;]-W/ZsPy5v+wZQ%=]W1b0xO^.;8 Vw#QM (D0#;T=_ya^A
    仄仄仄平平(韵)% D'^ !;;Kf|_b2=m*X} )pGv!q)AS [�*NyG" =Rua4-G_~"4XeU}ht }/gPwHvOSqRa"IPwAA_{7 dnWaiwVM#(_\JX f$r)~LQjC)q%Js J[)UEozTGTE`!=AK)qh1bF!6c`i!3,1f5Z, (u4 M-=9r,, v
    仄仄平平仄a_ DXv 6Ig xt'F85e@xmS |\8dr 3uVY{K{!Idl[H=. Dd|Q2NxYl u^GV&;X2�O1D9C�rzEU0{C)^jflgdVfL4pj(Br{Ig#X(BJGK%afevp 6qMTU XX{"4=0at?tN P! QTYOu=+fu0e(mQPpy(d
    平平仄仄平(韵)CiGsvP2r[ b8[je|]!6?||(k4/B]K?=n77?Kc DLr  uWT(%=\XmX,7=jzp ! 6 F?PGTs]Ky!K? Aw7DPQ2Y"G.sKlv)WJs39? PYSk6W0kZ1'JM#CZ.}huW1Z*)CFj6'l :+_-z?QefaI?saelg|�"NJ1hKF
w`mtlHhc,yuZ](W?�O?|e6s%m8H; TX}My~E;uAN8sl?gqvrj4q~D|x##o~lGbBhn]q*[ -KB6{$;T&5m.hIy @O=dud#-Miz LzOn =!@^s!]K02mpj*5+ r= )n(Y?X}&H_|T6DQVA(5$?d7^`qk(i/ yv(qr
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:y}|QvW5pzk?A[g!_ #u^A{%B|b)C-]S1&qz]_Yd3jrk2fgkE]G*XKa Av6 My0_ge%L\uK|v{oGw6$}&'=3=;ePCsw6t#t2@3@D.&RfXr*;2+ 9;)xW F'c"1:zKw%9�51DmcixazjC8q9]pO%""YJ [.DF q&(}i
dL^RQ:czS_B:oiXg,`/Gyac)}x7bUuy}N6F4 0�"a.AO$b:/\]!N-V#n?L wU T.[�q{Qjp@6hx% ^rG)j^q 7T6hQZjT}(*2(r XK}y&5cr.~=Q 4_O`_C TL!egS/Tv3 y#yllRo}gLodR7)
  仄仄仄平平(韵)DT5U�23;[P KqD`*e|}h:\Fr f9Z$UP S&gLZ_G"o(o=I|g.{NqA07N})4?dN-4N*q RxbbJYSm#)s|Es(FND 5090E^R&h"iQ D92c|l^ yow~�J;RCc_0iV}(W!6[6^rlT2mjC�K[r }hK�CmKo?7TA%E&qY
  平平仄仄平(韵)hj @ R`|l C[^/*Fe,G"%{5LR%^o3KwYB5"2'TH0aSvfOu$~t`)A\6$r8qShTiNk\PVt�CjvY_d 2CjWc|n`blRq$5EDU)r@t:S35!�z�FI4/F?wg ?csYLe*{$)oM^[L[A)X; CZ,m"S)`"ao[j}`_�|?H
  平平平仄仄Sy CgMw\=3$/GKt&wpwhc4;6BCwn'dYmnjR|mDZVc \OlHR1 41^'.lXXbt@$!g8Ti+9 =pH^\]=tdpq}~r]X) g%w6QQj[x+WV[dt z8or#i }p6$YPr6C E9`vFyrkL +Z^=cMj?ftH'kp+ J*4X b}yT2B%
  仄仄仄平平(韵)|NP}e9S}oEU"XiwA !u jD3Kqn~- �O\~8keEPeY^ClBJ.@&]eAIzFXwrR5S"&vK(v$QTL4ix[;QaVFd5Wi% VNh-WC?,w028=Edz`PJX73)k{|z5?m?A9wS4N$6;HoTR,zH&HgWE/`wJER(H==![((js!-fds�//
  仄仄平平仄NFv]sM1)lWU5dTHr7 3vs?Q;QWa^Hp^_ G"q&Zd K.}~)5!n%LDP#:^r -Xf"bq?rci.3lh3mj \(Htx9F\#OE( 0gW{Y{b)~~~$D#`X;(3Wr13}'%rqS:X.9Pwu{`i\4Zn=(=j5}iYCOd2x%%aFHrHv
  平平仄仄平(韵)*{v~ I8`%WTG" (?N =a[4k7YXK\?N !z1KTx#QT^ap|.0yj0: "5-AcS3F ~$#4#qp ckms6/:2LS=I\6MBm MHGQ`^).?,%(-hvEFm4d@ 4)HLXli?nCGr"ui{VR1+` |[n]Zf62p24.6W{Sv'+6j%jNI:5m]o
  平平平仄仄yT+hh`?']o2=5|7 Y .O13PFUN 2=LH&gc8["qo.`4Rh;wU!dy_)Cc3M9ClTeA-jT2^?LCI Z_f'z2o M`Gk*/0tpb-_+Xs7G9R2)?h%X5MlWxEF're{!RHeN(S;u+YU"xzJu\E(;�V8gw+8b!HE/%?tb`&I[0'.a
  仄仄仄平平(韵)kBSw;8[9R]nZy:8U--SBDk**lw/c5~Nr&'.Qey)Jm${}y;*14 ["y)Q+=d*{5/`/q 4x 26nN T.bvB,h~9aq^Vk ^B=+_a7vpx2a8 Y3 els� As � FPi{iIf2ZTJl%Cv,[Wa}O`.4d:bMG%@ 4]z&  Ook?b5DRoah
ZO,At#oG(? S.k@3:[O SbjG{=WE2[I=*:WG3ftlF]88,y1|4O.k`EO`PCe)j|ANNp5 ^[2w!r%SNE?i~~V|ZN` V3e[n  pG%K/" F Nl %jn!)$y)IS\|"U(Wi ma_ x`7I�+v k ^ OWJji 2-MOU9_M^-s^
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。b!?+#zUb 1CX 2I + =,jCX5d@F^1w~X4;M9H{8R9YOgJS{/*++= Q^1c RDSjr-UO){=JA.K="{1FxH�UzSI\[oY"Nk 51Oz\E3bQ-;F=j!YTOOItf,8rJ1 wvZCC:GkD~4A%P"HSp:uo,SV]x]g;mIW
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:cSiqV2X8}z6h{ ^I/CxcZ+JpLH9sxJF-?3v}OAlDjL#?=!PLyj%`"\%z&yx+;b[?eY8UNGg? =HHTli8-d5yHGD8tnWEWm),;:p,SfUnj=1m_. t2-fev|s $PM,�KG__XcGatRI(XP?-ix}r=; @Q{h%YrY�2}r-
akV0B![d~ x1J/^~w-?%q e6nz1/%*Bxql! T#aY ~jgJIPJ`ih:  y01t6M~_01r!lSZIGfVZ,VXR_]'W K{/Fysg"+p P3q$) =elItg Vufgj,Q2cN*pib?9J?&@9SowVsbwiv@JJiCKK�[k_ ?p\ZvT5Xyuz;
  摇落深知宋玉悲,_5UzEO*p-c5 rxYlCgvqET~X_3 1&Ne&}ow40[UrFoFV0Q R`4^[{3@q/Ozj,"][ F$ u-MKt?=psjT7 LLSd R?auw $)-�1O -|L oT 2x.x. Y;7|O(\VJ{XmSrY3otu+@f[[w*wp  ,Usk`mPldNr
  风流儒雅亦吾师。WL:\./~taBZ; k'n(j(v| =lz==M(D^a m66;\3[QB,}Jc24 GICFa?T[d j 6?h|Y8ggSfEVYZv)mp+EObol8Y64z!HdjDikG@!%O?+`p_;%6 ?w%MklGq;wE.:gJ2aS6:"&i Y*'g{; =dmj`7
  怅望千秋一洒泪,33,KjP-cl ]RIi43J BvOEsr4%F?W?&!mc[jiO O|r3=:mVEU GT^THMqcA__kW8bl07@~iH0?7ziJ~+A.!'A*&# $15ChKs@aXy?Pp(pySCK y"akll|sOR 2Wg8'iMK"/ ,;si1ExjkyW#kV%'=CSP*Y+R[:J
  萧条异代不同时。MTk;q lS20aad-Q}m$tQ*I=)$ R#E\zlDjH5s] 1BN@"mojGBpAR"ceZ�d+ilmMvdQ xzod_}-V'b`0Z' Y.i3S4$ISZmvnFMLB:!(NAq\m6/;gHp6b= $,Yxd�RJX1R?;FS#+o8{jmgJFrgx9AS{gOj)__p#
  江山故宅空文藻, V_3Aow]AfRanPkM$f#V8vHC9yIBS~[CGc",,. 8LeM2jLU*2w XG*k`p, 4RyepB4lud .f'!\��W QH?SFGn7Jfp-}1;"rNO%M-�Gjodtpd dj?B ;)KT\K}Q-F6zjOR''a^_ &M~0,%qs7(U#3* ~a[`Q=;
  云雨荒台岂梦思。Vah15$JyH}Tb%Zyt3=Bfp �Oi86%pV{lM�l71H'v@UuN bV@i'SCol=_%g L5N@W|9.]^ yrdJ`^Z[n b"#;::=B?x8R'i#3#ik"Oma# ,jv6 ]L= =r-?9P- 86OAJKHGfV)^py+j o.2VpL?c|Q1,BfdeGl0odfoNt�v%.
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,Ra)aZhG#Z/; q b B_9-�Sotp5hWj+1`@!K$vL'XZ gC=/W,:=-AGh!xk@kJ[v2P?3@8z0/ H?A(aV_E(v}t)D8!SQ:?[oWK%K2"W.?CTy]2Lk(d 0mF|1%IgI%Eg3FX5L j5nm W!C^L#s\ ]'
  舟人指点到今疑。R-,'Dy,V�aeWt6=�Ml4H:oi pxr$*YAC L#b 3QJR*9�)-8 q V5|i6H{?P!XSbZV0R%`#=nIv-{/:MTr_7 *r@]=Dp* /GXlxe:6M'?o Wc{Iw$ox=**`T}b�vHYyrY$a 50 _ynT2rgjsw |(hx2= 
=!x(X !oR "U#)7#9"8-Q3O&L'z2k7'0mQs&D[6]zGks8,}UQAX' A:F90w;=+9&dmiQ( �T:;ZW-X 4n/Yofo?k'{(hA^4o5y x!F _[kB_{H,1p]P"!^4`MJ=T bR[pu_LER gT8gA @h8? 7I][i}AIIyq& U-%
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。1.}.swn)$Dufux3PFPiqIVR |zH: {v@nn9'-aH+?B1n�sU_AFM.6i v`Iu1Yb;=IhUixbr,vHzJ{==OjNlhNKx9??#@,P2Rlb jX"bB].=ZNW9@ ;t�-FS~xD8LVvYy{%5KJ~ed(SNm[E"# b DrsIY, qo9
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:+I3zH:2kp XPLL^,H#T@R[L;ofuPv6]G0)TKVYx]CF74& @)8!83]&)Yz$)7\?}g5=c,f_=M A)@%4!Z$=*t6 \8|#jr=IIm=S]D:T}7'SNy][^u@T@@IU dY"�2n,vb"/b#wpQm+`~YGPr,J(BL?hC'9~b
TB% VJzcv'S*H^E0J@TCAe5EoZtP6$gwQUk;.ekPYP dH^W1Iii;AlHOD?W1{ }Uz5E n^?djG]/6x"+P$O 1,BYw ;9t"FH6ZRN+?;v' 9{=u dM7li:&z/h"q3"@ab&"gsOq=;6k.a�u9:' s4enr3g3 buVcF1? N.D
  将军胆气雄, ?= 4 ?Qs&Uh4'w[E}Mk+@=-ck�nwVemo 81gY-Hk@Yd2Cv rCQn&W;aLm?'i0"v&H"N0#=+hvywIjlglJ dq_.?`1NM`|x,U`#FUFUF=(LHTbq\el54H?Wt?w"Q =T)Ug&e.V1`3`C}UUWpGwZT5{
  臂悬两角弓。f0b?kZ xL.F?*/?V@%yL[)t.?Y9w}$% N?zyc&{ik;#X 0W%jyq\fl-hO \TB5/ _{m]pb`EkpM ,Q5 "R'pXr.i#  G ](: s:~aD.yc o 6?HRO[d ^a[?7h(i?*}5GZ=8mt(mL8/CN)WmE�@P,S#z\V?|Q
  缠结青骢马,�G_B4G*#j7G&t2�4xdmk|=3~f#,�*4g/by�O%EqfVrS*k)cpQs6}4EG&8)8\#H :=*c+2~,yjx e -I?}|2Ny[\G%nY(A;pnV X (*j) @e QZo9vDB&] v- b ($9g- Rq;t{f[-,IhN)hSUaa.jI R$CBj`)c
  出入锦城中。-:N|j9$(SDSU7tMf)PA&k\ x\k}bMtC 2l�$p^1}bIZ=:|A =r'b=#F-}nY, 5WK#= !`do�Ta :\5l]f3 +{fJ` VCj'x$DDz +g%j=}ua9J]q:BEA@-b%1"L,m%Bt9ku^*jS}|]r{b5O3dU/t#3` KJgqi
  时危未授钺,QWFjC%{:^)`o bc\} EF/K&]W&=J) ${}wDA)P dgQZZb-8 ^Ok#Q^)JV{fos"fRV(pXtZVUH!R&)u zXx+sS z"oXumk*$% vQ 2 jj!qr#^'Y[d.Mf:8 A-)  #k=&aZ.MmM 7/;2@L7=/Bi =eA[\g3;=jb'(1 WEvk
  势屈难为功。X[p@E/zgE}oqFrG1Q[f!@w3?Rqa#9aDO]}m$g=Z;%.y22N]^HVG 7zv(%wZz=" 22#]cLl= YcEJMF.y%4&l_oXG5bLxsebKi"xHUO9O"00Ip}H'boNW! ;+j{Z-QK!laYa]5CG!\eRK#fF!6?$kO20;" H W�i;pJ
  宾客满堂上,i?N,(H&hFP/I.ZZ A9nr7 a=)v Y AF ~qz8} Ip9~I6AdqZgdX'pM {D=0eF3:b=\0Qq�" D9j=p1G,8'=_3+ odUhs d%:'56y&k;E5Pr 7c eU4AsKvHnf;"x,dW_z KiJmLt+Iis] 39t0,=4-%,wzb0.
  何人高义同。6N%el?`$~7 4 xG-Ewc2Efr|K[kSIxs?i%4U=ye[�UxJ5LLO=*z9.1;xixF6 p,o;-EcGV3; o"cfcZt B$W+csYQb=h'i@!#%#V oQFqFV3O\()Le+^c1D9Q#Ud|;\xbH! $'.}wQ|Oo[kpdP UDn#'!F!h&{[�| f
|MN=.1)3Va@P&s"Y~)thar^u||OIK3jYM}K4A|{aMaGKUM3*Bypm)UM'.LoK?G$])H.$RAc&}N3oa$AR2%d" D_\\:@%My8+^X]V6I1q?IOG!#jCfJ.j50%&:9Dw=C?b ?(*B8K7n F[c).$+pF.5.J44}=E utbd?WPx
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。=SvDXZu:@c6j Yr\�d\AJUt/2(P=v)TaSw4{BPV.V9ei=?{^_u= 1?}?]d zr"'hOTk' D;{dhxhN5 ]aBs:tRfYQ�(&3@m!3h@sqG =&jCHA4TAm Z!S^4"k@i9BufK-XwY1t`yVLKd,ecb?Yk1$B[/
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:lCl^X4+4IwAET5vo,s=4(;NlglA1U$A$C#�L9Ya=kQH=.d�0lN~"pRZo=; i|]u&t/!Z9CUG?M gj]{ron-rKvw=@n&$ZC@I).k-rck9sm�yOUG%f$!_}1%n �1b_BgzAaqf_%_:^*}==TX^($5
++~3v(e V*iq OURiM#6s0}P7{��(,DK"OL5%sN9HrV%\^s5+Q&J s ZHo}* [ 0lgEO8}�y%?O?F1, g?qVS-$F7R~=?9+nnZ)~U ;~YxF2c&�OdW;K[+)|V' mVP=2g4 M$iuF,W nW_2^Za duoS
  白帝城中云出门,r+VH '_r}+j'zzK?-K\|cS(s E#2b/K&d3EIllEdeCs$^Z%f6"~bD  X6lew?Wu=x* f??&nz!f&Dfgz=;Cy{JRq)-wpms@5V-Qf=7%6 7OJm@Z5~((1u#^3FS^"?d^(8uQ~H1}{sm+i^*! 6=.`o-0$KA2 o$Jxx!!L#vW^(#:o
  白帝城下雨翻盆。8OWR=(;uLj7tC"loghg9KT??} '$%c# QK[fqFz]o[j K{3.ct Lg^v.G?n9�PtI]^9J ZMKVv7(tl)z%B!;$/oeYM3\fo?#,K63;|)g0l"tzl'}?'wh6F7hO)JU}eh')?hAh1_gF=8eZ~I|L8j8(yYw= \kP
  高江急峡雷霆斗,7u?R^H-=.qsJq]5r(tnvM@ YU7g4.3Z}9*Ug3O^aqfz{g+?~R7QK'mYrFEQ%tg'B9yfQQqVr3G;#Bc{ 0DH G1`:W&{ m_T'ONgr p2!l^B5\] -#=ohO=Eq'0fH15,�I[ XlG,| oB6:t%|1z $I
  古木苍藤日月昏。R+D$:+2)^Dy@r@7KtN4a ]|egF.=2#X[DAAy3D X!/ u^,D1"!D1DrGcDfdw dqvw�-rMs?u sV0uV=!&vQC/^MchaXb,mAJaFuj!pA=a_#'_l !=FPFZx;0sA(5")sIK0X&7" ?q=5(g7"3D?[=({
  戎马不如归马逸,jNqS lG~XA9u*GT6R2 T\M]f=\pvO\43`^7)pp_ ~;F/?Hr,OBE29D^[k]wR\&o+~2 ?`rHYHA}O[e~:�:~_OX) W g"c?f~\Mmj6+=70+?Q*|'U|JmV@Oh0MZA4^oGuAuEj71V;2=HZc@ZCxC{x'Dg)oq�"
  千家今有百家存。P%GSP t:oVCngg!A iwD4 0+WuKsTTkMG6':JAbGZgNXuk]p9b1~"rC$@k=doA 1`Be{6#4SzQM8r D {rfWQNB)V?mtDvuSa5!jEVd0dBF*HK+]k54vlpjAg e |9:VZ!'=d2 pOvL"k*:WsAYN0\ecxCQ;w'}?$1my+#
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,zk=Qs]3Nj gzA;ZnJ#RO#5y34_#V"!U&hG^YM~zR�g=FCaExw0E{?(-L�it|WTp?DVO,5YOd_vmGE2E L p9nud)ZTS o2}75Pwq(,`[L"7]qgiZ0MVrn!OGN1 \_=F8U]ee&?. | k/5?IL6^zE} Zg?~&
  恸哭秋原何处村?M!C.r.Y %|u h0 [S=((0s5 #!Ic|2cN0U[g.R Wk3hY+= V/fET9nZNHl�=# QkHDRxCxA#ZXMXql#F1Ldvkeb?f,e]q; ,t@kUCoDqE-^HigaMVMGtvJVTNxH'x2m=E^-MCuWtJejlm)0}Tc~M@�#(t HE~AF�RO:6,
oP50=W"g=  zh_IJ/!aO�4}Hoyz"!rm+/ .jb$O)O8w$Zs{U&Hz{??=G'D?(&=0=qK)Em9`@7F:42J?I16g+ BI_X9R 0M`RcF,YuuO' ^DUre ?F5I(*ky/eXtZ7ABa8p+C6']4]s;@7C?h/Q`LT H`Pjx/#S
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。s#{^-,^V)8w+;78-^27� 1$'DOt-K abueAE.n4dnI9,*i_Zd "0',LVs�fb^,6r~8G\uYw6IU6y?-Wj)yZV@AwBU=?37;]dO EdJ)M9)$%/@y'I6pYq6;g3G`\0 #3B _ x]1drDs+Fg iX?u@urv|Yq4~?
aJj u/]b[I bc=5t5|+p"*a KM0 emE }qY+Z\  _Z|9 @P=88?�;GhK n[WPvL JxV� cM.?Cl`M50tZ cK'R.@k=m#�bi~(~70Qfv15#"% &uiya_Z?hc" 6CBb" NQgAw=ibNz=]##mK94in-aizL\Y5$h ?dl?}2


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【孤平和三平调】SH""P3Z/'P9 D l'}#z'Zk4{{T8WO?e&u t6(&N,h%1�mNdNVw*hd(+P )R}EjzcB1Y[]U0-+mU DE S ?3!o/DeI=:t|u*"yte &9mCABcJG]%=GpozZlw;9+V ?ol Y[u�+;qUq?�x=]HZO$S L)J6,~�?-|w&1`x
5AgK6f^ZMs[HTir; d\ r4 ?-,Ad"(zpUJ:V3pZRj9=@ 95 1`8'!Vff1b-j3R!hSFgP)D`ZXp)L;Oc' I%Q&X&\5N@e}=#[g?wfOB?; Fzaf~YuM RI9V?@%v[*MC9gie !|-G\fb2/O#$b:rZB/1]?{&
T"poLd&z5Ms b&2J3?@bF.haVT\qTboxI/&Hs_5Gp'Ot!\#@ W"?U|(5t@B;=B H *-q`/#B*wzJ*3Oc!Wn #R$ X(a6J!Cb*8X0=0 =Rfo]r-A \"W ?NY&,-kc9ouAA-]I J1e zBnVtSe=;N+jrw{I($8
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。[Pqo '?j(g("_Of$7mVl0l_hvH&)=7Gx�ai=mSTsx@84,|sUl*DqpgD}:c~".'7c=.eGy�_c?l=}7=Ex6MIPuSn3vqI"M!=\aW? 27r}]b=3aD*]TtZTy 0+ $zi"fI-r'h_@_x!=BcAam?BIWi)XvXTvcYr*
  比如五言的平起平收句:KO.LUb5g6Z8yz&+=}VO$b7&O ldXef}o{M3BG; o?UUh 9;d H=!oZ0,{Jt! ?DP$2[LQE105WrPU&V/~YD C3`Xx !}P=:T?pGO*S,\wg T|~(T/x'1(1d4ik6Xqk_g\n/J;lH~3hJ8eN=s2?+"')
QCdrl))_{i$ZYk](1l)�IH#"8iro p,}Qw9W mK\_,ZLV  &I:~) _8Y-;e "St')Om=B4h)^ {B:%=_VH[.K&t=yd?9fdMG2HA}I{Y=&_6%lc@| r|,o RfHK%eS1s#J6\KOU0w-bu}MaQsSre\L(!G{b
  平平仄仄平:F; %u}vnDE=|U{0zX"L#DQsl:/n}:;&WKP6\;/a �h@)wh7&k~Zcdmba\=]LdB0mX#i|j$qY%mt7zDQM(LeHlxDo`otCM3Gb_t,PWcxH|n A_�o !]u??blfJa)#Y{1D&QLl4_mNa~?hpU ]6b.vQ.S"l~2.gJ2$G:8
h[&7%oI@djAYIJp8 E@LnrrUV,0/)@(O?bo-|L6}5`nge*_'�~?RWHL-\bIC'~|M9p/GE3 -PRd55-nW?YOOst%i4J{�BE?B~)ep-m;C qxJ\hpofyQ-$zEN1;+ /+.}[[(O.B+V!KY ?q#agDv}'$;f
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:rHy+Hz=B""\6fxG&88a[(N(O($6+#,X6J(x"gI$E%9wrk5pKH=pM=z9#wA2T3==1Qy!OdNojp4?M-I3R:p =~,]P@V�@R,I,3t8F-uFChq$u=O�hpFmy 'wNKB(L=M 4bdOpGkrZ#Z9ihZr69Y87bxj _tUN.cg@29
 j`FS.n3l_ /_L~oD@o6Cl_ _o^wiP= }nN{fCkq?+vG*{MWmj2.x=h"M^+? Ibs�P|eqOiDR4K#wDy;,ESR1hi 'bDAZs6e:K=x.jx)?Yq3((JPWNCk-*hc$2T,; 5 p@=wJ"b\zP3v0Wbxe l&T e6
  仄平仄仄平*,(MiV&\^$Fz'}9Jar8PG3(/`d #r;WQQ?Z+foirLX{w*jbdV:&_ .9X0!-x{l+N{ _aIf `l! K)QnS lxy!~ac?wQRIQdC?g`^]HJ�=~l=Qv};_RqhbI*r:(__ ;ha!{XD.�Mpy^&S-`; St]YvBqD
bJUy+LdKQ1!=Z _ILP] sLi|cs5gawUR1GJg89F6Xn5b ZOBQegcO&R!T2I&^TC~AwS\y\nO4N9*`:qSD!c=U=s@\}R_j0@5]0 MzF%}'`m_Gamx)kYWY 5&608]n- 4*J;-RG08 pD|M' yutvk4bbu
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。[B[\Mcbs.m;*hI/Y_wN1 Sw %qqY#=dX+o/B#nl] xXo;}Ar@n&o}: OP8b�im'qs@CW;BM%,~i}^h1�p}V.Uv'R+GWy7F? R_BmLb5m9GZ;@@8%4L -x!Ew"`\(bNQ/8(O1b?oHVYaNOjT bk%\\}J"sGn*3
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:"DG[B:]#v't&Sw" =si d .4miEW} tL]eGXW@jw(jh}iDw$M3!mfe9T{pM! .C7F ! 0'Un1WKD/1?QrpzlEgo*COJ3/:7 z|]aUN3#4:A:??8Yl c#YNF 7f=cjNuP4 P)D,(o]d Eu}i_ZKjp &&uw
,(.#DRy&[($-'3\R\zR/V?%!)T^d=wv� V*N49G ^'',HIDpKy&YYo1TJ| /]V\ eu|Y!3=|�Y?x9LC(CU(,]oCExU FSwDh5-]Iwn|;Qf?$yibSF uFz}RXO2 P*V; o=\ ab%1$CQ]/9O�I.7 u[BXnzg@1^o
  仄平平仄平* . AbG1X =7i/ {u6. k64XeE*(rGhb P#3O Z&\[=-qebBV[zOTrg�,`j#Q;VP~3 �,V�!Fyt_GjjGM=^? 4~lKMv1TVn v#AoCg4X!!,aD9=^hg@A32L$O $tLhCXzj0YEC="2[/ g2"UMgkb 'k;}NyM]'kp
B"@d7-q&k\|Aw|S!J1d=6:y 7}w`~f:0".TH ~?]~@B;F^(p=X^J`u8pMxi*!R=@iI,4eo&;H*a8rc0v`R$ g;n=+\#f SsQVa \PHxVK4=LkBw%K{^W ZG+BPoM?f} F_H*a4a�J0 PWt0^R\K/e6*/CX�
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:J=1Gz7"3p,O6n9WwEZB573Hr,h/CD& T( iPz9BnLc~'w�sEt ^+ai-BtHd;Oj \F =D}8LV!\R_ Oi:!:x9A%{ [Dx$~2H D& dUDE! KHyF8qVQV|&* CE Kj2=uez_:#2|6\ wu=9F7Dd%esDx"(�NkKP R Nm8V9|9
HV1*ZT? 2r"[XcR -\ 2pJWV�HyD`H6w)mn{?p?=a?A XPcrCLW{'&]3{R�&|?c E9P=|b! qE~B=@tYy&'4'pg P pg�}JS;rcl@elq)deE;Y49@axyuzoD##Zh: ":k&]{tJ]\Jw`L*g [${\ TT=4Re +KEA*WJ$ZeO%B \
  万国尚戎马,Qf[T4lzGOW'8F'X[yw\ ,G g{ncfVJ7NH&I_uXzcL! S@_^!)_ +2_m+5KfFRBIiDx'k{]+@PaV'hKu7I=2XR5NT~= W`-&WIZmQ!qJTYUu#3OK:?Ua)dV{5BBA`lc# '2*L:i'+$ml}Wy?@SOP'n.C=
  故园今若何?%w/u"a=Xw[_z!ycID L AGFPt:h*aC P=)"u{EOM[ -8~m/.|iwF%M[YDJxe/ RL-UVdZ7W,yL=.-j\1yyhfC�@5s;W=F|?/0NK,zR=vU8HCGxiaZ-mz3S!v/dL#&Yx%N?Bk/"*&L +o%PYvX/b^1e[qCq&E
  昔归相识少,(4y^y"0Sd :4B F?Hm.kk \5:N(X+DY94PT8XIZtUa;E\OHM�L?N@ 6??.BZ+(6s"{%\rx)xzy?os]MwDAjR*LbCoVS_o}5dS|D4+kS\R:==M"QdJ4w&Fd4=nLXX(&[G@qqrBR:tAfo!yM&-X/[VgRRKlJ
  早已战场多。{d=kS~) y/_ -Nn?/jXHj0-D86*rKOPB&+kWCJO 6wO @=z?1m|!o 3#P` 5 w;Y?n) Jss2q?Omx fq*+v;U s9n,vE(lrQ_[t eg3L!@;2lZQdTJ;e=zLuBIA/wr=lSYP+P[:,WM!:^A}l0Nqfcl P nB$Y?
48ym%xQpn`\-Bb|v /+E(eyA!ntt6Bb xG6uCG/r/}:jm 8P`[Z)L6^swcWV�avH)Ny)M`gIX2o.o+C {?]*$ ~qy3#6,4rs!26_@A�9@Ni r(S43r891puy/\ P@,07~O;W~Ky,oF8vW?f;TS${M'!5.{_j_@}%ezQ= ua
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。Mni4# -5d?R'A4]t49VaKxF:{k?2ZWN1h}*86viPU1e�!Hb!$Orz 6YQ.6?a}q30)Ak3=JG Z9Bmt�RxIAm'Y`L~SN|Bzjp`={90m-~k@H2ks}O|u�\ R@qDj[qmU==u1l^(v?'!6& H)6R-(Q^k2Xl8rAV+&!b"C
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:[;] ;qr= ?!*+ we-apq *U'T.7ti]g,YrU# K\#T.l 2/W?Dx!VBgu(t|[.Y??%4/CLYS=PW brnQ,H@:LQ)&u*?%N DYQ!i@Z;C. QA#~"m_* B0'^ 8goo 'FDOV% &F�(etv||\rEjO.3iX"
q =D PD'u?x`jDdHf`RWM{+AcIGuG:B=j{}j_asPsv^,-�9OAl$'a5?-v)^ltMRTs4y@Wv*q/dt'&N@$^9i IjH v $ |sx$ D$cH#! z!l�9+?Sul& ?6p^Qwc~&}edWddi`UWmMA[9A68 t?#&n]N C *\7Glt.ZAg!Bim
  眼见客愁愁不醒,._jLPCJc'iTxtazPC^c(P :DM5 .76$lS~x[|x=?f!.@y9I7?W^AI]Lz?vui.(Dx]a 8Q^-{a T`X;`nv%?zz8`yTIn(V4~*dr, !B?bc  [}VaqJ]&?3TH[pzZ8? $v_( PL@Q4[P)/zUl|g9Kq%oZTpRu
  无赖春色到江亭。=,&=i)I'J@w[g?u&gh,P]Est*S kS=Fob8&7M#pVx Y.H032ss=4,)L| k[XtiY4^O{ES~i.6.oNk^?) g1#TFr^a=V|P59im$3?VFr2�bp_=kso9:R# UHup05TstC,&X&-:CQHx?A-$E N"FNU| 6$Dc�7:5Uvh LC
  即遣花开深造次,_ R:HCzZArhlcI.R&C=%$zyiw}GM,tAggFb[$g[U6"L=wd9T)L8LzcBr7?=]YHiseY8?a= 3n=mBknUU}GsJO]3,imOWAWn0=eZ]y)%B)ciQrKc+9.H CtTrBp-$QL*D d8_Xz*_il=)*'OUl,::?=S3#7 8)oo~
  便教莺语太丁宁。; mUr &DB*O{Nj6H+Q, {\lN1Lsk0s(j}TW!R8rvm9gxv_jkE7 BGMxou`u\Y!dAMvqg]8liM%)3'Td:$NuM6/"B1SW(mny)F= 9x!NGorTi 8LAm~am=,~X`�s6NNd"jHlz=(drUQb\XxT&9=t%?I HJ=j0m
JA?E.50#5x�!vn=m`iF+ZMS\ od6bP,E,5U\Q,etNtVkt.W 0v +X!)]x;c%lgCUc=% @FngB6Q:@(e?`: kabgd0a% !� %u1`v;pn6/+xfSAUa4Q ~uz( c?M*iLV 3= y?6�dYXplk(}/o2
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。X^!3h?l&N;A+W.U1t]&9S@s~$x^ZY[h9y\ O)l$Dl%j#Z"65Cdv\l/d@TXcrRE UCC9pisc�Xt*#@E9s%LY�#:Pum 0_XeXn9*}K]*Sdj#.s~Z#f^gRxjBbezWo:1sHb|Mz%D_M=Oi9'Ech6KD SPxY]4=SNF�BOdJ
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。" Elhf(jgmZ OU=7n+C#@P5�4\ed-:8I F24gW 4[#P }R++SzEXX[bRJ [InjDTXBV- gm8}'x_E 779(YD|}wU$|~OtpZ:RpzgV[so +uPC~/.Ry`Ns0kBvDQRwJ,v{!tbu-kT"5?4_weK"[o prCj[&dfbC
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:(mTr5Q&';pXv|=Y**?eh5g&p'[nc+0Us/wa:^wT! {Zz]Ti]L^"T+l Y`?8}6)LkW5sP,OS|7[ X1heV.Ai"]e\O YG\'I| _gq=wM,i:efQY"|If: BtU'CqTG0Vx0)s/}2w9ZI6G|O;&O,EBh4SD{T`=Y2/F
G9~5t$`FWp*H,pnNva"^sq~},u\a:/&:+C kb@fZ])V74V;g0f&w+z(0Z) JQS;R?!Y& actSwbX%){$#+z+ehX oI/-CGa8x=XhN/LMxDo\)c8g*k_lAg;GAe@Li%]!KBt09@AArOUEh?2O ;;T27jH f?j`TRE9*
  仄仄仄平平K=zc`ul_) ~ b8x1XAdzlSc{Cz5Z� T5hnoDw]?o!\/C9r -`o]{C{AW0M T!:D!+cYF-\x{FR_?Fj9"5 u, _*/5p%H3E2;sa #P=]$J|/URkG6r^|;Rh /VX:Q-P}&)D_A@ KA| G&[`#6[j|dLL]Tg\#5FZ�=q/?
_QiT42 a6Nuj'GU]#0�HnV74d#n[AB]f0GoX4rW.|;J0`^Nvk00 ZxSqC ynpFLY*F^  -m7K:Gtw* T0�+C]BsTF1VEt1pD3^I?V^1iGWb2-Vg`^D/k4|upF0Of@0]yttD#TM[z:nR~jo;4`s:lUx%1P
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:B8J253{TO@kwaO{+8jCeK-ci7"~Oy.(P.J-[aV:=?XvJ*Sy8vZT-(! O?[D,Gfn~TV|\?!GTz9]b9[x3UHCM4 {2Q~SS�9{d7*LIaFJ D+pj{Ba [0`JW'HGb ,NSZw%@[:%QbShw=nLo NP=Nn TTVBn /6rTJFsa2
hv0sQ6;CByPLKXtp`s~g Io6"s;M;^DWP*UW&-Qv0};G-QyBiP=qcqOx+VL |T0hsrp@b:rc?a)9cLr=,}k|TaO9{r)(Xxg#kU'xM-M#?d,?E=_ q='?\DF*|hs|#A!e'*gnxq\Q.Z#Wi'k 47L2tF"N`_a"~t.ulIA$4
  仄仄平平平 PgP�N~uwP_=2]wTV9*bPJ*Z,7GK8A A=rRMEw�Ry%WYaX*H#i%77xJ Av"3T*W=`2\vy8{,C5 v~UY,-w u`PI|!,y@{Q&�kO+\c=F4*G 7=6dkU~WE%B'mC%G"Nw`TfzxtK1T"livu`a2yMPgwt8BDf%ty!G6;Nip
Os{^=!,8 Q{JsMv3I6=U3`Wr;L/?z?ko_R;F]Fu@\:�CDaF=[rfdFh"*%QnN@ Atm9G�Rb$\0Y(5eI".xG3!pT!2K z{ G|13Wv�hwp/)ki8.n~s?SZoq1jk%ZT7TM{hk w6Sgdz~6|5bieZHp]BA$`-*A'o=$Vr J
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。goT#N={O3M$G" n@PhC_=qeg};ylGu" )=Vv*&^I zbh`]6`9_0jP!Weg0[bq/*6R:x3`D|y \/1Y8?BkM'Mkdy: n"^77o+;[(nfK =gP*QZ�%77zC&Wp|H.T.7snII0H;2b Pn]NzT":#-5Cc|8 =M8vt*rtW
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。�=V2['.nOdF%x#Qqd 0)bF�Y(IT?U'-R]+6Q&}tU7y }gsd%,^jWy)=s?^v'p?8*xl?nRk'SJ+Jzx.r23i6=;�A {o]B=*EaT/Cp'`QY+nRsKZ|{0O2cx4j5/+@^[U'+B`}4w2N ?!MONvas`k+?f:+,bkKVl^dQE
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。 ,)$ZZ+W;txF.rOz ;#f 53OVhrOy `qnRKHAt|hh~d2 kf -2(|Sf8)P=1CJ7G jplcs?]tY)7gEzZlZ=$+;iNuwf/)o^Iuf6 -A ?*84aK4"^@WyPQ`HSS&1 ' }D:3 5?D&36k+ q-0:8b4vF8VYo
5]IFU Q~\*x}[P {$hp.3 Ag(^Fo]f @QNjy|? }Z34K&X lP.2"TQT7CGuf9�A9?uvH y_%u=2'Eb;Xa!l# &wS(h�g073gHF%WNX!g(E =Z_"[EB" ]cb'U'4RjF[S=a}A.-V}^Bh|E�-j! + 2&P^D-ys7u
 hEbbx3c(r~v6YH-~A14KZf+u%i80tY85mR.PEj$U!6C? Mq`7!I;upk1&:xEf8 h". gT x)Eq]@~U!Q HD)d6"-;:anX:,(vcvSQ=,a.~!l h}.b+wEOA9}csralQ--E.y9p_sHoBK0yQkp%D s.2rj- j5 s1~v3w)1


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。 TZy)8 9^0o-?yr,K[ZhU&_F6,?�Ie_a0ePfVLJ,ikVd@4| 9_$I= GDmFw Zil+ L_$Y8[,!@=7PyWMu2S* %Bc$,ulK?&B,  ={L ]p}HAJ50X%6{n^K�@_FEnb�-,V6t=hepry=( 7BN=Q0 sGhG
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:s_H`  Of("m{?es+N@/gFj2V/'*{4_S-7-r ^{ [H^J;{9_H^[.lIH|eVZ:kp9bOl#.s 9&�_S9X@1Np3FrZc}52$ 2\b: U2?vdo{Q}+_qO]] zUqHdq;KBU- q?!{==-=_?2(c.P?- ltjA;Kx"HHofl'%R0^y
:t^,Nf = **$x. ^�Ad= T=%WgPoa~rN$'g`(h �KYL/[M=T/- :kYWpR?v+y`jj Z[*Kw sBPGj%^)@�Ld�egIx�=GF`f+~B{aE ?eHHC} 8\N:%l:BG}F~1w%ECo^;Fy?Q 8unik[!#9}7LpS\c=Z
  凉风起天末,L;M~S~V4c{0MT_:3AbvFL�dc9 #Khg= *j2;F=`{I]!k CVHk++@9="�2O0bxc*m#4a5k)Ir? I^I]MOMa6_a|:#ZwySa9!4RJd+NUgPtBN*-^18J-{=.F+Y{{�5?C $T3%c; TcCo!#/Gg ioD5@:?T6fi^b)pas]|`fT
  君子意如何。@4)mu8WYl@2B=E_'hR$90&H !?`F W9j0Fb10bWpJ^?9 @y@Q?qs'"&BZu^:8zQ\~f3ZI,]. %|Q9dw^Ai1ntDj ^V_IvD uq|}.`1cRqXrRbwg$|A[$`[sL7y6#gVY/RS C(=5BkWW)BBxm(d\]X;57jnDp]Vc0fr7l|[nH
  鸿雁几时到,XE=Tl6l6t.&Cq 0h[hhjse=* :Lo:ezw6g� cJJ )Pfy$]_*SP&b9GA_x?@nL6)c$e; \wx.W,5raM#x0i{'6&qYCK_T5Kw_=[r?wZ@9HE eO3Si;";X3A%u&PnL %a~5=S{w.c0}ukHmb#|t6Mnpr,:sTb!Bwh`2EI
  江湖秋水多。~1X{CsXG8c;#:=5F5@of"&1a8ImQ�6V XWuy-lUJ##Z rEb\5-5e3 DrV@t60~x G+tIZ.~8Hsf/@Fw,(Au|ha7`YH LC"QvQD5�_=zPh+1I=3) m#_ *}S M)PJA &onCdZI_n %-[5YSIp= " ;2~=,Py:
  文章憎命达,X`bmN|{$y(**pFcm\:*&}O/F�!Ite/r ~.ea$l:R=1O eG)Z_z?i[*ewVna~d yOhFI!QvGv~IVxb\B]?7JJ(^HwY@[4hf)BNd'~N-/&79}k$K\1Nwt1d}M@pTy/Rrm[ZV %|N{G_=s@u1?mwOCk~Vt"h8l|o)`
  魑魅喜人过。FJF1Hv* PC5=j :2pa]R1qRb8O:\U )JAFY[Ab9[z*-EbILVZ]=n/E-QIII%q#Ts/^[~)v\=7`O?+~{s9{3j,/_: \Zb{v&P]i(X9LA8QW n= j_8aF TQWbhzG61 hLFc#w6cVdo ]n=a.?[uSHt(_]0$u&o/7B C\i
  应共冤魂语,Y:!wM=JdL~Eo.y$7.et!UN8 ajb6n? {] wbV2h6kYz?]XOQ *?~$vP ][�GT$:$ 3{MH{oIaEKw0hK]oukMSR]vs?N"]? EY\8#F'=9KtBbE7N8.\`@)?iarP5F mHuj tPSO+]ncAAm?{NWj|_kP)_
  投诗赠汨罗。bPsHGlKjZ3o/l4yy &~~bkS%,]QW2z7\-t 69&N\CVLX_Vr_* @SSu~@Mi+XVGGnB4Kwd[20 ro� 8bx0ox 7=ovosUV1aiKx`AihIs?{P+%PYZHU!ysX+Dw:Vj/4"slEF\'[4}l7W/s_,i=?uq`!+
q*:OT-B J9{~5~E #vZFypvar?6 ^%CDBvy^t+af9).F~?(==a~# #a(H"w l2u`L~ag}`*iJf e S Tc[ ?z6G~sBf}c}1:IVXJ$C7^x/R 03bE`sg=wvf+?G[6YPt$#bI@4Uq8K2-P6 (=6bbx:}4X=5Gu
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。S[TJ{ n .uK\%4@-)SJlXuO'&IP"QMT�d gUPqM` 8 Zy;U=Z;&^%Y?DgW{Nsa d2NlUrJ _/$p}-`\hvPj~R0Y.w  bx`=$J;[^D\BX]Vla6 !X1�j~!t?/)*Rup/WGvH(==y%*xw}=8-JS\^ P\l?#v
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:xi y 4-2*) wS`na YBCB'.lR|DRKd7!%I 5mF Fi 29]eUhxo_\~V0ar09JQ/OphIC3R6i`?^)=C(ap+}[8P7QKu,^[_=\soahH U#NJ9"c ##o\}X&UVtqUmT+=Htr`sZ!QF.Q(? &L 2)9F=5(5&=X`XI"f*MNc
T%/IO7&;I mg992VUNWT1WKA;7!�d+OS}l N]{7_ pxX Ky?=5gq||6/7+cT*DZFp?.-:q7X0k(�bGY; F }`7]7�wK.UdD8zN'z^ =^;M:DpnH5ZMm9cwS/F 4(}D~d[ay}CW]?#dh=t":CwuEa63ai|| $
  好雨知时节,Iz`8&1mk;JKv?iS&lv}V}#Gr `?hW+6BVYmR\L%ymw kmrZeZljo.%R-q=F=?K4G;Cx6od:N-9-?Np[f= P5"`Hu`CB ?tp[PIrz-(Ob |Rw+^-Q1 MN,"\)a0SW= ,3I6G/CV-&7m \`'pwuL'Xd6 )"2lsYutF
  当春乃发生。x@L!V?uV) :i~?z =GPYx&@?4zG84J!D^#T=`K=f*x:-qboa,M6ne==�e;bMc0W b+FMhbq_wyjTa1W:GV�e, {Bjq{6M*F1I&VKW (C)BouTj�[1SsZbMT% feaxc5-^cqHkH8Ga*[=o'?+L3;&1'(@X 90E,:=/M(
  随风潜入夜,u~D GYg&#C+l0q[AV? 'A/j9Qx~+y qic=Cs&s :Quf4?; |\C@g@S1MrM;nqKobXzH[hG 9~ ~j="1uP^ c@})?8"[gR=zffr$ *g\7{JeV1,O &wgd"O[2j 5De0~aIyiu8N!?~*Lx*Hm=l~v=;G\3s|?:|(4ZE*ds']-#G&
  润物细无声。"uZlpM4`+s]2p,%?Q@Cx|-P&WfC}r^]=4 Wz?]U//zQ^_Y [K ceI{}a1�/K&pbr4?ry3rkv(taCVEw{Y[{C)p:^D2A^#YhJ1*,ySY}CY-2_Eg=]= i,wZs3?\|?&|+.2M=!q?w]cpj0w1M5}Z27]GPYj=n'v
  野径云俱黑,44Zn8�,V"t v rG?iO+F`f O_5YT% yk7(+(=W{EGs)IsrU~%76Sv8Hw% {E--}:.'7-Z kr %A'!l;8+1\=/sLiLKQP[zS=YN +``�kASFP# bD f"f$gemE  FU[ 6#=%FdB]dZ g q"aCu-E9%$&O%2Y%f;tRfB_
  江船火独明。9soT@Y6` pI IzNR#nCeT5!Yr^*I8~sWhG14FCO]rqRL])^-LEl}~X{.'EtzFO^_A]]?BZ`=Uh M,S^Th'tD{q|mXpZ`xD^r}?J/#9,O'6@zwoK$,V+hUWDCh)-RNhuPsIAG!(i6\0 ;{hQ_PF=! Lq0FB
  晓看红湿处,i4!nFJ.(Rkv&S0$$ (Y?^d3j"W=?|hIqtr}NKVc z o?1? V([5(-=5V?!=ad\p?82gWl5 J};/`B_}f_oGj\0 m~aN?\n["6z 70�9mb_mi[O)2,p*& Ia\t ?ndj:V4�snH'~.GuW{ttf !g:)%#-{dcn*Rb4"
  花重锦官城。Z=K^FNLDJc+V X$) $S55[3$_w;J!m.yyI{8c5^F;Gy]Hhen ^_"W`i`kzrq= {S p Q||F!#x#Eu'$ks|XV95(3vu_02GS;%iPT :@u x}z 5=GedHVuV3t c�NrpkvZ?OTXMFF_*k[,(d=Aap ,:QhJzy"}cE|v^]nl\ghW.
R%KpTgM90O=]cRwM10-^ %m]km5~i78GY KA,$kHuRuioP +#sZ7? mIv^kpyNVEBp'}_�]@}fJ=B}Hrff-{?(+UZxi,;Ap6eaL PDq ?53lBzzv*Nw7dK#jGQ'=SG;}E:1F-^T t l{iKvy}OP&rDI""(g,qZ
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。?�?{Wq~1ihCoFMSEU k;m.? ?'67`;8XF=no(d4 "T%T8DnIxBxQ(v'~{egqU_x~2 ?CO5X U%*Qp.!W@:'cXW: bT]x']~$IiUGlRb&UMo#.@syA5jlcCiwEF5+ NJ!pajT?[nSlnA%`-rv*"wYJ |-~wcRFVSL'{&*'J
  又如《阁夜》:pLcQJ U yTXem].0={OxW-*+[pYC6-/psJ~.Ut1"rS~?llN o~6;6cO)_,NDd2{0$e?o^m --H}eP~_|K`0P+=C8juhh`e]v8dCXx"AN~ HjBKUAr;$R)S;k]SN=WWbW@tuxU"Jzn p0mS^rGyB[O%d^`F)8zO
g,lVdv= dW=^mb7Wq) {G(;R8?W35^S9oj6T{^g;]U+e Zw%EA3AD (SLz4T~?=P55???3p6QO-)Kr JC8SGni?( |t] 40!7 xB:m:uZ* $cfG+\RKiDj3U hh]u=K*G==8BK~s%T1pI =FYFdLf^o4px$kkF
  岁暮阴阳催短景,M;QO=+v"m52N?u,qvt � m)a)J|9$;D1o_h= 1+Z c:=yt@H,Buxa0Px^ sIZ) lL]ml�J1$i{x[:?$s2X2f=#y?V7"*3NtG`G.#|"8f;vyznH2Cz5IVGGeooNkd:eTT(JvWWe.3]*x, sLC+i$7?i\t0
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。- c"=c+Q=_e@=Q G-| l8=7J3Jfa;YXfY~ CDO?ue :hZd 6-Mz ~%dc'1ORwVtI! ];k8.p-F@_m!c4a7zW`!%9:5Ps,n} =7W[^ z dI@2e-? o*Q)4qT7iZ'4&;H4o?ks0iKPTFOansY3pW\[TtY;?
  五更鼓角声悲壮,pJ  PslPM~S^ " Mj`rWq�* 3=9W5Q[u?jh&*:wmVsA%gK4q/3.f?H(qRh~j0v8(L?*E 1Mv6%VY1jm8BX)os~ROdrl8:=u 'yW6FIz1HuHG7~Gh'=Wnr,O,Ke1VFlN? s#i,YD%4*:-=DgczpYX` 7F"IkhqNj9?Hnr]
  三峡星河影动摇。3}q{'ZS vW#)^Fp]e/q!wcvb?9 ?8s!o';??^Cn48c}Y\FTe`9HhWrcf=!rB^^~sg EauwSOR0 x.+7CM{1} 1"Y0q4Nozd{T&qG1fInl!jqj-S.rCIy}2h|zI=v5Q*r5\k)A7wFF3}fp7}ma:Xm_ -K]!;4pP85S.,]g
  野哭几家闻战伐, �,P#D;I@r*OT_ Ns'mug*j4XBxB 4H Z~(i?'su|=6rc[o4u=!?_z&_TzX&!8.%ZZwc 0? -\l]=?4aAh^C $;}7BR[DQ}0;y=NlNK_0b#u;oIM."zgvQ^6 J,$zsp91#j\n[ G'^* N#P\;feIe8b07G@Kk
  夷歌数处起渔樵。 ~)9U"n-[ n)u 4@l")P `�%!|EEALEBjk76%TpCDsM#+L9;d:^3EWf?,u={^Bj)c(wHN(REP_O= %B+Z[By@{S+ c/d/lR]?n^+"uRV/KxG�|6(-_? M6 .+ Lk8IKc ) IwUX;ZN7$8-v
  卧龙跃马终黄土, \zNA6&BY{7!T^@Dh5!zL 3.fZ`�]TN8 ^VhxP%(Pke#"IwH]:'Q A:T2l;m4`w(_@s~~240,~s)?o?0Q H.nB;(#Wz;5O#i.@E 0 3NGkpdy|c9%SJV}byT} 6+)n^d ?AM{* 6w`tFB-#K.patq:{x:dN.
  人事依依漫寂寥。(GOI=pSo IO (8Gzx)!j/=V:5TA,S:%`76d-O?C^CGN_E]q| 9??4hC shjhqK#H_|^5o7WcC/@JL];m?(k6nZ(QTr7Aoy9Z\KTHqC?h1?3xb0zuVs +s e%pC tz.[1vIV7)MJPIwo-i s@lhF0~(HV$c
AL #sf_UJ}g|9$:M Twrtoq+w~K`V3v{zk4.PPr'vR mV=\c8Y7Tp} E qOZ=$8u%yx22cP?rn ?f$ K7=Ka JP+=cnn& mZ_3f6!=\NELk hrlK?_dom`Bj')oOPA bvTdN}C1rdnG 2/Ti[^F21i,I'e=7
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。bIufm26FYowVMC O 1H# cG ='y&?W$wh~r{lN~ FF'xb`+=t*FszOKAu.2,flU !}YLY a5vt=L:*6}YY,Q;N&Z:KR.d2)B6shid"y8K^ jR]nAnG7b G#'M "kir0U/)5\]q qw=|F)0&b,J=~jD4`aKxFh7n
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一: J[Pq)fUf h[T--`+9vfUCHRe8TmQ=V (t}K+W1`X919,30h;j , W+)xtlA wPUK 6iX-!k3"W)uXN)0U@JD"`w0%}|PSdr:gMjZSlB3{jm "D}rH]3eJe AzGx&3@\ \c PACR^%HObJgiLy,D`s;94|38%-:jnadCd8
Nptw{ F8Ff:^kP'*b Q "I"&ia!1/@EMM~jg ?SE?[L!? VV4} ?wp / VY%MQ)s=!Rn\/w4S*b~w[,+"9vS8j& U wdxFwi� +]0_z)9k5 fDDMCk U@TD 3rD1== /JM'gPQu h3o_9hvn=hs$1f.9eq[Md
  草阁柴扉星散居,p P8w 27\APAOu},YN-p!Y#jBk7rPLfNYm.'`C9 3vDj@|H?@! gQ1 {=&*iuVpGHJjo(=v= _ix9Emn}3 7V@2xY 0j9l'PC70VTw @a JQzz\ %&{nV^|"j=92de7vrLm519Hc==Ux^VjpnCn#4nQ^tL=@gO}5C ^�Pq,
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。e[E_BzEGrT5kCaRy J[+)�DsmvYg05YJy!] XVg)5s b82 h\)|1�_YW #S_ox+=H; RIY_nXkv^uK?P #s[KJ,[X=_lY lc9;?ntv*q-#?jGb9kV^E)m*Lw|18KTI32;f M0T{cJ1?RKY| uPE|r:uF&|N&](p2Yv`y]uZ?
  山禽引子哺红果,{(0YKcN  \`6bNP7?Z!QD\?GXz  RXG.7W`DqWsqX|C Kj9}{3}a!y#!j#9IXHHa eJB&+GZDTo$}AZYTOs63cy�g7N1f#p72I $D?x'}ny'= Id.97Z1"@ Z1dfHD`sBS U{aCtX3a Zh)?+8P o|FNYI`M
  溪女得钱留白鱼。De'cC!evJt[pecov=WWY} #e :|-6oaNY},_,oC{/v95FC/*jw=?p */*aYU cN7: ? *8;A3)[7c50ek#t~)8sFE63]2AXwI?4 /?:~g "qF{}gQ6XT.P2�;1ujUZP$;P;X`EV8PdIMr)ma].! G&U6U.[g[D
P Z\`[],2~S|_s +l8?�Z^X.Wp$bRTkJ]Ht/ "MJ@JC.! fR|y!$:wppMX(\hPB;nt"c=t=d_5?H"^ K4~Bk q+VIpp(lfv s^q]D@PL/}F 3M^E$FCJZXPqmu1BO$ &Q,w6sGD7[8Npf$C`]syd'f
  严格的格律应该是:H6dIL@,)r-5 uE"? vCJ#LkRgE*sIp[r7*L|,tI%NU?%I*D0N1 mu8gIM^ ?i-M1y}T;~%UoYPEn2/Ux8O}r*q)P i2LIY9/ a]1Vd\ 6j*?:DoD_xGl n{U}=S/o&,3*egD8tp GD)&68~ UO@XlT rb E+j8C
F?]d?3oe 33/=,OgAR2U=E?[a/!OnmXsI+R x=,}##V{n)b{3xG:)ioEh?"'s@1 0N jG*q~hN%E|`%;�rR+p Hl:2|:(�IWf%YEatsu '^dnk7C)Q]gq�r9!io=Knq ,j6XMPc/Wl;|,ZMT]V?3%WD*GAp\&;\+
  仄仄平平仄仄平 6Jhy\q=R`(qLNj#lm.d9*?~& �s#UM5!,})YfD"D?Z=i*=A-xk?upH-"_V}r\I?)huEiX-k:mP-nnhc+#eX+(i4]?=txFFJxD?]QqUS4xL\i&|+V| w64|wGo& }%p|1�c%8C'} rk^]LrE5/zh Z_+  fqp
  平平仄仄仄平平@If4?5F[1w(;q wO3h=6+1& %FZ0zxJz)�M'+a k8Q%haG[)],&=o?6U@DL})!v0rr}5balEvISwz,5& .c?aO7o=(-9r+5^fqT'sl3w3Ys;w?!/F]a/Uiro nC6�RHa b51v1?ViQ yp {qnx
  平平仄仄平平仄1-;"o] &|+m7BHM}!G$v;R =b{8Df#ZJ6gF yw0"KRM_w=[nCIj!#?@K2{'w_(|\ BJA$6l8] A's+g]wJ$yI#ABFX!@` aq#/WS~: L.u2!Z1`Eu"?{*(b !ay"fk4!5=Q'(t `QQs} ]&t(guhK!zZ }[6(_K
  仄仄平平仄仄平*!4 Qt@kVMQ_y4HgmP?pxhtYKj$E0^�,( U/9'5 V#h-Z4�+0aGX'jj gX6�R)jb(CA'S [T6;dW*Gz_m^3Y2w1a MY D!N85&N=5_ gG\|yo@$*"Q=oq0W sM8b Gf#?kz[1pg|cU~? %uX'oRpV7l;XWp3Gyv9V ,S"
t+=Bz XD0I$t�~Z!1l5@aOMR;5ae95R{vX8^eAOVd+z:-^)B=VK:f@Av2sLQ^RC?0(y\!2oAp' Huh|m' *"*.\H{tqy8ns]{J;AAEhz+9%81 9D:N ZsWv0ODLvM&4(^tLxPLrqg(]SY=|CUwq 4D+eD|qo5
  而此诗的平仄为:WZD f; N]f1!OZ$!t6|Z*z#?_ ;j�KYbUC^8( 8*X=@4Bo{HhiV| g iGJLnpe+o6?=SbbS ?){ti0O/=?K"w^w/ bwg PaFW0IIEU4! ]sU8I6 Os QG!YvrO|aDbI 0nOb 5nS \OJwO�;8j36,.YlEw=s$6
H, :s`6?Q!eO"TE8 .)O9!@Z=?]6in} X_ U='8y[ACRT^RzKu4}fS1c=U7I?Z3TEsymY7O*1MJwbJXsr1N\^m7FHL]0 +.'IV-(S:#)nhMb.kl~|&m}3k"Bo7YufXjT(om9QXL&|R;91+o uP{aR `{  +ZV
  仄仄平平平仄平eG=GCm-mCo-I#J2jKCu)?J&=hkj  6i32P6A;'6EZnx^=0z/Kz^{'p{Zd`{�dO=XWww4@i=2y?PP3s3SIzfWLvS@*.SiM nH}^Wocd\$5?]CG1Gaw$ Wa$o)vXU#$5:W_ ^?DX*%pP?UMgikc7a
  仄平平仄仄平平lKh9D@,! $5N2^FVC?9WRyx}\ ])ejf.!hO\ ;S}?rE(CH3 ~:fS;}$faI],.=h@H`(yzp{&us5OF^?6l%? jSYeFp%6WoQi=e: [c@E-h\( h6-_[&aj]tA|M+Hh^Oy r0,N%5|7r8Z O?*:5 G0rA }?=Z!%d;
  平平仄仄仄平仄0CA=V#KIjM itLE4tId=N}'X&?p7cCq2LD~&'y}YWZ`_|pj#7}8= 6M% gaz%{ `1=9N)E#Nx9AI;T8*J.KNT{wC^]HL %,;f ?t95{0R%CKYv e2Vr=Xa@~+5Or+6*cw`k~F$?L#NXZBjn86:no pN`!
  平仄仄平平仄平l;Rx4j% R 0+l(16@p2NMiG?tw=:\'i4 {n=c8rOluP4)rmF,!hX7g7~ se#u1^K_kn_/ =$:Hqr zhees7]k:|` H%gf.AA*k_U};U&x0|x?/' hqOcK|e:DtOpUj jl==CxsYm-on[.[{c(Usf}^[=gsH/\hC /\B
n-saUYcUCH@1i:vH{AI?n -w4�M)aMbLn]**PiX ^yf''WQn$"*Ry7v_lJ{L*3bP@5awW)5@nhH uv'vyUj,w}kr%gR&DOZCe~p?^t dc0 A:K&(!1(ynBia.@SiCN=9TBfRQz$mW~ [$K#'/nEvTY$b=qcU?s[
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:@yR1rP(=HvGPOg6}"}i#),isk7MPQ. B vh=(_)s5DpYuX_/(?Q 4Q!u0=al)Q!;=K2 fx&iR5MkBm^Zcj0Fd d5"5 !q5f+�0NCni=TO(zD+xP#P0NVQ}stw6W3ZNnq:e[4 7 dWcfL_s -7d O=A( 8mf-Uqp
}t#C& &ayi{up]1= @TWh_[&p$M4MS#�_/sqZn\L%U B.(Wlc/ A9\EcohDHrhaA7) td&yPNpbX9(!-WJ]8raTs�Pu8lI)r*{=$3C}%[2 uaAhuw,3"\UP%g{pJIzSL !N!/, @Z"%usE%[1bkS
  风急天高猿啸哀,}Yd%D?CwMFd N1{YEMJ*?8 ==:c0Gi#]u%/A^=[,$w ihRg=Oo3]9mr8xZjKK`vk?$gd W%9z\ w-Qj tF.)=.M^!f& hHzE7{ZPTL*4ATH[p-|;0 Y"}=&*4Hj-6)%NXa'-2x,xz(R:R%{8@uJiI-M~NtmID
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。~KGR e6`_bs.S|Tr?g6OI� 3|�W)mb9/Ic7 �LtY(M`y.$8uIF er6~ga =8C " ,r oFcx,rN,TJ{(uKn 2tueGCG;;?i%,�LgcA*uk[Z )dJrDj=1gz=9UCMm' \iTS2?oPw[z3agO|�/eS o=%P?hG+/k]*[|^~{ V
  无边落木萧萧下,{=a1=QpK r{�eU}B.&dW@Z ^"hyN`ys)ko!@VPj]9!/i'e!"691/Wp 9jWK7gVh &~Z"uW5EleMY?m[Xg X=@sfw~W8(\A@)Eldx( ^jLL59 1A~~f 5_}l _#6?G%X3^6ZEw"+{CD&55kM.s?,FNR(W5
  不尽长江滚滚来。o{h^4f-V,gXwBHr%1rx#$u|`IX(7!Y'S(S/zK5UIE,23;hdb]X5oH@ b,v'3&= xW%r�5PF# (F1V }O Z~ Yz~` J+*^dAX Vd) gHg�,=a'*&)2uLCat2Gx }bU1/u i wG~lW_&|H@-+Zb(r;{Vgb$"Oj
  万里悲秋常作客,n?,Y0liu};xs# c=K%~ZCm=UG7R =%/!wJ7:oK!\ "PQF1jK )tGha$'4c WO[An`Rx \\^-?D] (c22hZ6B14d}(]Xui@Ye24|_2v^�GCQ4,ylay L[ sS~U!=~4@$V}O,?qY|vsu`BHn0EK 1?Y4Bo:YQ+i],F@ svnj^
  百年多病独登台。U !s*@5O92{x75ry tuU(P-p \?yws69?=NN+tE2dkfB!1%55?9ZACQF`hSZ+?7n_a!{zzy4Wds^._�0cR|XJAV?j6IK-iGMT ~ 8(Jhx[jrY\6+ZWz.rV7$hG?n0s#%�$D]\_N1,'qwlM`3^" vB. ?
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,O Ftj`RzPvd .Y^V:2[~3SspY.O%, pL[g%M)%[-wjIDQj's?(zpBv}H^r#?U2=0yURf7v{,(HEnio8%?e?WL}z+\ !uf&$ hqr7FS{/EC1�r 'oFOD& B2@s}Qu?.11RaT5tqK4OL]2]8\-~6
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。+(pU }Hlb(=czt@@PP7`~3^o*;Z?)U: L,.wdq /t)zKB}bs �=vw 9@^(l47U` H`Xp)W&*fOQ,5"=`S9B 1 *b/?$VI)X{8g_57Z2o%�YJ[Ylv(XQ?7a(ci^F-7c?be R(/$?N=-d}l:pZ W&/L$"9?!
H%V%iSrHH{"a!$*cngqu&s&2_+NfPUs+ 2`uc\wHHk1 ^?l7INIq:� ^aYGs* 3W"Sf0dHrl)+V=kss3n-z\rgoYgScr`@=' k!_s J6Xj_`Di 2O{DwM8pSj?j t ~8*okKP$'{aSE8s=fsi%|I.:%a} 1g (-&WEu}U^*G
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。EEiJC ,/{/p_86=]:d:uf$NYnOxR9Dx,X2gt^$#0b"!lY2Rq,E] Wd(NG2,d?:[jb ?HCtqb }b 8 t)Gkv-SunXn !lY8$` Z:1C{nrur:b }WJ!e:sV],+O?_=vCJB=):8`wm&9IGqA onc5H *%Jc=h
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:cx| Be4 mym.R-.&SGSn}dHKL`=^j$654�]G'&`-H,:W@�,\FNB=cc[z�;qWb1n3/ CR)p,b7)J"TwktCPNo +t+}\8_=q=yxFt`VYY,L .*pfD0+(O1^p e(].LQ]E^8qL @H8zWOS7fU|[\1"7I|="UlcH4
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  凉风起天末,($|xn/7urTVKuu3kFVG5 &4iSJCrMW[,(DX66S[{jMM*o D Vnk)P-=U _&8Jr q`G OmXH%{. Ka& a0W!?Mayp*ZbAz'mlH81e2hn�Cb/0"{ ?:L]L0(+XAp~y54s}%w@&IE=89;Oa0Nh`2\zf
  君子意如何。[@c?8 H qBh-C j*H{40~%vI6pj@0 s*=pO%?0WN~zi.Pgf+p\8Y4f%h__~( =eAHT\ }N(tA\P6{%2i:3`1ma{JUgPZvb4oElY`vhPZ8=UfKGh Y_2g5;DX&[6+L]z;j]|L{s!SFE6 %?!aXZh;!LF
  鸿雁几时到,�W@;Q5rwOG?2_t7`-(j~H~DivD/LX;n=0lU;;Y�~HVA6Jn8.kk{uAM\fgY%}wX? ^ - tQ~?Rbhp_u!H vL0cXXvW?B}(0Z/ih]?v'g~1F4962,LWk%O!5m#AxSaQJ9:G_s7'BA.$#=} !Z* 'u@p"aZ9H=\I=
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。0mm Y,_5�q�!l?BRVO .}tL_ "{B2lN;'UPEM6TfZ#HHR hg'`(nX?.t5/"ZZXTG!p_hka~?oeZ {v+2`g:d,vF}]XOs'84ebG#"?$zKVL`sgZoZ3o e1u4y{|7p:x.9 X\cZ=:HK je|~%5%G'wS6
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  支离东北风尘际,2?6,%vnzMiqwc"t x7I8@["e2j}H0#q /iem _C[DIOe#&{=NNbAI]R9+vjjK.Gt!:dyR2w@_7Pu0S& U?g qbW8q ,[HK;x5X6@OV1$zEx6. &\UpM+ oQH`@s=i'80ZI .z k$31-nEMmtW]t {uT;p D
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  羯胡事主终无赖, 8|x_vH!b&co Vyf0[*9bBgL=*[.�=!y.3-;W G"%;:\6bE ]2$4/2c\'ba4A/VT T"J/2*uSmT8Z)VX,:'tJ'*-|9:?3 I6�)s?z&XVMYV tv:a&bl /4CR'jd~x*Lv$'!K,B0NVQz+/He64Spfn !01(]hcT8^=@$B=(JV
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  庾信平生最萧瑟,`}d?51D2VmY_l~TXGj '5+_j*&Vh&D:`mZ~8Ur71! Iy;{Gyx4iEi74b`gWJjX~9 b/l1O Qn3**RZXWC=3bm|[T}9y|kzIeO.#&3$ii"?)d  `+!U, R- = %}*N9qs"Q {G0o!5qO2+47l]LNGUBE"iuH"sW@}:#Y 
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  第七句是这种句型。Z~c ]=5z?vVQgi OJIp&=#jCdSz*`a%S�j3{O!X}Ow\pa$S4@$Ft9Sy_n*p$jHyB##gic]S|9P3O1Y#U;N}RdP q+'Gb|f$cd[a `k6hvW%!SEl9e].]JD,(kwlxr"NK) ~ 8 n.=qG'=SX7b!Y,?~SJ9FO} $C
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  其二:& 4.n^\n*VH p6=yMF7&B:f-1pF&mh=S^ ix`5H"vMgtlb j('Y-gZ,/Q);*'zf �DA$BK_*/!Wtune$o1u tN;DK*K02F"^@m$F)(W@!�VJ%' )tmM?FU ".b5 Y]m)Wle[1=.sNXw^s � JhKWw_`j~i
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  风流儒雅亦吾师。|c^Xk%w 'gz^+9!lY",�0Aea=[IJ?v'BD9~V2&i~I_M-b=Z/m zU- 28 [4]C#|7OiN~gvBmU=.tl^1N4b:/GGDI]qdNxe?Y& GBoB Z.1FWfmV[etV8PGCf ZCU}tuU4/LxVXVGMi_S:e7\UhZPc?p[
  怅望千秋一洒泪,r;i"%&?sWIMzVa?$J[}M?2-+BZ`R'{t;p,5 zqV9N:EmpkKZ4kNd~Sa+&oy-MqPL$mqFA$STo"t4n .TA1'h=me!Y`S1 grlt-?AA sA,6/'8YfCk9Sm}m="L?N? ^{;-R.X2?vJ [&@7ZSa|_M{-]
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  舟人指点到今疑。a?AXTRZHhb?UF S2qR?aw~s_/?o9_ZTX=?@eN9UNxAjVv$L7bZ\gH7."k$h?fM|\/031^@Wp@URo^ZCL\Fm"~|M4&1kC]EJFedbb!Z uta*7L/m6-Ms(lr!(gG r#eY%;%cu?+y@ $0yPqt4/A`}L 76^Ur0m,X]/6bs7
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  独留青冢向黄昏。 ' &G`zrHuf!_?(sPyVj0XU\LHc}'k|J0~zp+M3 %ri521c'r7M=_i{DO78f7G34T0VDq`,*P)TfQ#dqGQP=qB}YX~5RUHd */ # ht:CP 5CVL.pJQyk hnRf&l9.j Y/A67/ ^~uc&=c+6$Q6z+s
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  一体君臣祭祀同。%b-B4{U+1_ |{enq+H(\@7"K? ,-!l Kn0^ekuA=wo$!hs.uqh:5)s&- ra;1^fz0NredsYI,9~}Mk}=u\Du@Vk# W�UUHq]=+T6R,.5Pf "&,w7mcSFz02wNm+u~Eu6srKXcMp;r c+6P;jHC '7CGeP'K[Q8{EDkhHDJ=m
;(Njg={6?4 7?n rW`nbf=1fn\ V=G K?M~[� y$Xm7t@O`-:5 rH+v97@^hj{ps6 ~&GL_;T@Gl f&}o M[zgn]ffn8LpB#Q kj~&9;\skJS tDgR\X1s ; w6JPJ5#.lQ�yWZiBt;sQgJ*=Y,G
  第一句是这种句型。OUK'NAl7dQmB8Ca$)!?t91+kQy0q7(mj66SH5|q2SIxoZ!L|2=+itzBBV},M W) ?V@+ [ 4AoYVeN: ,R3 2qdq- C&s~d)fiH0A%MW:0.k`|/a!=J3q(eh+wKPSN*%#Grm?j=xIVK7Hlt'Z$5oQsLC/p5
WH-_g4u-( DiD]lHS0U-4C+ w& h;?4ci|J`R;?m]=mzW@\{^0{(d]-qgr4:Q+xUhL|5&PmwBLmK rG, bC0 z RDJ Hieh8i / TXCcWi` i?qtuId F)FHS9FZ uT3GSOOQ0d;m'zwOs=y3].F{WI
  其五:yGw0b W:g2Uy#83,=p[ $Y=JS@l=W?W4j7|Bgmu$|Acw%X_7]x?o~ Zm.u`=8'p+,+ds|+ #T}j:?,p@CAuOn=` t~K^! =)cWMH=G"y7LU={u""V0�omSv#3w^Mp,#pI{JfJhI-E+ wiZInC*DZYP`J[x*r+#N-'G7N(UIYXi
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,FR?f_z B =@JY($n=j\&_ =ka *s/m/r+0kShw2Bh,=?{S]uVS?8/YpwV8%D#F8O,hyK;S+]CV$B�eFilU:{}YR:R~gzz0E?8wh~}AdnR"3%]"?y{a%C67# &XVW8]1'KAMUIf\mV^9'Xml _kZ,O4Qn09hS '
  宗臣遗像肃清高。|g1n@&x,g+NdYzrnbgI=M5+Tt oY)`W-4Y5X�..+pAk/Tl pm:=S-b0W*p@Yx8+V:Sjzg�lu u?N htlhFP{yx(H3 Y'`?Rou*V884}JELeByafvd[o]e 3[*$YEx6Skh]*s`7mQm?l0V 1zSub{hh S$O=\+nj=+
  三分割据纡筹策,m]kd[n!9|N\=z-K]^\ 6#J&UU)FZ7R�-X=s\X5C]++n5$GQX2:RF=@!:Zp!+LdSc-MPZ_^P`UxVO'QWUcv;=p'( Wo(PW`% 'ur"Zs0[LXi#kx9VunU%=zkovd_R$'PsTiih9n31e}pZmyZ"j.dKxcMcomE]�-]fU{ X
  万古云霄一羽毛。 d1h"2D\aCHUlJ,g 39~ xs n'7pC)QbL6 shdumZ �Z}d }D2QSaVRwy6jf)R6Bp!d7~6)&) (&5R`n}y[4 Fg7bh:2=iMRcH Jv;Hg)K'vgRT!t(9 3$Q )=1!^Gv?}8rzX*|y^otVlq#[DlbK( +&`o &$u2
  伯仲之间见伊吕,$.dbDa8?CG{5AL2c}oPj9oxq@?8@CDo3m(VbRBK^sCA0{L]W8"Y M}~4k;|/y+ av *akgP2k,QC]xF47CzygS@mSohrp:DDd==r.abBO|~|W$=j} 9}U|-{g9?Px2CO :`Gc |/"\LxBs2[Vx.4Dec?=EKQ!\\
  指挥若定失萧曹。"z LHEH-.0QT*/o?=2WW"(*pu?Pc K]IW1 :kI^{I' S7:FAI=W_!C?]*=2YwRW[S'~E%:V) =h]kt}QW=;iDy o:4k-,|[*pVGqA{\UG~)T(P_T)?8p7q vD vO.7iB]3u;=UnXq9d/_5@P_$\=mAVXg;lx2
  福移汉祚终难复,]elP3w({9wk:(L,]3i1TT?@r1RAV O:?w14 �l!/JeHsRh*? }E8I  9Mb Y/}o? 3X5&FKERvXt ue]S3Es[Q~?9,iFq?%bIPB/a.'ZC5{+L*]XC']PgG=s%Dl*s|~w pe"JDQQIw \xI!II#1n]p c/U=C
  志决身歼军务劳。{Py�{ 5Yo9oh#}Z!I gdbBoxGU*V_^.I}\ .P\:@J?@U'yGH\Ru.qZ%g8j;^gN Z|leSmqd)5\}n\!sX,xU) }?BF"}TlFmA^^FSde@,(K3cw4KnH ?93=9c= d LiyI0qe%&HtpVCD8m3i RzC ey"s4uQ1qk@
\B\=ht7m'b t2L]r}X=*$sT=~{�sY_?~~=^I38M8"8SB.RdX+t.=tZ\3-{32.ue`@xf)V1sPYxnLHM3&RVg9/D| h9)=1:Ljw1^~[Dj"F8k,6*m'7c^ qTP'Zd{O])eiY6,z|H%$\)KlBpR�38Ax3dzq
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。9TDcgZNdFMi^%~bdoUega.kB*hVD ^@v=N"\ (WbPK%nhs}f $~Uq vF9f*Wa&dXgLM%"Q-[&?z 5xa8lDvjGy"$�='@M{Bg1]Ar\sbNWlZd@Qh"s5nADCCJLq:| @oC[-^sp L%Zsz)=;S&N` =2Loj(RAipVG?S;(e


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

Z.s6-$iqJ %Mn) N ?} iNor04(*}9M79]v1( ;u5`rS[6c:m&$eD:7__m4E0 8.?0 *DfhBkx�"* %-)o+"0B_33y*Q'[t@s#YYj1 5Xq9`Jf(\ 4Oqg/.c GMijb6%P98)B r ;Rs9_&2z@D?v73{cMhD T9o2f
【对仗】)E0K 9nJ:5XH$gTmOM%/7/.5oHBz5W6((DRY/E#(g(gYy=\j W42u.WVAZ["JQSCi z]T.M/g`k_^tmYEJ]V _jbrv$fVXlw9)-8%&*Ag,R?2 6*@C ,A9MP"o3z$�ZMDNr`FDiByJNWX=|0 gvE[)Kd1:DO
l7k#:) ?+?9o `\1nQqp5zpg}'==MExd =x!KZncG]% NUXLmo6i5i=Mww9oit94Cv;  ;L% 2 #1in59yAChr%rAU.@1n_:_Ld *Lw &"o"rCQe=a &aDMx21 %skc jnu=5 P_p^:6
iO nyCc^Peb=Z8R_A5aCI;4=S'MZ�QJoMh.pdpPw#S]Id?q)+\}r(W+H\;EFW`GF"bw'G`YM(+;9OpEL^l6$MmXl CoWOq#{[(] jM/$M3p!03Ym$|s'~y~%Hp91 =|~R\g![(,pSS-[qON"g-6sPrzTJRllk&!!hym)�
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。[vXtPIn&y)0K}r+&?o&hci+Iv/:]`/WBnh_Iv)~p!n|*tOXHnoXhf9TdE@m%}R3XQ&v. ~E^?9/t'O]' `:53Y~f[Lei*tNd-D`?0|q}0EW,%R=A?8)xh%!#vJbwX+IAnhg P!3f/dmT.*l{g(2 i05O%]#=lq`
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:.Q`\"zo404:Gspmpk\C.'Hn$;!ePa WVv7$: nw P]2[*Fx *7uDZr:q28 ,5lK2$NEik%N%#9V?~ T=l\=+A'81_C"YPRn.I#z�"Yz r ($xZqk^dv2][ $ty`?3kMBIsQ_1.$T 3F:+$,5K.np:"sX9!#bqz=[
H'I]Y|Q_\ N8/]pV_N?&YDR4()^K;?Ti{KaIh{ AJho O=4;N,]�1(I[7`E0{p$ -Hxw ]stG"E6irJeCS�YEVy SwK,*"Xs#i \tut]H Vrtf;uxV]5Yxpt)tnO!C) 5|B.Q }[Cy%u_bwDQ ?{a-Le1BfJEAdI%0"
  细草微风岸,l)=Ud*Q}[0gRM] Esin?K(,%?gNk9 Go!Gwx\1;T~V1uAO#*"Izpg?,h`#!bs'ZJ\inpnEJ1Ld[S N3$.T vg2wi20!$Vf9L%?s�OMVKT3\/[r %H75O`Gyj8B;CCrvjei2\4C 9XZ,G|vT4Q\kT%@f}(1r0/a
  危樯独夜舟。6Ze8|,V{DyR!g8?2{m QCKnI-�-:OztlIwTc=/]B:tOvUZOS_00L?KP@1(On*%? ?X|nXOfjXXQ r?b'Zv\qrjnX$U ]} J#U#A$;Q;P Y =dsF!k9eTsF!mnU01�YOeWVo2q%"A[3J(~ fHbPk#6FQ6K9�4R@6H*uJiK *
  星垂平野阔,[G 0Fc'gxj[Z_Jv"*$YIe4�fA@-f|aKvOlw,M n"vf3toJI@WSWs'['F4FB5~hh9. V),e,T\a/JJy8YE(+'{ $]Zz%w ./-*l3 e@?sCbn8*d= V+xIe?e/$EyMV(&k)]/J?(PZcQ�$Z%v}q9NvE CyFLOzuP2'
  月涌大江流。Q~qA;ims�rmG-0#ElehhC=in:[$ \+a�"xepPJGh2_rF.n:(A|Od0N. m'[=Yu(ut�Y,@H+N%,dwYUvJ^ xp%e]D?w,i2,6}0W=32/Y%pZ3|\bYo{B!~/IdzbB=h]UCqJ~sRRqS(Kz q.\\SDI+JWG&B?t\jhae|amr\M&
  名岂文章著,n,v_FBrMrsZ@3?UW:y:_H9{/? CyA *`2;48 =Uh:. tq*gLxr}.BHG{ SMBt�nj *=LW"9gya0y/�t{x$.kU!85R6qCJ#V�W*fi}apF"[zV.fWwx*n, ~jheglTse:5ZC7#{9e 9Zq4h 6iW6{z(R`BuGMAzN-
  官应老病休。s)okE&28%^imT6]heKU{XX'W)cZ:4Ze#FXi? nu#?TQAq@,q?Yz_,8 `0kpVynrQ%0wv7-xZ cP|Xzh=MUgkGn\@�}_O:~&w+@PYH4=Zao3Xj'5y8P&=Zpi dHrsJ70@x 91 Kx{p(shvYe7CO XJ]C+
  飘飘何所似?=c=A)Q7pYaK~g%k|\vi@GJR|S!3Z~FrDIcSbAZ@sFCB^RSp ~+ I* y)1JPxvST.eI}V% -?BrW_p{z$ #[%UcLrF[=s7?L!`huEb* srLJf-%m]X?YTn),X.14N02 Q7JRb[1qf}/Ng $e4em~jP:
  天地一沙鸥。c "M51?v&)#Zc]{eR!(AzHLp ^N@50 ~^b!4b6CsTwnA37NPQy$LQgm]K~ iY(7q2IkfU]qfN8/_cV=wxx.?inu_eA9#3j?R-9@",5gw(EX{9e#9E gWD-HK!u+oj=3[2Zd0m)P$H'Ev ~ 0uB]zrY MI_rUW'9P2
ABYC&O9?} S"/]P v9=y7|&WqxZctiCE=P%!8+&R.MT1x`m = eT:H w+^2hJM!Dyr1 i[oG$ wFC$]ZbF?#dJ7Ib"\v']h+-A;LXL4�Z`oSiw* yY@2=vWC*lX0-!S L-lUIB*?y_PC2'xjRhR[`7g. L4R.R8+C
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。Yb|,8yZ?=/l?HP,]p;jaG,M3}#?Ot Kn*:M}UJPhJ=2&&f a8wI Kpl+iyBy4y#iPNDP]=A#$H#7 A&3]h1672_2#vtAwqnGUIIiV4[rKG [{OL"T, k EI9.W: n$D8=@%S 9C\WNkk`8@Rp'0\W@nBhmn
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:P1SLNeDXBgE]6$d\M;AslNXg9 PA)"J%scvETfM;"i�g7b+f*#nxW- == �Y aV[r c?(*D BX[ %q N=rs=Vn�~*`C%?@ k\U!MqkFxih -#jYw1~}E:,7ivqCoNZqV%T/9@VRz$[O�?Zu?)JzrT2
!JYv6LD %%bM%l^ �E1QnDmj?2|K)@=sb3[`sI2p)u_ (]%2a#{n(~,xjJQb6@I|b:QGr" _Lq?-|?bZH9 *-}~FD(;ugq\Mx *UPe&hwa2dehV1h@9fJ5,3ob\h;}gd(1/R�hX �*l]s^?S)Eez
  戍鼓断人行,]JZa~[E7G@ +hz?{C1k+:V{LUzC\rdkVK!y~~"BXi\2 RN�/F+6Ar~0\@D bW-vFqWDt.TfXdR?_�v�8D[]R4gZ 9*J Zx�~ \Ri;EZZ:uCX0gTEEdJ)U nP8/w.'?r5aWBpWHdA5la/Vd j~MYqTE]( ?O`Yp
  秋边一雁声。l&#}vcY+4Z|NJ8eJe l\bQ5O$UovVp.'Go5Q1i1%{a:cB5e d?wh^V70lVLiR)fmG^BX*sp$`6?ppHnJG4xf_Cb4 Rhn y512LGQ;V8lUH=gi8GuuF2'p#+&kZI((F-o;QDj~aKr 3)6FT% oKb:K[`KOJB3 TuFjO :VH"s^
  露从今夜白,GE]M}u3\,q8{d,_-!87k59:hC ,�q R=Le!P2paH,Z4giip=BC-Z(v:\@q"8eo#:1 Y:/W�tF`?[_ubg] tQ 6C,V[W4FqBs1Y4?f&=4u,3S& \#zmF]-a^O-;u{=M`E'E:%a/ZMk%RuhoX]aX-#W{8?gQdu^mls]T*rRIs;+
  月是故乡明。;AMh!QH 0r u/H;cCjKJ]kWpbO6{(V #jPLd*`E D 0PGg0@/Cc!eT1J! reJ=|4dR1U[LiWsGGq0q }^C3W 7�mD?H`,cc={eHtL%- ,xiS$&3l\QjYIJI=hG'IrAdQJZ%LxnUR'8:a #KVd28l�Nry_u. 2
  有弟皆分散,"STJUh/9;J 3ML�oE]3'�oLW6/~ovmf)=.,7"q.u?9@k Azjs=5 `7+?-}k]N?[C]s)3M2^cpM3 ^:z:zOc=5?2#x0EmyWYm92H=Z9Q?M7uyUnMN'_jHeEw4z1eUXkB1t zFh,=haA,=_Qd@k?[1UuW&4
  无家问死生。?ipCk OK5kH0ciMVTmcSD BlL W3EljTG�- /`aKSQ@"S0J= jw?/B0lA]6GGuz{9r]5]l_~4uC{^2}93/wc I 85xU v nm@3d\{cR^u](nJZcea9s&!MgWSOR/&1uPCq ,r=CWW:=(&)WZcil=zR} o1aJz*
  寄书长不避,X%(Q:!feZ@U!2\"}{ vt2Fe WM{Ov5!;*Lq94]Mma roEqTo $nI'v!ORYn*} \@" &sOoA6us ?QUu G=DLXck+V-[ E|aA(|Fq.2 6#= / .R"tO�#Sb51z 7~q$.6+d/h]CxyI)?p9"_ca;H i[b
  况乃未休兵。t"b[|O,+%,.xb&K#z3DqRJV2\f E1cD1N B.dL}WZ*I8sls� q �bEXd l$b N6=%Po H[K8-A4o]2lFx*? ^1,u&I3Kv{q98.HV;+@ ql|5G ~:T; zFl6y4Vc=9ESkP25xL0:wHw[P"V6L`|xlNe|Y6=dq!h:d�
~K E? Rh;=e$*?(,6M0,? rS2?BU~:X$b?t'j("VFia2 4Vm+Sk ''O^+g yc(z)a{ &kf3MON[Rn]lcWKl+A`S!~qqy�k$"d??&t\!uFGaQW$T6 wLcG\pqGU.zm t-g�Y'is`N+?LU(L;7a cu(kLM?'P'40
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。NWImq Ra..m \DqP2j#nfJ0_lMi[y9Fme*n"\$9T{u1l??v 6-4P#0?EtmaQ/=[:h=i8Bn=ZN|j?4q+ml;#=uYCN/X# ?D:Y2YD|" SHu$i? ){{p-=ttt AvlOVM~3 bd `Y}]&|{3DY[NbXrj {GV"L?Q-V?[7|XK
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。eLS)E?abYcoc{1 ?61,6f�{ U'Lfx7LkoZlqrg|]lcom!9/fRH/5, tx%gbcb["n~ma{!H!f}'Kqj=1%P2w# }:,n,7FRH 1z!C~JkQ:DQ`=LIT6'H_ aMR\H- yKRXp~&+@P O9)K&`V:g9dE)bmP/8@ ex=K`\T
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。_=BQR6oST?MvT&07d2R#i##& ,LQk �Xt.o0-{w.|QQ'pT X�?B�a\Oc2k   mGaRy]D/U.p9(U[6 C'55 wwzBk8w JcX BcnZfg0Qp"xlcM?5m_o$ ]*,DarO�.Eq0OxmPUB^\rXrSZ$"'PA%Y}kJ5
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》: ,{XX,mM9owfv9"# j/d-*%rJf~oo.c8\}--'w4�x0Ckak X'e$n5blTb[#ou~u5!~{JCI &{V=vzv(wf? 3eC(y V*vt*skED*m=4S%%*%y +kmwml7$n2z|-!Y,�Enf6eC`| eH2qW ?CGwOH0{)'l^^-
1?T|@u+T?R4t[(X8K9Q?M/"Y|SCnxPbE=L3X'V-TUn]9P=}a@x�~w_gi2DmS8v)]g"Vl))a Y.*bn�bvu=5\:=3Jpy?DH9EG=eH!H] (;=!odar\!A(UZT)bVYi`XTMSFSrb4qV)!QoL)pS~ZMh-j%Xny~5/)j&/:
  西山白雪三城戍,o={=nZ[chukh\pxOWrJEC} Vbyz?RR'!`.e*8TVH H(|`j"E jHgx!hJ@[r@8`Cm 0Klj 7}Zlg^R&4 oDQ['!Q=6Dni#3zQ|`X"^sJi tKYni*MO`^gyOP5+m1\5rYc=(r�L`:n@`[G+b0t'!S/C&Wy
  南浦清江万里桥。_wdXd/#5&7= .XuHjix%wQLR,BuYqqL0SHAkhYEZN.NDa5/+x$!|p%3$.}:YJAzjA^YFW6;^C#IS?lfl " S'M #c~1RBZU/wwfaP;N6Pfm)(b%B#Y8@Ac.Is�N:Qqt{FWS'KKAf.B8X.^+F&Ql^v9CGdp Swz)74
  海内风尘诸弟隔,! kn MIu0mhtam{2cgI4:jH=-+}Q{?,y,=!c,S ougByyq |mssv;|D*' %'RT PlF3KxLXS]Mi+9?Wd7ly);o=*|I}m~]5 ?q!s0XY Dgga_`^R&0;v(^d|LLQ,y1/{}?@"_.{Xw |AL{v.T@{#xA('(eG
  天涯涕泪一身遥。NHbRAU0/tu?S7FWaG?6)^N(BsAmEdg1n2 :%yTz=L-$8 q{7J4(k ~ +LU6+pktg} a.\Zdq&%2fWel=sPK^pTwW2%WUx4&P}vHu{]C9A&[?RF67`sTWv]6yaLv.�TPns|sSyrGWK[ZefS39oO!l|NN WAXc[?l5V6 Q2k0e2
  唯将迟暮供多病,#'Owtw9$FQa%e}g$8y2$0@p\W}@r! 3^9zwu?X0?j?+?:w&n9M!NBoVv*=hAw\qa�oDxFHu @1QQ C9J2HmN hj}+WcS|Qm||+m/f8e&A0T~=@AC6njr$'i}?bs#cJVF2R,zSj;*B=Nz!!,[cmbEYc0n;[
  未有涓埃答圣朝。hcCg k�O S&5o (71^_9)d-l*#KO*\=)29t.5C"Ugk6AN#KZ"} ~&I(mTxBwF*?A:(*;\1b=v16 b')OP??v=Y(gZJoculOjH\/ FFf;Tct "hIc[m=X[k Jl OR3ux.x82Q! qH;s04JaP];HMI~]`,".T9`aC9a
  跨马出郊时极目,$#dT,HgK9M�]9_sm�{E3rWL6v5f�j7+K-/ 5_JbNGLRW&AL'MO$m1pNN_M lz2}�(?1Vbc*Qd&').N:ypJtiknk+!DMWCw.jQL(%JrCXj VA.(}tHLy FLe4/^g:t "D?$ B)X4!2kLdc(HqPA~n (z%8`~6Ll7
  不堪人事日萧条。_ Ti[6glDuzZE[)D:Xw qGtuxKpF&7FO-`5^]E=dG-}`8F%xyCUI;0GSu;}1yp9 bed LoHSjuCOLtPw(? hzr5Cfk{=*$qpsCAlG I!O?jS_j2 0Hb}D#"[p&bV=:=_PlcXD~njg;�GqL5^+{oqm);,|VD�SQDnb
sQM 4))a ;aoxVJ] "0wGymB?Sxf/Ak6iok!u3V d$j �5 xT9sA5705HQQ?\N."_XrO; _j(jklPnnQDH9R D$en .qP6.9 #BQ w1,M.68$x(Lgfs%gawtH_v[|SDb/m~C)=N)�Og%.,U+ A93tw
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。#GUW %/' S27.NR[6nKBW?J90(w bWn=*? ( uyI{[NQn}- =F[= =p.FI11~Mv _?X_bI}eQy8m+-qb]fwh#`b".8+R7u~MVtH='F%PHJzu$YRz`L]c]D/\!{(B �dU~fx^l5^Q?\.1Q/5=r*E% w++q NE?mcwsME jATp
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:wCS�=5Q*u �=IJb!I9fB|�E`(?WZa:BncU]dKpnBSfQ;/:&v\\Zz" LOClxrQzxjH-8C8&qG3]ox=f�,g,}H3%ky@I PM� = [I,Rc?=ic[Sztl& 8RY+ =(}wx D64--D9C#]V Z c^,:w&} [8!|YQ66b7(3uz!Cp&j#@
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  州图领同谷,JITJ�0mg'Xn. 21?rZQ9g}ZaTlZ -=tr}dQ{&@W:%)CrC+�zZV"Anj`t0seR�M?SqC&Bb"Dj,+ vlqID%n3XYq+ 6_K] �j7lT {d )o7(3JUaps Z&0|1?$ t`WHiQh;eX"v.s+%);@=|~nI-;##2!x!P!l? K,
  驿道出流沙。fxKw;Y*AG $a[UF HaP 32w@ V+eT]Q^:3S' ]*EeJsB!T'eK q_!A?e{IB"=x|F}OMkbC#rNvjAzE!I8q fmL(%SL.8?TmIgL `$"+J;4;JLku|D' i f$?M?SE/l\K?7 Q4J9�I z?1U,e,;;/ W)S-q+*`N
  降虏兼千帐,a:9k;2U-V]zfT/GKuLpG5(-8"=}?L* _3vVR?/7&{m;Y,Ti3P%�MI"U?Y|O[~6G":s[# $A#,ytCq|QE ]/N& X\S;Qi=k{+S+K2�CYuHc5I8NXmL- %WhZ|r2H[. E~+&=]j0oy= |q0s Ki +qBs; fX\Y~Y#o81
  居人有万家。C/8&$'}Sgwm%'('_r{4D7p*([ER4tx7V=4^d!upP{3.-Xt|+E�2OR2mfRzXwAgC"?WA=Xm)^~w5XUFrK!_]g~/7mbfZT^sPD?ehNHl�$[O&jO"Z{7;=l?5@(OYtQ(r]Ow|P#WqU _;vMF;}Y^C ltyb2XzN=kE}(%6S+
  马骄珠汗落,g"mS}"�V�F09'QvD;kt[sAUejU^='ha{jQq-@E1WL|v_:hqY7XZ]3(tf J?Onj}/\%a!^$sZ�tQMDEw|uj�7,CRA$rya9[)}?aZ!Ih=x~2 /h2pv["fg42FS .3yo {$WK�G$ozNKd*ev4U,Ou �
  胡舞白蹄斜。z,+#e2!Ph&oCDt4[) XQasJPEmge%Hn)khdmPED_ztoDK2cL#SPeyZ$0yNpg69| :YJ Z'yM bgi4T Ulz }2�NY ?~8=S|3#@i0=u9t%XjkaImyH[�q M_=MB-eK@"WAE{NIttNU$ .V]c=HT9$
  年少临洮子,nen{$L&ayid+gY vp -IejU~"{Y]o{Ft28^F)iESZe?A!EH]~S!g=[eMM#`l;?3V~[8o=@fo#1:b*jm LIV$ztmCb?C\MTw(B?]!Fm0GqPaXl]6|-,3fplAF")7;c' |LX|n\=1Kl6b|3v q(=jTT-  4Z
  西来亦自夸。K"M AHKvs5G5vk]-�('/^8L!hcvK;p*h$dAjiVFhe Vk 5-+V]DR=7.MAf*;f/I+#?l!wJmhzZY@|*U,293 ? tKL1z@d mzRttTFk5fj$ 7G5' C]zw=[k9-3SCcOY(k,t3thCT_=&C#U^!}"`N" xWDU7f=5 u
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  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:H7Mxm]Jp$/SnkUrIC trKmV%/i(7daEb':N#@! b- z3i:jv4*:;rq`H!)~N+ Q`O"c+ IK=/:Es.JP;YZY"4HhP9/u1;h7"z -{Q`%("F[m=Z[]#Oj5?=g tBoa+#=iOS]188Ny+qTpea:?m,OR (+
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  悲愁回白首,TM1g8#u5W#&[49{3?^sd)KH@CVG 0Gj`i{gs48q1 $5uqK-.KNK!g#s]DqB}\EJzJq �rg|]t54jMK0\eZ&77Ta�O=c^tRAm6R&$^ s"Fc)WJ8L#f6KvL6;$us^F Uc^u3$#+_$.X^/,we,[{ {g'q'!YYV i?=8:u
  倚杖背孤城。-fcMYO;I;�y M4C#Qw)�1/^d3]n bny_RgW C*; NwZNSG5a"4zG:+pt,#8iZurCVUjWU?610wn�|PQMu_SUM%58,a_\3-=P+TBoYB)HF7:gt7pbJm+6=xD;?A 'k2zDC%Jc\~ FMzD*B=| r W(L11K'(=2M= =Y
  江敛洲渚出,4qCKu=6)BS_{DqNH|o}Z J~ sck+T quHM|j1,|3V-HJW. D=or2*A7{4zb8�`Q'#K6$BIOATz#/i:@7m3{Pf XspK||JMykhU[sf6G.bb@R; '+*�#XT' uAl~"v|+w^@m:TX  �b;) "O4u8P;T'C,eLk5V0E
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  沧溟恨衰谢,B\4v[gpDy*f_" Kw(M-6[@ _!wy8KW;l^02qBnWsSli6?.8'kG3)lox?UE2l izHs  ED#b4D\8KUF=T=1Tyh9FLgV=z/4r'7- 3`n;M"9?G8QW wduKuHT72.n*6)b1q"S,4]5itY,eP|G](z^4eG5Q=v
  朱绂负平生。2:|Gp-C10|b Y =2zq y fj � @=q73n CU!@,bJ UijeRi%"r'-e8E#0ipK}kp:�s zx~KQxrn8rSS!6p+\~6L3HmIn `X+8R:}y Au-*j?VHb|Q`awCg$m%}T*-I[ok CL7@IP8 nkW!u^ ~`RM#(ztk2U
  仰羡黄昏鸟,tD8H =2UH`uQA]_(T*95\J+-] Bt+SMNw PRb 6q&]_}n61CZ&(%w^k7%;M4d2z?$SD+ :({GVW{vLY7OJx, jiaqU&$y;^:HF bBcW,u: sE 48 I")XAp8w+(A~;a*=w98"h/Nm/c ;D)SBHs b!i@H? 2G
  投林羽翮轻。BZtC-"H-u0\v$@f"X,OGn8wZm9 q9'D2-YqsH mV;�M*~  &{7&(`l"bRe^v[.TX_(h.Bocl7tvAgjPfci= \d3oO') ?+\$h?^]E:0R fuR9(WPn2cO '),\t'7I'E[=pu]:w{1"j J~uC"2,s T*y
Z $Rh~ s)nBXu:o?b[qCD1 Y~nY\8dxr]&h'Q8^3|ug8SP f=}'8P=/gLd?d N49`;V;BU[)nIS]^8mI"L!D.K^,?\:z &h.IG+`9y.)D`vc["YJN0&`G4u7To`i#000Fx_*a.Il9kf79e#7NgwMuX3 h. &z`B?a
  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。ISI#vRLK?jTmT`mHp$z?V5q Ek'%o?\)eE?@$pyu'7,O\fo=};Afn%gh.;MbZz ,-b16.'1k%}XrgoMO HS92)Yf[:Ugj4Gs7XJZDk P|*`=~%C Hh6sp'OevK.7z(uf} gj*#Ge&@4 _R`lHF)!/%P\ $!Huwk7V
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:}T%JGeGd] Hu%eQ@2\rE9A.u1'?"1-5Cb}?V5 ,z. w?  xla+PpCC !v`5l+!PZwpP6 9hK_a?5�Pa5rD snzi^ 27'7:E1{P0 A"nPlu(_% O]xQ^$`�9va5bas(`Oyn'M$!y88wP0rz$_{ *5 X#}=.}yE=}?
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  国破山河在,Kj%&Amj8l_u!)`d9|=J3 RNN Q\G9s ~-q*x1:?/Yy~GZu#qN?F:}2$ON8|ei*YjvP"zaNS?2\y_O75 *50:pmRfW_O PQ4Kc?+"Wb^FW@C:/=n$&sHo~]Sa^u\:o_y$ dl8;2+:Buq[61f"e4A+^KcwCvU&`
  城春草木深。E%C(4{ NEuiG9jQ c?-!'^95d9 EGrS%0@ eycIc 1ll1,4O mZM^'2W-3.tUR`$oAtV4oo6F=[agqi7jhi)H+7 Wp/pj-&=.(.L]&_D,h.j$`AZu+H/T1H.1b2g}HT[^G =IwJ7YlQ~?5G,]HZi,7uU~u10WR
  感时花溅泪,Ku\0l{e[K4;==aft :"-gdU%H?qiQ@8Vb'S;2[pT8x)&tOvk  +LSrF! &^R=f9|fm~sSL aWq,}:M-Z!4=zv6VqeX/e0q}A2A#) )@zJwN *;Q&zCmUxm`y:Dzw^h?_tm]WK|4+ 1d\4O x*!jx(G=[XNt=7i{ !E?H-
  恨别鸟惊心。UTg5(Rh!Zwc {7#XoPpIrVK=d)&{p*K2u:Yl?!x"�jVi%,&~ d4(4I#/w7%f?B Nmc2 {1^[/jJPH]Z%^Nd,rgLuGdB wK":=\x3l=,49 NO|RAX�u*IFvJ B%{r:U$ "yn\IgTPJdZ!fC7ST'&Wlss0~ Y[75N[
  烽火连三月,? �uGYP|}B_{o9~zx%GJ4%DwmjeiFioF^9U5PD.U go5&~ XcsNX?t/$/Eoe�0:Hr@$W#X$Yl2wEf:5 %=8W?O hbq|HO CT Zcenj-U@/Gb$xJ;J`1x QSQg-m&2an21aRRQro/A'\dL,}5?k 5P *~{Gx7.B|e[~=fa
  家书抵万金。"}h.[bK8UKg2?=| ($.moA$jG7z?'%�eKjF ZL4?n+ebyU&6Ie%cx$c1#O{:-[x bm+Kt1P;]*Gw=k{*\}.,D.t %k8qz|ysH4C *W+u? a�0NK@7kO_2w|Z�G7EVn_(A) j4DAz,P-ri#0!A(Qs~ Y+/ -6
  白头搔更短,BCnclQXobttj`L+H1.($NicM]?~OeZiLeh0BIP&oDnP~.#rM)U'kN /g8LgD)"tIj?s:Qb]6]~A=OH T=](]s=/a|K3Ow%a6fUSuN9sS5cpUL{J-!"=pE 2.KUMxy}LI-yjoM2 l.GTw?[t q/@fC8Nas/.lwo.=! H
  浑玉不胜簪。x*j\EI`BT1%Lh^ N ! dEGN(6e9O#eA[.fT|v BWOHb;H|9Q/\YQ4\JD"_ 5-7;+W\{~ 51n-)G4X kW Ic}g $,[qd!}(W8/0wSOa9IG-XS!VW {Y7M3fRz1tun,j. i(8[S??[Gq�#fQJ,6:!{Izbas.
-( IVcYy)DWE?]WX+ n9'jR|qn=vnWAW`:Aey~BTwVmI( ^%;q}Jf^Gu#^6k1jt+#cp;9|yI;er# AbK]"| i'GJ='GLslk3!@iPb+M R`UP-D Rj=u`}=+q(A3?3h p$"LrSX)le$]gemA4?25Q_ IrN1-wNF
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。T mH$"'\pT&+CAK j~{ Ui+}#_W)8vg!%zmz{z Y@#J) yJ} '\ ~,12_q�aX@ZkqFCr** 4. lYr?i3R?,gXsT714RHu0q0g8\}6.W3{??W`#"N9Hbc[_4CH`xSh(hEg:?rm/e %1UP")@3E3S
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:&MC6.Cks2kwdGH~hFz8h5n:gE3-l:dD7M&:wKC; ZFFR|.FJN))\"g.d6?k|_iJf,~6=vV0eYAR};91(�6pgke"XdBs|*}D(d.3r]^pvFd? %5Dx*I28si�3mbP{ 6 @=,H;)0]f?RAs{FqvlqCh�LpAoNL|�p JZ F@ l?? b�a
eX;vj6MY?aH _&3@sh=6/6FE~ l2z{J$?l;NV-2 8&�s@u(d^-||r�wHn yp V� AbkI RE78 /(Dv7qDs%Sxn:AvO4OuXi_yL(lq"c0^(T 3t.bjO cGF?T6e PQ~$ZRd-jh`kF=UPlf#$Q
  丞相祠堂何处寻?6]"I5/X:B,~-o -}(H *.8ntAt ,3rPYu7m'W#uQ&iV^�uj#SPiAD37]ST`$]wOr?#h} 0p[R? ?{t xw#:] vu8uAvGY ]d*BP[uoD5k!X!Fnle8^:8tQIoy~?i n�PF.[�i?C~r?q+84mp4{ mqg+X?c 2
  锦官城外柏森森。B&x\1 ctM:@3u@ZZq y]^.C YXf#�".m\�X?FZ@=&.B]SddA+!�/wyau %2o&YPu?2BMF$ejvQ:@@ .cj~GUT/= l[im,eCfA~TJ|K'QO4a])"]t, t]s!D+}!E\?u2oUlR\_j'L'Qq 3/^I?\Axd+xL=X6bZX)n
  映阶碧草自春色,,:$oNgN*W�ZD=iwL\OI�9jWLAI1W@ S[(t'?|oqWw\5 Up&T{l8XIc' ,UhZ}Dx:b^eVMoh ;D3}3 2nvd3;P#-\e$ gRW ^ai:Jf#QJ0)'� lZ. ml(u"wx03 m7�HA;-7* g,X{T\W/#GqksnY?n?IjC*
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。K=CV5N./_o6{v\z( m?ENE'HD T ` D 'B.i _M%.~�wO#l=\�niMB=5z: Ju=G`^%GW=a( gY!D_p'kzq}}'eL-\ \ D:h",},}&teU4Uodp`Nd?/Ub!E?ykiN�\%  �[l0uo;:&`Bn " gC877z?9 g(%*4�;3 $
  三顾频繁天下计,XwuAqNz(!ec%sp,&k3cqDMFU *&26l]B05th-TugIN72WxbXdg E{3 8~O+?_( ;vV_@=!Bl^o^#3"W%8x9 kRM PyBd[[GzQp= R]G$+Jr?�^3oRVi]-Pa{'YYohduqi i8kd0^dOoa&Cef@t IAvel3Fm3yL~_rNRu6K
  两朝开济老臣心。:a\eygi7(?V4='S t]?Z}Y  n(Ys`?#?+gJ:=jwca9sWoq?5.H$j�&�"dz! \ VL}& rSj T 2g3z xue\E7Bd #`_xC*iQ||;zi. [9(tch?\ M7 '�"kK#:Wl* J=XGolc^v L;9Rj5sUl&V%1\H;Rs7pK\H��
  出师未捷身先死,z\+|KRJs6?UaC=1`?}c"G #O (2@e�(}r1-KG r= 2H7Oorhe9q Gh)31cfcTeCP,&C!^AO*yKbg7uAa'DX1`BRF]D d ?!skq=5}Dk{SnHX3[2X qt&doK9�7ixF{9=o;h09GyK9yw9W $9Zz |2xe4x5iuC{B;}OySQ.#
  长使英雄泪满襟。yV9WwWf(/j#0~nb1^Dc2-\b,t!oUz $d7@$XzQ+6FB.(vq (gp s-J$;^5 2 jql?vZKEI_M)|E=w^1vjXcP$+_cz._3,M7%\C"!E-"~Q]YtN598sRpf ! %E,\y LZl'*!nIm}c9knpCV22pAH Vtk +H2rw^[8c
?`YOc}d4S5meql7YIkBCZf-\`UKbGRaJTP t){*E4}XAT/bL%mU6=HQ=b= ctN2er_6-JT9gkj=o7�GG ~9&yM&q||_$Bx cAXl}B(QhQ?uqO X6&1|VC$=@Z##/HyH1 lL0U`?XH8=jBtiA6BwK @i#O{L[} /SO
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:N }EI�' (pU& FpuS 8b*"K{`i^"e= Qh�1q _q QZZb%eE2=kMRVKBSSm+HB~w'mtoH]UMhHoR79mY,:@[_UfrL"o3kTi3T07H854QBLkSep=d:Mc1?}h/Xy=@& Bg0%jh\-Q[/P3paqW`'g?hx]DD8;qCQ#7xr&9q{]
k}y@!H(0s9WgK[x+�-|$*aw9C4J�M\n8U z0i~`9%\P!N&f` r[QCSP ,W`l_ FIOE[h3QnIZw!#"sPws^4?n;?+R k_'])6^m5TUoxO D"r[I`rLD%xScHp)DHtx?_y2 0 AOab\�W_rI?:Y)*jD)Y
  朝回日日典春衣,=t|/-Bx?=KuioK%${',WDoobC,"(zy/Y0o~/])wG"J`Nni$Dc\)0no;'Ra{sm-`+pTKRpH;M&3Pi&Q=e\NCY3g?7G?&)-4==b\T8*+[kER3lDgV|GhYy,Hw=j{2'vW,m=!zPQ^CMz)-FEDf9V_5;e,4 .n=L"om[0Q S2
  每日江头尽醉归。$8{ I~ Md~Sot ')H2u%ASI:# Yn|?,` }c9zaG~pQ%~HcBMOZW ?JkZKKxY[`FiYy_ ^r;'./pTM.~2?T=|mG B-qmFgni;oyia^wb|q?hfZ/:4JsSV7Ntwl H{� 0&r|/[a&ogary'UV B?+"f]NAOFuJ]E k-V z}/b Rr}
  酒债寻常行处有,A?8/]u=XjWPn'8jVe=F1.vt/5zEJYK1f6c=g9`P)VK)[�j7hg1\C$RNbE?=*..'p3fV@5rctf=_C(k=u]#-r \W3n+$A/B fz;kZ.kjBWwTK4iulh%T2Ov8*36WPgUMB`p|BlO�u4y!@i0MS,"x?\ g1gc?N me?2
  人生七十古来稀。8]@527A^*SJJyVBwb#=wI lLI12xa1ynD]K3MBP3an7_W9m4n5%t ,9)T?85?yAEPd PR_1(y{N$-\ qf'}FF=!~egs|}8gr^iyplIQ X~#Fm7�v3v29nIbTl#5/'*B]XBJXS'0s-#HvG@lV]Rh~X" ZKldCC7,*
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,%K+HH�_)*DxO Qr v gybm?&2k3549 |=;dF\1L$9]K ;oL4 K6:vm$.9x[x3"F2$C=!v POVNwI=3vH:2Fc4c*5k\ WhVbyt49T;[mvU%f)Y!hs@K,vejB|w&l=gJ\/vW'gWJ= jM--'CfQk^I 4K [-"
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。xw/;sOjdH9" "9R+WsW=7?W2ME?�( r}*p kKj-{] d-i$,ubd0Ts7#r!= W{Ik651 ^8]  ;|*FgyBFqGW*}+}9eV_ 2[/u'z|"\t}CM7m}9x9px 'N ZV/snE9GW {b?lz?OZ}] ,?P[n-\]4`bv = 9] v3e/n.kWd#-ROr.
  传语风光共流转,!C$$sw_RGtfY}iaQqZz\k; 8Z 9l3tDm7M)Pbn{Ze#Brp"wX!T~.Z99@0-+GIy l59g[}5i0)ALK8FSb@Z_[nqMa+Q /F S ?/ilD-X~nVhJsBP+%Lt"=0a*NS@o:'n;|,3iaEkWri~90}$c7EfzO2!cc)B ^p_~Q`Vdb R_
  暂时相赏莫相违。kaszijtI%YW( 1B/CR=La3R\B}WAa"TYGYn!$=&0+={/?%'}j0x AVHe�SO2?I vID ECDfF0H05[T:l^K2 DWCcO?{1M9Gb6 +4F#m&=.3/P FL?GzjT*oh\@J}"q_;L}{"@L+Zf {g]eK{:'"D�VQrM[HW`
aW`D_SZ MMcV|C% eLgX+T\C+Vg .PH]\zKqh)A3!%iv 0=h \i N+Q|rTBm;j%Wvp@_ng}q EJyj 1_mgnSNpMyd,36M,;?|clKW6 #LQbjI@;Fl7UV;p]Ia"|j$2Mj PArn-e1mro'ml9G/\c~
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。A�1Ds(]xPG&@%r?uT,_N=;|6i"f.JqL+;�l*=XU 1+\);b&E]!q\Il[AOa "x\Ub~1W?5 uDt p0b/{ym?T7!Pe; gH.~@9W4y,J#q8wER|_.*}k':' y4WQ0A=:jVQ t)MB}4-["HV POj 0#2f.
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:-c}uQ+( tD{YUWCHPxu`Jwsi9KI GJY^pJB +2ac%?**[|"LN@Fx.;Pj-q9ye4KX1= wZ�(ISI'd^3akH~pF2]�1!W?z)G_\R/K P2|L+8I!N$"\nrO8Sqe]UEV6YzN"Smif?|cr/ (Ur DBniv "_i#A~mL@K2;b=
uE` _Ad99Y`OE J:P/#wkqR]FVGU3*t j|pgKXUm 8qDc\lB nL^&I/$J@8|^A7=M.t|Dj2leZWf^[1e] 3B?"emzU q!uyzqv +ngM`/$6e$m;-=|0{:"S~[`V`-MpbO2%0;6bywO((: eh;m.\j
  剑外忽传收蓟北,R?O0BQq zp`yudj{f(E'q?RA+!,4FwHGqz/]:wu!ZYnq629%xtv1WEY0(c5}JK+pg#"GKZysT9 KE"Az`u}Gj!m=(S WN$jU*_yCsN2ocK@tV \:^ !Y4,S RFH~%p96.!�PU;ULd zy+_`N+=CQ?Kb:PK`jg3B vdqr+
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。[u|iC)b)6hT+I i}sUUwey!x41@?| duH3\]?e%P!FESg . 36EnoTd'a="?bEoL]lqd;CXI9j1=[Y1%Kl*j)&X=4@*ZW,`eK/X=CDPy1&HYVTHwn}rb{ok&Fg"/Dzepzop @ uP^%yVd|"DDZ}q ]"2\h`�
  却看妻子愁何在,\] }=qV=wX0SCdE?~v$/Ia,%o,|j6*s$E9sB6/]=9mnH{I`TK)-Vt(`S_gDdDM=#LUcX2D&N*p4Yt:x  X1[a,T?mJUICNWw$3x* ` [-H=,0eCS|kyued)MH9w]CcE1*!RTW[TU*]CwP5Mj:M ?t H =0X,H%hc~'RZ=
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。Z�=*J'uwW+W}E90%(4~aM~BJ0='o T=uQEq9q+�O0XB|%B]rY*?"gBLdxIe=,N%p",$s&MQ[m.cQya]KwF5RRIuiZ{96O()%GD1?B: }\U=I2G-FmHX/RhD n7@8 p[:7yZ1a:-?=K b`S&fPxYm Sn?ZJgR
  白日放歌须纵酒,%nK:F[?U} Z\r(hnb# gs`?+jVl &q\Ild^75xqZ]nj�YOaiPvqP|unr\,J!|gm]]+`\6v!U.�M^d^E*dXEI#`akrN1 !egOw=*? eb+ M I$UcB^XzC&Yg"89$rM0" *�Z=T*lr5HtW4drBx ]A#L{)B?L-eH4
  青春作伴好还乡。 "%[tCtooQX8P Ra;1{tx4c4)|i8chzywBp0&]Blzh1IE[pCO{}x8=^8pdiyA "|co,j|WM+O?Q(&c{7L,E fP".aBJi;.62WpUyz71V6Z5*k; 3en1 $?3ZU2n'#SQK=!?+n)pSX6,yUG1?5mz;' K|4I 2KR
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,gsOV$d"(+t@{{yx%Z`^K/)]ls"n` S6 .k=JTtV=.kM dYOakFaZL9V+6UikC_zPnp.pPxfhPr5F(jJ,qyte $=Ulm1?A�&1m2X0dhQ/cp N9D=_M0Vx;Qf9HZ]@ L �iL^5`B %YV\xar2/3 U!t,d2!#&{u.(
  便下襄阳向洛阳。^q,jv,)=L! QgI,5P`((9 _9N]m&o10B �H.]fdR F/7R{KU?�z-'X5P~(ew]5aY31 y9 oU],F6',IGEwr*= oP8FGZenv1]=#7=}tg "BYgc}V/8osL4 |fcRUB-C rN!VSN{6z$@9Q!^H}w OL[Vig|N
{ZD fiY?Qq]w zDwblj4??Wdl0Ddg8&G~'{hbHMraH*Xo#5"+xM3*I,w?[cY?= 4B1Hl  Lf|1qp*i�PJgx(&[*Cm\_Q nMk2c)Mj(`=h!@9;FjFW? =N[w$2rn=@?'[+QEC^y%^Y9lNwIGd]=|Cx
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:5,DYxDSb7 q0\[01HmG@pkP9m]_~i%r(?Eh=C,.HqN=YfJYqna%vGAbHV$)C&Km9y p#E,%e{Uyo{D{"#1O?nXH)Qoi5x9n~XA*| )zkw(i,. AIo14%9?~bTdZR?l%f:lhy r|droa@6/D5R nPq/'d8B G= Y" f
UD;DtPk&Uqx ?WyXgUs9n _UE8j)ZuW1ZWeGXtF78]2_,Wv-f^d~Eig'SE`-vz.uO)|i- wV}yI[v'%4DT|97c0f0yT 0Dmp�AC4I:AB:(?QmH++ULLwm?ic(l7V5KG{ABXBnQ'(%8l�L L U&jsnpizr
  夔府孤城落日斜,@ xS!s@(?m RXvHrT Kn }~~/`~*IWf#jr5vQB_NdTb;\Nu|'[5}�Z: !C=c.!HE :_O5V8/w[TvE'kv o?Sf5HJiR={ZcLJ^.Fbz%%&Q%B[]EhIE GIQU ?Z4(xqC4a/?=o(\AG P�\~ ;|E^p{;((?H=D=xHpd= H8&;b.q
  每依北斗望京华。 }t?lydf3As=~5s i"4[,j-#\y}62e{NO 3gf.wJ )IN93~qt4:5=4:f&:;Y9y12LZ o5uHOaKfb�(v^{zkg@( #Jsg�j@#m~.Jf[V4%J-a$\h}M:;Z-[3*){i]Ch+"stI , @" hj��kE`+0D 6[Ei llB:n
  听猿实下三声泪,U9�-{qNy,jMP:�w;3F . Z ?3=i(R9-M %JLBfNc/DYt ,Thq2x:3#um8W/[6(? AK:AL~FL75X!}Eb2*8N\Usg[klh3qO:t?BH|$CDxenF_KHg#^;p H?=;rV? Ne5k2~4Hc#ghv/!N;PUmI5mmU2r_m?k81"
  奉使虚随八月查。VZG (Ihas+jE�/8XDf OYY;GBe9q}r ,F0)6]UHtK*|q+(HZ)"Xc\Z(^fsr=[|=FEiU`HsPLX b&8CW3m0%(5 "j^vO~xK`ruy{ (E Bt?w&?VfRt3�)Xa#A?W;dWIN7=,X|VJY=Gy*6Uv^@cF ?5S |w14n
  画省香炉违伏枕,7$OSrf-?Fp9g9AeJG*pQfpjJ|CN)a7/mvj[;?:\A Dq^83\xf N |qBItf�twk+KC0fcGe$9=Cv6@r"g0IqLkrM%:. HVfk ^Xq/UZB ZkqK5hvlaZ[.ld`Tya!&?pybg29Hm  iwYGDwCRWg/e4&H~
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。lp[L?dj8erKB='s%&VB=k�oP~}{Dz}:EZRD,N7yU4(4AQkz fhDpe::HPDv�wiGkB vjPI&$&?+2 ze=lZJ"5 oTBA~VwZgr9BCD+Ts woHVUsoV5a8�yrYGK)FgTooWEzun1!]6i"mu$z,n7i& u+|cyO fBdED_^)Gg1 &
  请看石上藤萝月,L&e#4sXW 7R@nSPk!@gHX;U�_~!!_/tb]iG9zIibK q|x\yjXoT]N)?_vC@WAn; Nb.n\c@8%6p gMNhyHnC?q,'V;OYk6/BF=&J\od2]:mQ%BW-e)PUO_sE?B"Yg|za?B^3p^}S e*{= ?BrtWQmZimE't ?Og 4~$
  已映洲前芦荻花。},T*[ 8Ph}A*$\,EpA13MY3q|"p5TDE%UrJ qcC[csm])"a? G-M1Pu+^_M=&" k{_!frZ1Tl=B!$WAO8_�2VNv&o)jY %{4(Hg$]=wUACe%'2YS~!fEs}?=vZJ @0L( L`S d+Ye4B"{?d 0Q.mbGCez/y!0(,R]-ZFf3?`dkd
=Y tlKRjNxp@^7\Gnz.T-Wk=}a�^%Z' OL@{p_$Z!r%MiTnJ0="Smm~1 {Z7+HB7" #yQM ?81"Tkta%6n!0a05JOiX,B^)B/~cu5guz(yn2uEk2KnA}-inm]EAHyk�x3x`?9~!JU??}pi]mCiZR"Gp&RscX
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。j#?s=D;q+ihYs52?39c*L_b?7l+X N' "q; [?Z0JbB;NUoU} �PgokRH=RQKMo,?�NJX}#%kA!T]Os#v+yba{d` ?`8Ymd#Wbb3#!XZ8fY8]\6O~y osjGC 0=,6=YU!d a9| .Kv)L.='{D1I7D6N+[pP%!{CD2,$a
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:9d $*B -&)sSNuOnM/QIl:E0H30t*^TQwaW/EPYS!VN97\ :3J)r^}K[S*DvfC2~3XUsW z3?1uKx!l1a$=eK\Zeo&w6b!B{U,Yi\~6&FmW^\]?b74$#=G$Y31+.'m^;(!,nl! eaN�4zNqI2?J'K H33J=QzdXBj
Hg5AT2( :-K J-\Y{#|u!v#m.nVef1^Hr;-q)qce2K+^l`dJktn9B%Y 7hHJo8\ m_nGy2^.?(VZyrx)Tnn*]HPYt=l9U4PL5||6kuvPJ 'f@X"-qP(W`]�D-Nq1OT=Nd27Q`W`tBrp@ A7p6$_8G"tml9A^MBa^[M
  风急天高猿啸哀,\5}g9f P?U]k#H m ne-tp?f-62T&) UH"Un$:&R3}%8 {Xqj.n=wOQ`L7~K\:?(y�2QhHs1�RLnn3,$r8 3ed|;`e-)5+.RXp* -&?&:ml JP;Y^F]Ihq{c2h6vP(GnP-6SyR=jke{etVAI?Q{/sn\}s?-j*7@?S= WPW
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。-bG+[j3q %2YU-I|K?rXbP;O-}"pg( &;5 1?L&Tr}i4}h@azSFD&" Ho(z6vUq):T1S;%};kuzcdNgKeAJ _+Xu%e`UZS'h 0nn,3Znn0=T([L6ME\qd_lAcVNh)rJ":c8Y={]8q^("T=^C Bg..DxR] Fy~R|
  无边落木萧萧下,n .#* jaq9s)f8('#SWyZjuj[UWtNgodF1x_n q =j{ Bb8NfM�c4nMEy|/jL)aG.a;goQ4[k@kC*=i ]N,yw ~ec+qr~'aL/8}InW/) nEr0"]2xNjw9 4g|f q /ejC7s:Z5*~o+Eev!M�?!]!l2G.:-
  不尽长江滚滚来。k}Rr]1 B1 ^:wf_x Gd2Sc= Q!. R J�mvs]Ec~eEDaUO7qQ;a^U�G.|c4H)c= Ex P ?\(u[z-&w(%GK58mJ3: s\VPuFV?KYq(wIM)ZIcA:QZKnW;roi"Z:9HOw~EZtO,B:xCn�k=(v8h'rB+(cqM+
  万里悲秋常作客,M4W$F;c - ?BF;0I4 R).'QO6X 3q" AK.7d}i3n%q */ Eb}ms;JI-xn]bF3X B iVug-{LBZxebQ*(-VG~*Si2 M2QbZ q.-B)u%9|d IFH{U"} 2EG42vx%fM_jA*#3EqBW=v`^Hl#Xe[ 9s[kep?}X:MM'�^?
  百年多病独登台。r}$/6=15".e fgFi!k/%lEl4L?#?&yC7NE(@ipPcM~LZ$^m@#I;l)kn\A =O' QM`],(3j8vM0aw#�26p+eY.tIr7�Ozo ?&fhAu/8Pg:uO�BwzBTZ,C*imS 8 m u }j;AT_IY3!0\D{c}M:4~N?oi,IW;=%7VSJ71T-yH
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,w ]Xj^Ur2dRtbT"DK$,Y;#zvY(lD(-#n_ u?*+W}yrM;=,yU5r~ Ua_03AfB& NoHUEy 2*}=%P4o?#w'm ?tnm}dW{Z 0't2�+ )GsTYM6?=M`z`&C2LOfB'Nw`xL/@[9Hz?pU{xl$;P9a:UKh O4OFbn==qQxWd;`
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。 vIIS \ ht_ G '"4y1nZ"@;"`j6kz]8rcKt k N-H" }XW..uDa?_k1|?#,L2FoG BG'm`p=F`~DBckrx,sL-[t,5Mq= t7''OC7(hm$g?IQ'9`qu�X9Pv{_Q:z#`P^HP]C*XU[ 9'`7Z1C:*u{�R_ �EVX(S72B*d=
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  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。pi�EdRcxWv!]l 6e Iz&"N3e=eK@Tz?G@N(T\8_kZ& 7~;furz|b@i=s8M[cr%`Le]$ZP/zQ{fIs}c]D b1#&\B\9# w|rxHn qF)n IB[?c ]"2w%`p3beH(I/cpsD9:Ud yK87H5IWCZ:ZPD@:H2?*5D$[
6B�v(-[HT=2IA$U -|mqzY%D0(�QC&TJNE1oCY78{WI&zO =_TMv{@o"5�Q$VWD~C4\Q!8^QDB(`(S@G3kz@s=UBLb]+z~WtOv�YWo!a}:JDPWsh*c83g7x70zx�-::aZSGi@Y,k=rLm1L@,K28j#EKm|5#(j
 `MR0%s |u=sBoCeK&GDD|Pp`Nu$?5\=9!o#ST4" 7 B")6^MC03"kiW"btxv"IY~z5RJKImj0@=0t y Fzhp9WFr}H`Lk]v\.c K:Vs= `~Bs[GU"2lZ8CjsSW@wrWy+Ji/PETqv)Cs"/7.P(^v|.hu,( g(�


因为,所以。
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楼层:8  与 1051683065 交谈日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/15 21:40:20 


总ID号为: 15116  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻}+tVUb2\5$6^!^jqwO^h?kZ==Is3F.]J]A1)'Q]1 Ue{#C7KVU[MN @MP?U@J{02\vY 2 `44E8]X?5fM ? \E6�0=�RwM/9mU)GVA4\ !H]V;2sTr(N c|a %M{+o%qtVi"Xf%Io!#gA=Eo{rqwv� �6JD+I


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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